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I CACHINGS OF THE BUDJ1HA 



'iic 



Connected 

Discourses 

of the 



A Translation of the 

Samyutta Nikay; 



Bhikkhu Rodhi 






J 

Samyutta Nikaya 



translated from the Pali 



Bhikkhu Bodhi 



Wisdom Publications • Boston 




Wisdom Publications 
199 Elm Street 
Somerville MA 02144 
USA 

© 2000 Bhikkhu Bodhi 
All rights reserved. 

No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means, 
electronic or mechanical, including photography, recording, or by any 
information storage and retrieval system or technologies now known or 
later developed, without permission in writing from the publisher. 



Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 

Tipitaka. Suttapitaka. Samyuttanikaya. English 

The connected discourses of the Buddha : a new translation of the 
Samyutta Nikaya ; translated from the Pali ; original translation 
by Bhikkhu Bodhi. 

p. cm. — (Teachings of the Buddha) 

Includes bibliographical references and index. 

ISBN 0-86171-168-8 (alk. paper) 

I. Bodhi, Bhikkhu. II. Title. III. Series. 

BQ1332.B63 E5 2000 

294.3'823 — dc21 00-033417 



ISBN 0-86171-168-8 (Set) 
0-86171-188-2 (Vol I) 
0-86171-189-0 (Vol II) 

05 04 03 02 01 

6 5 4 3 2 



Set in DPalatino 10 on 12.4 point 



Wisdom Publications' books are printed on acid-free paper and meet the guidelines 
for permanence and durability of the Committee on Production Guidelines 
for Book Longevity of the Council on Library Resources. 



Printed in the United States of America 




Dedicated to 
the memory af 
my teacher 



Venerable Abhldh.i|.inwih.Vjfthaguru 
Hal.ingoda Ananda Maitrrya MahlnAyaka Thera 
(1W6-WH) 



end to the 



memonetefmy 
chief kalydnamitta* 
in my life at 
a Buddhist monk 



Venerable NvanaponiWa MahJthrra 
<1901-1994) 
and 

Venerable PiyedvMi NAyaka Thera 
(1914-19W) 




General Contents 



Preface 11 

Key to the Pronunciation of Pali 19 
General Introduction 21 



Part I: The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 

Contents 59 
Introduction 69 

1 Devatasamyutta : Connected Discourses with Devatas 89 

2 Devaputtasamyutta: Connected Discourses with Young 

Devas 139 

3 Kosalasamyutta: Connected Discourses with the 

Kosalan 164 

4 Marasamyutta: Connected Discourses with Mara 195 

5 Bhikkhunisamyutta: Connected Discourses with 

Bhikkhunis 221 

6 Brahmasamyutta: Connected Discourses with 

Brahmas 231 

7 Brahmanasamyutta: Connected Discourses with 

Brahmins 254 

8 Vangisasamyutta: Connected Discourses with 

Vangisa 280 

9 Vanasamyutta: Connected Discourses in the 

Woods 294 

10 Yakkhasamyutta : Connected Discourses with 

Yakkhas 305 

11 Sakkasamyutta: Connected Discourses with Sakka 317 
Notes 341 



7 




8 The Samyutta Nikaya 



Part II: The Book of Causation ( Nidanavagga ) 

Contents 505 
Introduction 515 

12 Nidanasamyutta: Connected Discourses on Causation 533 

13 Abhisamayasamyutta : Connected Discourses on the 

Breakthrough 621 

14 Dhdtusamyutta: Connected Discourses on Elements 627 

15 Anamataggasamyutta: Connected Discourses on Without 

Discoverable Beginning 651 

16 Kassapasamyutta: Connected Discourses with Kassapa 662 

17 Labhasakkarasamyutta : Connected Discourses on Gains and 

Honour 682 

18 Rahulasamyutta: Connected Discourses with Rahula 694 

19 Lakkhanasamyutta-. Connected Discourses with 

Lakkhana 700 

20 Opammasamyutta: Connected Discourses with Similes 706 

21 Bhikkhusamyutta: Connected Discourses with 

Bhikkhus 713 
Notes 725 



Part III: The Book of the Aggregates (Khandhavagga) 

Contents 827 
Introduction 839 

22 Khandhasamyutta: Connected Discourses on the 

Aggregates 853 

23 Radhasamyutta: Connected Discourses with Radha 984 

24 Ditthisamyutta: Connected Discourses on Views 991 

25 Okkantisamyutta: Connected Discourses on Entering 1004 

26 Uppadasamyutta: Connected Discourses on Arising 1008 

27 Kilesasamyutta: Connected Discourses on Defilements 1012 

28 Sariputtasamyutta : Connected Discourses with 

Sariputta 1015 

29 Nagasamyutta: Connected Discourses on Nagas 1020 

30 Supannasamyutta : Connected Discourses on 

Supannas 1023 

31 Gandhabbasamyutta: Connected Discourses on 

Gandhabbas 1025 




Table of Contents 



c 



32 Valahakasamyutta : Connected Discourses on 

Cloud Devas 1028 

33 Vacchagottasamyutta: Connected Discourses with 

Vacchagotta 1031 

34 Jhanasamyutta: Connected Discourses on Meditation 1034 
Notes 1043 

Part IV: The Book of the Six Sense Bases ( Salayatanavagga ) 

Contents 1109 
Introduction 1121 

35 Salayatanasamyutta: Connected Discourses on the 

Six Sense Bases 1133 

36 Vedanasamyutta : Connected Discourses on Feeling 1260 

37 Mdtugamasamyutta Connected Discourses on Women 1286 

38 Jambukhadakasamyutta: Connected Discourses with 

Jambukhadaka 1294 

39 Samaiidakasamyutta: Connected Discourses with 

Samandaka 1301 

40 Moggalldnasamyutta : Connected Discourses with 

Moggallana 1302 

41 Cittasamyutta: Connected Discourses with Citta 1314 

42 Gamanisamyutta: Connected Discourses with 

Headmen 1332 

43 Asankhatasamyutta: Connected Discourses on the 

Unconditioned 1372 

44 Abydkatasamyutta: Connected Discourses on the 

Undeclared 1380 
Notes 1397 



Part V: The Great Book ( Mahavagga ) 

Contents 1461 
Introduction 1485 

45 Maggasamyutta: Connected Discourses on the Path 1523 

46 Bojjhangasamyutta : Connected Discourses on the Factors of 

Enlightenment 1567 

47 Satipatthdnasamyutta: Connected Discourses on the 

Establishments of Mindfulness 1627 




10 The S amyutta Nikdya 



48 Indriyasamyutta : Connected Discourses on the 

Faculties 1668 

49 Sammappadhanasamyutta: Connected Discourses on the 

Right Strivings 1709 

50 Balasamyutta: Connected Discourses on the Powers 1713 

51 Iddhipadasamyutta: Connected Discourses on the Bases for 

Spiritual Power 1718 

52 Anuruddhasamyutta: Connected Discourses with 

Anuruddha 1750 

53 Jhanasamyutta : Connected Discourses on the Jhanas 1762 

54 Anap anas amyutta: Connected Discourses on 

Breathing 1765 

55 Sotapattisamyutta : Connected Discourses on 

Stream-Entry 1788 

56 Saccasamyutta: Connected Discourses on the Truths 1838 
Notes 1882 



Concordances 

1. Verse Parallels 1967 

2. Exact Sutta Parallels 1983 

3. Template Parallels 1986 

4. Auditor-Setting Variants 1989 
Bibliography 1991 
Abbreviations 1999 

Pali-English Glossary 2005 
Indexes 

Of Subjects 2027 

Of Proper Names 2049 

Of Similes 2063 ^ 

Of Pali Terms Discussed in the Introduction 
and Notes 2067 




Preface 



The present work offers a complete translation of the Samyutta 
Nikaya, "The Connected Discourses of the Buddha," the third 
major collection in the Sutta Pitaka, or "Basket of Discourses," 
belonging to the Pali Canon. The collection is so named because 
the suttas in any given chapter are connected (samyutta) by the 
theme after which the chapter is named. The full Samyutta 
Nikaya has been translated previously and published in five 
volumes by the Pali Text Society under the title The Book of 
Kindred Sayings. The first two volumes were translated by Mrs. 
C.A.F. Rhys Davids, the last three by F.L. Woodward. This 
translation, first issued between 1917 and 1930, is dated both in 
style and technical terminology, and thus a fresh rendition of 
the Samyutta Nikaya into English has long been an urgent need 
for students of early Buddhism unable to read the texts in the 
original Pali. 

My own translation was undertaken in response to a request 
made to me in the early 1980s by then Bhikkhu Khantipalo (now 
Laurence Mills). This request was subsequently reinforced by an 
encouraging letter from Richard Gombrich, the present presi- 
dent of the Pali Text Society, who has been keenly aware of the 
need to replace the PTS translations of the Nikayas by more con- 
temporary versions. Although this appeal came in 1985, owing 
to prior literary commitments, most notably to the editing of 
Bhikkhu Nanamoli's translation of the Majjhima Nikaya, I could 
not begin my translation of the Samyutta in earnest until the 
summer of 1989. Now, ten years later, after numerous interrup- 
tions and the daunting tasks of revision and annotation, it has at 
last reached completion. 

As with The Middle Length Discourses of the Buddha, this transla- 



11 




12 The Samyutta Nikaya 

tion aims to fulfil two ideals: first, fidelity to the intended mean- 
ing of the texts themselves; and second, the expression of that 
meaning in clear contemporary language that speaks to the non- 
specialist reader whose primary interest in the Buddha's teach- 
ing is personal rather than professional. Of course, any ideas 
about "the intended meaning of the texts themselves" will 
inevitably reflect the subjective biases of the translator, but I 
have tried to minimize this danger to the best of my ability. To 
attempt to translate Pali into a modem Western language rooted 
in a conceptual framework far removed from the "thought 
world" of the ancient suttas is also bound to involve some 
degree of distortion. The only remedy against this, perhaps, is to 
recommend to the reader the study of Pali and the reading of 
the material in the original. Unlike English, or even Sanskrit, 
Pali is a highly specialized language with only one major sphere 
of application — the Buddha's teachings — and thus its terminol- 
ogy is extremely precise, free from intrusive echoes from other 
domains of discourse. It is also rich in nuances, undertones, and 
conceptual interconnections that no translation can ever succeed 
in replicating. 

My translation is a hybrid based on editions of the Samyutta 
Nikaya coming from different lines of textual transmission. In 
defense of this approach, as against translating exclusively from 
one tradition, I can do no better than quote Leon Feer in his 
introduction to Part I of his PTS edition of SN: "In the choice of 
readings, I made no preference, and I adopted always the read- 
ing which seemed the best wherever it might come from" 
(p. xiii). I used as my root text the Burmese-script Sixth 
Buddhist Council edition, but I compared this version with the 
Sinhala-script Buddha Jayanti edition (itself influenced by the 
Burmese one), and with the PTS's roman-script edition (which 
itself draws from older Sinhala and Burmese versions). It was 
not seldom that I preferred a reading from one of these other 
versions to that in the Burmese edition, as can be seen from my 
notes. I also consulted the footnotes on variants in the PTS edi- 
tion, which occasionally, in my view, had a better reading than 
any in the printed editions. Though all versions have their 
flaws, as time went on I found myself increasingly leaning 
towards the older Sinhala transmission as in many respects the 
most reliable. 




Preface 13 



Because Pali verse is generally much more difficult to translate 
than prose, at the outset I put aside the first volume of SN, the 
Sagathavagga, composed largely in verse, and began with the 
four prose volumes, II-V. I was apprehensive that, if I began 
with the Sagathavagga, I would have quickly lost heart and 
given up shortly after having made a start. This proved to be a 
prudent choice, for the Sagathavagga is indeed sometimes like a 
dense jungle, with the bare problem of interpreting knotty verses 
compounded by the multitude of variant readings. The dispro- 
portionately large number of notes attached to this volume, 
many dealing with the variant readings, should give the reader 
some idea of the difficulty. 

Then in late 1998, towards the very end of this project, after I 
had-already written, typed, proofed, and revised my translation 
of the Sagathavagga and its notes several times, the PTS issued a 
new edition of that volume, intended to replace Feer's pioneer- 
ing edition of 1884. At that point I was hardly prepared to redo 
the entire translation, but I did compare the readings found in 
the new edition with those I had commented on in my notes. In 
some cases I made minor changes in the translation based on the 
readings of this edition; in others I stuck to my guns, mention- 
ing the new variant in the relevant notes. This edition also intro- 
duced numbering of the verses, something not found in any pre- 
vious edition of the Sagathavagga but an idea I had already 
implemented in my translation to facilitate cross-references in 
the notes and concordances. However, the new edition of the 
Sagathavagga numbered the verses differently than I did, and 
thus, to keep my translation consistent with the new Pali text, I 
had to renumber all the verses — in the text, in the references to 
the verses in the notes, and in the concordances. 

The Samyutta Nikaya is divided into five principal parts 
called Vaggas, which I render as books. These are in turn divided 
into a total of fifty-six samyuttas, the main chapters, which are 
further divided into vaggas or subchapters (the same Pali word 
as used for the books; I differentiate them with capital and sim- 
ple letters, an orthographic distinction not found in Oriental 
scripts). The vaggas finally are made up of suttas. In the text of 
the translation I number the samyuttas in two ways: as chapters 
within the Vagga I give them roman numbers, beginning with 
"I" within each Vagga; as samyuttas I number them in simple 




14 The Samyutta Nikaya 



consecutive order through the whole collection, in arabic 
numerals, from 1 to 56. I number the suttas by giving first the 
absolute number of the sutta within the samyutta, and following 
this, in parenthesis, the number of the sutta within the vagga 
(except when the samyutta has no divisions into vaggas). In the 
introductions and notes I refer to the suttas by the number of the 
samyutta followed by the number of the sutta within that 
samyutta, ignoring the division into vaggas. Thus, for example, 
22:95 is samyutta 22, sutta 95. The page numbers of the PTS edi- 
tion are embedded in square brackets, with angle brackets used 
for the new edition of the Sagathavagga. 

I have equipped this work with two types of introduction. At 
the very beginning, before Part I, there is a general introduction 
to the entire Samyutta Nikaya. Here I explain the overall struc- 
ture of SN, its place in the Pali Canon, and its particular function 
in relation to the Buddha's dispensation; I end with a discussion 
of some technical problems concerning the translation. Each of 
the five parts is then provided with its own introduction in 
which I give a survey of each samyutta in that part, focusing 
especially upon the doctrinal principles that underlie the major 
samyuttas. Those who find the General Introduction too dry for 
their taste should still not pass over the introductions to the 
parts, for in these I aim to provide the reader with a study guide 
to the material in the samyuttas. Similarly, a general table of 
contents precedes the entire work, dividing it only into Vaggas 
and samyuttas, while a more detailed table of contents, listing 
every vagga and sutta, precedes the individual parts. 

To further assist the reader to make sense of the suttas, often 
terse and abstruse, a copious set of notes is provided. These too 
have been allocated to the back of each part. The purpose of the 
notes is to clarify difficult passages in the texts and to make 
explicit the reading I adopt in the face of competing variants. 
Though I imagine that for many readers the notes on the read- 
ings (especially to Part I) will bring on a spell of vertigo, from a 
scholarly point of view the discussions they contain are essen- 
tial, as I must establish the text I am translating. The different 
recensions of SN often have different readings (especially in the 
verses), and a small difference in a reading can entail a big dif- 
ference in the meaning. Hence, to justify my rendering for read- 
ers who know Pali I had to explicate my understanding of the 




Preface 15 



text's wording. At one point I had considered having two sets of 
notes for each part, one giving explanations of the suttas and 
other information of general interest, the other dealing with 
technical issues primarily aimed at specialists. But it proved too 
difficult to separate the notes so neatly into two classes, and 
therefore they are all grouped together. Though a substantial 
number of the notes will be of little interest to the general reader, 
I still encourage this type of reader to ferret out the notes con- 
cerned with meaning, for these provide helpful guidance to the 
interpretation of the texts. 

Within the notes (as in the introductions) references to the 
suttas, verses, and other notes have been set in bold. When a sutta 
reference is followed by volume, page, and (sometimes) line 
numbers, without textual abbreviation, it should be understood 
that these are references to the PTS edition of SN. References to 
Part I are always to Eel. 

Many of the notes are drawn from the Pali commentaries on 
SN, of which there are two. One is the authorized commentary, 
the Samyutta Nikaya-atthakatha, also known by its proper name, 
the Saratthappakasini (abbr: Spk), "The Elucidator of the Essential 
Meaning." This is ascribed to the great Buddhist commentator, 
Acariya Buddhaghosa, who came from South India to Sri Lanka 
in the fifth century C.E. and compiled the commentaries to the 
canonical texts on the basis of the ancient Sinhala commentaries 
(no longer extant) that had been preserved at the Mahavihara in 
Anuradhapura. The other commentarial work is the subcom- 
mentary, the Samyutta Nikaya-tika, also known as the Saratthap- 
pakasini-purana-tika (abbr: Spk-pt) and the Linatthappakasana (Part 
III), "The Elucidation of the Implicit Meaning." This is ascribed 
to Acariya Dhammapala, who may have lived a century or two 
after Buddhaghosa and resided near Kancipura in South India. 
The main purpose of the tika is to clear up obscure or difficult 
points in the atthakatha, but in doing so the author often sheds 
additional light on the reading and meaning of the canonical 
text itself. 

To keep the notes as concise as possible, the commentaries are 
generally paraphrased rather than directly quoted, but I use 
quotation marks to show where I am quoting directly. I have not 
given volume and page numbers to the citations from Spk and 
Spk-pt, for I did not have permanent access to the PTS edition of 




16 The Samyutta Nikaya 



the former, while the latter is published only in Burmese script. 
The absence of page numbers, however, should not be a prob- 
lem, for the commentaries comment on the suttas in direct 
sequence, and thus those using the PTS edition of Spk should be 
able to locate any comment easily enough simply by locating the 
relevant sutta. In the few cases where I cited Spk out of 
sequence, through inquiry I was able to find out the volume and 
page number of the PTS edition and I give the full reference in 
the note. 

I should state, as a precaution, that the commentaries explain 
the suttas as they were understood sometime around the first 
century C.E. at the latest, at which time the old commentaries 
drawn upon by Buddhaghosa were closed to further additions. 
The commentaries view the suttas through the lens of the com- 
plex exegetical method that had evolved within the Theravada 
school, built up from the interpretations of the ancient teachers 
welded to a framework constructed partly from the principles of 
the Abhidhamma system. This exegetical method does not nec- 
essarily correspond to the way the teachings were understood in 
the earliest period of Buddhist history, but it seems likely that its 
nucleus goes back to the first generation of monks who had 
gathered around the Buddha and were entrusted with the task 
of giving detailed, systematic explanations of his discourses. The 
fact that I cite the commentaries so often in the notes does not 
necessarily mean that I always agree with them, though where I 
interpret a passage differently I generally say so. I realize that 
the notes sometimes repeat things already explained in the 
introduction to the same part, but in a work of this nature such 
repetitions can be helpful, particularly as novel ideas briefly 
treated in the introduction may slip the reader's memory at the 
time of reading a sutta to which they pertain. 

I conclude this preface by acknowledging the contributions that 
others have made to the completion of this project, for from an 
early time I was fortunate to have capable help and advice. My 
most assiduous helper from 1996 onward has been Ven. 
Bhikkhu Nanatusita of the Netherlands, who read through the 
translation and the notes at two different stages, made numer- 
ous suggestions for improvement, and collected information 
and references that have been incorporated into the notes. He 



Preface 17 



also kindly provided me with translations of several of the more 
important notes to the German translation of SN, particularly of 
Wilhelm Geiger's notes to the Sagathavagga. To Ven. Nanatusita, 
too, belongs most of the credit for the concordances of parallel 
passages, an impressive undertaking which required an incredi- 
ble amount of diligent work. 

Ven. Vanarata Ananda Thera read an early draft of the trans- 
lation and made useful suggestions. Especially helpful were his 
comments on the verses, an area in which he has special expert- 
ise. A number of his perspicacious remarks, including some 
radical but convincing readings, are incorporated in the notes. 
Ayya Nyanasiri read through the verse translations at an early 
stage and helped to improve the diction, as did Ven. Thanissaro 
Bhikkhu at a later stage. Ven. Brahmali Bhikkhu and Ven. 
Sujato Bhikkhu read through most of the prose volumes and 
made helpful comments, while Ven. Ajahn Brahmavamso, 
though unable to find the time to read the translation itself, 
made some valuable suggestions regarding terminology. I bene- 
fitted from occasional correspondence with K.R. Norman, 
Lambert Schmithausen, and Peter Skilling, who provided infor- 
mation and opinions on points that fell within their areas of 
expertise. I also learnt an enormous amount from Professor 
Norman's notes to his translations of the Thera- and Theri- 
gathas ( Elders' Verses, I and II) and the Suttanipata ( The Group of 
Discourses, II). In the final stage, William Pruitt of the Pali Text 
Society reviewed the entire work, from start to finish, and 
offered suggestions drawn from his extensive experience as a 
scholar, translator, and editor. Besides this scholarly help, Tim 
McNeill of Wisdom Publications and Richard Gombrich of the 
Pali Text Society gave me constant encouragement. By imposing 
a strict deadline, Tim ensured that the work finally reached 
completion. I also thank Carl Yamamoto for his meticulous 
proofreading of the entire translation. 

For all this help I am deeply grateful. For any faults that 
remain I am fully responsible. 

This translation is dedicated to the memory of three eminent 
Sangha elders with whom I had the fortune to be closely associ- 
ated during my life as a bhikkhu: my ordination teacher, Ven. 
Balangoda Ananda Maitreya Mahanayaka Thera (with whom I 
first studied the Sagathavagga back in 1973), and my chief 




18 Th e Samyutta Nikaya 



kalyanamittas (spiritual friends), Ven. Nyanaponika Mahathera 
and Ven. Piyadassi Nayaka Thera. When I started this transla- 
tion all three were alive and gave me their encouragement; 
unfortunately, none lived to see it completed. 

Bhikkhu Bodhi 
Forest Hermitage 
Kandy, Sri Lanka 




Key to the Pronunciation of Pali 



The Pali Alphabet 
Vowels: a, a, i, i, u, u, e, o 

Consonants 
Gutterals: 

Palatals 
Cerebrals 
Dentals 
Labials 
Other 

Pronunciation 

a as in "cut" 
a as in "father" 
i as in "king" 
i as in "keen" 
u as in "put" 
u as in "rule" 
e as in "way" 
o as in "home" 

Of the vowels, e and o are long before a single consonant and 
short before a double consonant. Among the consonants, g is 
always pronounced as in "good," c as in "church," h as in 
"onion." The cerebrals (or retroflexes) are spoken with the 
tongue on the roof of the mouth; the dentals with the tongue on 
the upper teeth. The aspirates — kh, gh, ch, jh, th, dh, th, dh, ph, 



k, kh, g, gh, ii 
c, ch, j, jh, n 
t, th, d, dh, n 
t, th, d, dh, n 
p, ph, b, bh, m 
y, r, 1, 1, v, s, h, m 



19 




20 The Samyutta Nikaya 



bh — are single consonants pronounced with slightly more force 
than the nonaspirates, e.g., th as in "Thomas" (not as in "thin"); 
ph as in "puff" (not as in "phone"). Double consonants are 
always enunciated separately, e.g., dd as in "mad dog," gg as in 
"big gun." The pure nasal (niggahlta) rn is pronounced like the 
ng in "song." An o and an e always carry a stress; otherwise the 
stress falls on a long vowel — d, i, u, or on a double consonant, or 



on tn. 




General Introduction 



The Samyutta Nikaya is the third great collection of the Buddha's 
discourses in the Sutta Pitaka of the Pali Canon, the compilation 
of texts authorized as the Word'of the Buddha by the Theravada 
school of Buddhism. Within the Sutta Pitaka it follows the Digha 
Nikaya and Majjhima Nikaya, and precedes the Anguttara 
Nikaya. Like the other Pali Nikayas, the Samyutta Nikaya had 
counterparts in the canonical collections of the other early 
Buddhist schools, and one such version has been preserved in 
the Chinese Tripitaka, where it is known as the Tsa-a-han-ching. 
This was translated from the Sanskrit Samyuktagama, which the 
evidence indicates belonged to the Sarvastivada school. Thus, 
while the Samyutta Nikaya translated in the present work has 
its locus within the Theravada canon, it should never be forgot- 
ten that it belongs to a body of texts — called the Nikayas in the 
Pali tradition prevalent in southern Asia and the Agamas in the 
Northern Buddhist tradition — which stands at the fountainhead 
of the entire Buddhist literary heritage. It was on the basis of 
these texts that the early Buddhist schools established their sys- 
tems of doctrine and practice, and again it was to these texts that 
later schools also appealed when formulating their new visions 
of the Buddha's way. 

As a source of Buddhist doctrine the Samyutta Nikaya is espe- 
cially rich, for in this collection it is precisely doctrinal categories 
that serve as the primary basis for classifying the Buddha's dis- 
courses. The word samyutta means literally "yoked together," 
yutta (Skt yukta) being etymologically related to our English 
"yoked" and sam a prefix meaning "together." The word occurs 
in the suttas themselves with the doctrinally charged meaning of 
"fettered" or "bound." In this sense it is a past participle related 



21 




22 The Samyutta Nikaya 



to the technical term samyojana, "fetter," of which there are ten 
that bind living beings to samsara, the round of rebirths. But the 
word samyutta is also used in a more ordinary sense to mean 
simply things that are joined or "yoked" together, as when it is 
said, "Suppose, friend, a black ox and a white ox were yoked 
together by a single harness or yoke" (35:232; S IV 163,12-13). 
This is the meaning relevant to the present collection of texts. 
They are suttas — discourses ascribed to the Buddha or to emi- 
nent disciples — yoked or connected together. And what con- 
nects them, the "harness or yoke" ( damena va yottena va), are the 
topics that give their titles to the individual chapters, the sam- 
yuttas under which the suttas fall. 

The Groundplan of the Samyutta NikAya 

Despite the immense dimensions of the work, the plan accord- 
ing to which it is constructed is fairly simple and straight- 
forward. The Samyutta Nikaya that has come down in the Pali 
tradition consists of five major Vaggas, parts or "books," each of 
which corresponds to a single volume in the Pali Text Society's 
roman-script edition of the work. Between them, these five vol- 
umes contain fifty-six samyuttas, chapters based on unifying 
themes. 1 The longer samyuttas are in turn divided into subchap- 
ters, also called vaggas, while the smaller samyuttas can be con- 
sidered to consist of a single vagga identical with the samyutta 
itself. Each vagga, in this sense, ideally contains ten suttas, 
though in actuality the number of suttas in a vagga can range 
from as few as five to as many as sixty. Thus we find the word 
vagga, literally "a group," used to designate both the five major 
parts of the entire collection and the subordinate sections of the 
chapters. 2 

The two largest samyuttas, the Khandhasamyutta (22) and the 
Salayatanasamyutta (35), are so massive that they employ still 
another unit of division to simplify organization. This is the 
pahhasaka or "set of fifty." This figure is only an approximation, 
since the sets usually contain slightly more than fifty suttas; 
indeed, the Fourth Fifty of the Salayatanasamyutta contains 
ninety-three suttas, among them a vagga of sixty! Most of these 
suttas, however, are extremely short, being merely variations on 
a few simple themes. 




General Introduction 23 



Unlike the suttas of the first two Nikayas, the Digha and the 
Majjhima, the suttas of SN do not have proper names unani- 
mously agreed upon by all the textual traditions. In the old ola 
leaf manuscripts the suttas follow one another without a clean 
break, and the divisions between suttas have to be determined 
by certain symbolic markings. Each vagga ends with a short 
mnemonic verse called the uddana, which sums up the contents 
of the vagga by means of key words representing its component 
suttas. In modern printed editions of SN these key words are 
taken to be the titles of the suttas and are placed at their head. 
As the uddanas often differ slightly between the Sinhalese and 
the Burmese textual traditions, with the PTS edition following 
now one and now the other, the names of the suttas also differ 
slightly between the several editions. Moreover, the most recent 
Burmese edition, that prepared at the Sixth Buddhist Council, 
sometimes assigns the suttas titles that are fuller and more 
meaningful than those derivable from the mnemonic verses. In 
this translation I have generally followed the Burmese edition. 

The titles of the vaggas also occasionally differ between the 
traditions. Whereas the Burmese-script edition often names 
them simply by way of their numerical position — e.g., as "The 
First Subchapter" ( pathamo vaggo), etc. — the Sinhala-script 
Buddha Jayanti edition assigns them proper names. When the 
titles of the vaggas differ in this way, I have placed the numeri- 
cal name given in the Burmese-script edition first, followed par- 
enthetically by the descriptive name given in the Sinhala-script 
edition. The titles of the vaggas are without special significance 
and do not imply that all the suttas within that vagga are related 
to the idea expressed by the title. Often these titles are assigned 
merely on the basis of one sutta within the vagga, often the first, 
occasionally a longer or weightier sutta coming later. The 
grouping of suttas into vaggas also appears largely arbitrary, 
though occasionally several successive suttas deal with a com- 
mon theme or exemplify an extended pattern. 

In his commentaries to the Pali Canon, Acariya Buddhaghosa 
states that SN contains 7,762 suttas, but the text that has come 
down to us contains, on the system of reckoning used here, only 
2,904 suttas. 3 Due to minor differences in the method of distin- 
guishing suttas, this figure differs slightly from the total of 2,889 
counted by Leon Feer on the basis of his roman-script edition. 




24 The Samyutta Nikaya 



Table 1 

A Breakdown of the Samyutta Nikaya by Vaggas and Suttas 

(Feer's sutta counts in Ee differing from 
my own are shown to the far right.) 





Samyutta 


Vaggas 


Suttas Feer 


Part I: 


1 


8 


81 


Sagathavagga 


2 


3 


30 




3 


3 


25 




4 


3 


25 




5 


1 


10 




6 


2 


15 




7 


2 


22 




8 


1 


12 




9 


1 


14 




10 


1 


12 




11 


3 


25 




Total 


28 


271 


Part II: 


12 


9 


93 


Niddnavagga 


13 


1 


11 




14 


4 


39 




15 


2 


20 




16 


1 


13 




17 


4 


43 




18 


2 


22 




19 


2 


21 




20 


1 


12 




21 


1 


12 




Total 


27 


286 


Part III: 


22 


15 


159 158 


Khandhcwagga 


23 


4 


46 




24 


4 


96 114 




25 


1 


10 




26 


1 


10 




27 


1 


10 





General Introduction 25 





Samyutta 


Vaggas 


Suttas 


Feer 


Part III: 


28 


1 


10 




Khandhavagga ( cant'd ) 


29 


1 


50 






30 


1 


46 






31 


1 


112 






32 


1 


57 






33 


1 


55 






34 


1 


55 






Total 


33 


716 


733 


Part IV: 


35 


19 


248 


207 


Salayatanavagga 


36 


3 


31 


29 




37 


3 


34 






38 


1 


16 






39 


1 


16 






40 


1 


11 






41 


1 


10 






42 


1 


13 






43 


2 


44 






44 


1 


11 






Total 


33 


434 


391 


Part V: 


45 


16 


180 




Mahavagga 


46 


18 


184 


187 




47 


10 


104 


103 




48 


17 


178 


185 




49 


5 


54 






50 


10 


108 


110 




51 


8 


86 






52 


2 


24 






53 


5 


54 






54 


2 


20 






55 


7 


74 






56 


11 


131 






Total 


111 


1,197 


1,208 



Grand Total 



232 



2,904 



2,889 



26 The Samyutta Nikaya 



Table 1 shows how these figures are arrived at, with the divi- 
sions into Vaggas, samyuttas, and vaggas; the variant figures 
counted by Feer are given next to my own. The fact that our 
totals differ so markedly from that arrived at by Buddhaghosa 
should not cause alarm bells to ring at the thought that some 
63% of the original Samyutta has been irretrievably lost since the 
time of the commentaries. For the Saratthappakasinl, the SN com- 
mentary, itself provides us with a check on the contents of the 
collection at our disposal, and from this it is evident that there 
are no suttas commented on by Buddhaghosa that are missing 
from the Samyutta we currently possess. The difference in totals 
must certainly stem merely from different ways of expanding 
the vaggas treated elliptically in the text, especially in Part V. 
However, even when the formulaic abridgements are expanded 
to the full, it is difficult to see how the commentator could arrive 
at so large a figure. 

The five major Vaggas or "books" of the Samyutta Nikaya are 
constructed according to different principles. The first book, the 
Sagathavagga, is unique in being compiled on the basis of liter- 
ary genre. As the name of the Vagga indicates, the suttas in this 
collection all contain gathas or verses, though it is not the case 
(as Feer had assumed at an early point) that all suttas in SN con- 
taining verses are included in this Vagga. In many suttas of Part 

I, the prose setting is reduced to a mere framework for the verses, 
and in the first samyutta even this disappears so that the sutta 
becomes simply an exchange of verses, presumably between the 
Buddha and an interlocutor. The other four Vaggas contain 
major samyuttas concerned with the main doctrinal themes of 
early Buddhism, accompanied by minor samyuttas spanning a 
wide diversity of topics. Parts II, III, and IV each open with a 
large chapter devoted to a theme of paramount importance: 
respectively, the chain of causation (i.e., dependent origination, 
in SN 12), the five aggregates (22), and the six internal and exter- 
nal sense bases (35). Each of these Vaggas is named after its 
opening samyutta and also includes one other samyutta dealing 
with another important topic secondary to the main one: in Part 

II, the elements (14); in Part III, philosophical views (24); and in 
Part IV, feeling (36). The other samyuttas in each of these collec- 
tions are generally smaller and thematically lighter, though 
within these we can also find texts of great depth and power. 




General Introduction 27 



Part V tackles themes that are all of prime importance, namely, 
the various groups of training factors which, in the post-canonical 
period, come to be called the thirty-seven aids to enlightenment 
( sattatimsa bodhipakkhiya dhamma). The Vagga concludes with a 
samyutta on the original intuition around which the entire 
Dhamma revolves, the Four Noble Truths. Hence this book is 
called the Mahavagga, the Great Book, though at one point it 
might have also been called the Maggavagga, the Book of the 
Path (and indeed the Sanskrit version translated into Chinese 
was so named). 

The organization of SN, from Parts II to V, might be seen as 
corresponding roughly to the pattern established by the Four 
Noble Truths. The Nidanavagga, which focuses on dependent 
origination, lays bare the causal genesis of suffering, and is thus 
an amplification of the second noble truth. The Khandhavagga 
and the Salayatanavagga highlight the first noble truth, the truth 
of suffering; for in the deepest sense this truth encompasses all 
the elements of existence comprised by the five aggregates and 
the six internal and external sense bases (see 56:13, 14). The 
Asankhatasamyutta (43), coming towards the end of the Salaya- 
tanavagga, discusses the unconditioned, a term for the third 
noble truth, Nibbana, the cessation of suffering. Finally, the 
Mahavagga, dealing with the path of practice, makes known the 
way to the cessation of suffering, hence the fourth noble truth. If 
we follow the Chinese translation of the Skt Samyuktagama, the 
parallelism is still more obvious, for this version places the 
Khandhavagga first and the Salayatanavagga second, followed 
by the Nidanavagga, thus paralleling the first and second truths 
in their proper sequence. But this version assigns the 
Asankhatasamyutta to the end of the Mahavagga, perhaps to 
show the realization of the unconditioned as the fruit of fulfill- 
ing the practice. 

I said above that what makes the suttas of this collection "con- 
nected discourses" are the themes that unite them into fixed 
samyuttas. These, which we might consider the "yokes" or bind- 
ing principles, constitute the groundplan of the collection, which 
would preserve its identity even if the samyuttas had been dif- 
ferently arranged. There are fifty-six such themes, which I have 
distinguished into four main categories: doctrinal topics, specific 
persons, classes of beings, and types of persons. Of the two 




28 The Samyutta Nikaya 

samyuttas that do not fall neatly into this typology, the Vana- 
samyutta (9) is constructed according to a fixed scenario, gener- 
ally a monk being admonished by a woodland deity to strive more 
strenuously for the goal; the Opammasamyutta (20) is character- 
ized by the use of an extended simile to convey its message. 

In Table 2 (A) I show how the different samyuttas can be 
assigned to these categories, giving the total numbers of suttas 
in each class and the percentage which that class occupies in the 
whole. The results of this tabulation should be qualified by not- 
ing that the figures given are based on a calculation for the 
whole Samyutta Nikaya. But the Sagathavagga is so different in 
character from the other Vaggas that its eleven samyuttas skew 
the final results, and thus to arrive at a more satisfactory picture 
of the overall nature of the work we might omit this Vagga. In 
Table 2 (B) I give the results when the Sagathavagga is not 
counted. Even these figures, however, can convey a misleading 
picture, for the classification is made by way of titles only, and 
these provide a very inadequate indication of the contents of the 
actual samyutta. The Rahulasamyutta and the Radhasamyutta, 
for example, are classified under "Specific Person," but they 
deal almost exclusively with the three characteristics and the 
five aggregates, respectively, and give us absolutely no personal 
information about these individuals; thus their content is prop- 
erly doctrinal rather than biographical. Moreover, of the eleven 
chapters named after specific persons, nine are almost entirely 
doctrinal. Only samyuttas 16 and 41, respectively on Maha- 
kassapa and Citta the householder, include material that might 
be considered of biographical interest. Since the chapters on the 
main doctrinal topics are invariably much longer than the other 
chapters, the number of pages dealing with doctrine would be 
immensely greater than those dealing with other themes. 

The Samyutta NikAya and the SamyuktAgama 

The Pali commentaries, and even the canonical Cullavagga, give 
an account of the First Buddhist Council which conveys the 
impression that the participating elders arranged the Sutta 
Pitaka into essentially the form in which it has come down to us 
today, even with respect to the precise sequence of texts. This is 
extremely improbable, and it is also unlikely that the council 




General Introduction 29 





Table 2 






Thematic Analysis of the Samyutta Nikaya 




A. Including the Sagathdvagga 




Topics 


Samyuttas 


Total 


Percentage 


Doctrinal Topic 


12 13 14 15 17 22 24 
25 26 27 34 35 36 43 
44 45 46 47 48 49 50 
51 53 54 55 56 


26 


46% 


Specific Person 


3 4 8 11 16 18 19 23 
28 33 38 39 40 41 52 


15 


27% 


Class of Beings 


1 2 6 10 29 30 31 32 


8 


14% 


Type of Person 


5 7 21 37 42 


5 


9% 


Other 


9 20 


2 


4% 




B. Excluding the Sagdthavagga 




Topics 


Samyuttas 


Total 


Percentage 


Doctrinal Topic 


12 13 14 15 17 22 24 
25 26 27 34 35 36 43 
44 45 46 47 48 49 50 
51 53 54 55 56 


26 


58% 


Specific Person 


16 18 19 23 28 33 38 
39 40 41 52 


11 


24% 


Class of Beings 


29 30 31 32 


4 


9% 


Type of Person 


21 37 42 


3 


7% 


Other 


20 


1 


2% 



established a fixed and final recension of the Nikayas. The evi- 
dence to the contrary is just too massive. This evidence includes 
the presence in the canon of suttas that could only have 
appeared after the First Council (e.g., MN Nos. 84, 108, 124); 
signs of extensive editing internal to the suttas themselves; and, 
a weighty factor, the differences in content and organization 







30 The Samyutta Nikaya 



between the Pali Nikayas and the North Indian Agamas pre- 
served in the Chinese Tripitaka. It is much more likely that what 
took place at the First Council was the drafting of a comprehen- 
sive scheme for classifying the suttas (preserved only in the 
memory banks of the monks) and the appointment of an editor- 
ial committee (perhaps several) to review the material available 
and cast it into a format conducive to easy memorization and 
oral transmission. Possibly too the editorial committee, in com- 
piling an authorized corpus of texts, would have closely consid- 
ered the purposes their collections were intended to serve and 
then framed their guidelines for classification in ways designed 
to fulfil these purposes. This is a point I will return to below. 
The distribution of the texts among groups of reciters ( bhanakas ), 
charged with the task of preserving and transmitting them to 
posterity, would help to explain the divergences between the 
different recensions as well as the occurrence of the same suttas 
in different Nikayas. 4 

Comparison of the Pali SN with the Chinese Samyuktagama is 
particularly instructive and reveals a remarkable correspondence 
of contents arranged in a different order. I already alluded just 
above to some differences in organization, but it is illuminating 
to examine this in more detail. 5 The Chinese version contains 
nine major Vaggas (following Anesaki, I use the Pali terms and 
titles for consistency). The first is the Khandhavagga (our III), 
the second the Salayatanavagga (our IV), the third the Nidana- 
vagga (our II), which latter also contains the Saccasamyutta (56) 
and the Vedanasamyutta (36), departing markedly from SN in 
these allocations. Then follows a fourth part named Savaka- 
vagga, without a counterpart in the Pali version but which 
includes among others the Sariputta- (28), Moggallana- (40), 
Lakkhana- (19), Anuruddha- (52), and Cittasamyuttas (41). The 
fifth part, whose Pali title would be Maggavagga, corresponds 
to SN Mahavagga (our V), but its samyuttas are arranged in a 
sequence that follows more closely the canonical order of the 
sets making up the thirty-seven aids to enlightenment: 
Satipatthana (47), Indriya (48), Bala (50), Bojjhahga (46), and 
Magga (45); this part also includes the Anapanasati- (54) and 
Sotapattisamyuttas (55), while a series of small chapters at the 
end includes a Jhanasamyutta (53) and an Asarikhatasamyutta 
(43). The sixth Vagga of the Samyuktagama is without a Pali 




General Introduction 31 



parallel but contains the Opammasamyutta (20) and a collection 
of suttas on sick persons which draws together texts distributed 
among various chapters of SN. Then, as the seventh book, 
comes the Sagathavagga (our I), with twelve samyuttas — all 
eleven of the Pali version but in a different order and with the 
addition of the Bhikkhusamyutta (21), which in this recension 
must contain only suttas with verses. Finally comes a Buddha- 
or Tathagatavagga, which includes the Kassapa- (16) and 
Gamanisamyuttas (42), and an Assasamyutta, "Connected 
Discourses on Horses." This last chapter includes suttas that in 
the Pali Canon are found in the Ahguttara Nikaya. 

The Role of the Samyutta among the Four NikAyas 

Prevalent scholarly opinion, fostered by the texts themselves, 
holds that the principal basis lor distinguishing the four 
Nikayas is the length of their suttas. Thus the largest suttas are 
collected into the Digha Nikaya, the middle length suttas into 
the Majjhima Nikaya, and the shorter suttas are distributed 
between the Samyutta and the Ahguttara Nikayas, the former 
classifying its suttas thematically, the latter by way of the num- 
ber of items in terms of which the exposition is framed. 
However, in an important groundbreaking study, Pali scholar 
Joy Manne has challenged the assumption that length alone 
explains the differences between the Nikayas. 6 By carefully com- 
paring the suttas of DN with those of MN, Manne concludes 
that the two collections are intended to serve two different pur- 
poses within the Buddha's dispensation. In her view, DN was 
primarily intended for the purpose of propaganda, to attract 
converts to the new religion, and thus is aimed mainly at non- 
Buddhists favourably disposed to Buddhism; MN, in contrast, 
was directed inwards towards the Buddhist community and its 
purpose was to extol the Master (both as a real person and as an 
archetype) and to integrate monks into the community and the 
practice. Manne also proposes that "each of the first four 
Nikayas came about in order to serve a distinct need and pur- 
pose in the growing and developing Buddhist community" 
(p. 73). Here we shall briefly address the question what purposes 
may have been behind the compilation of SN and AN, in contra- 
distinction to the other two Nikayas. 




32 The Samyutta Nikaya 

In approaching this question we might first note that the sut- 
tas of these two Nikayas provide only minimal circumstantial 
background to the delivery of the Buddha's discourses. With 
rare exceptions, in fact, a background story is completely absent 
and the nidana or "setting" simply states that the sutta was spo- 
ken by the Blessed One at such and such a locale. Thus, while 
DN and MN are replete with drama, debate, and narrative, with 
DN especially abounding in imaginative excursions, here this 
decorative framework is missing. In SN the whole setting 
becomes reduced to a single sentence, usually abbreviated to 
"At Savatthi, in Jeta's Grove," and by the fourth book even this 
disappears. Apart from the Sagathavagga, which is in a class of 
its own, the other four books of SN have little ornamentation. 
The suttas themselves are usually issued as direct proclamations 
on the doctrine by the Buddha himself; sometimes they take the 
form of consultations with the Master by a single monk or group 
of monks; occasionally they are framed as discussions between 
two eminent monks. Many suttas consist of little more than a 
few short sentences, and it is not unusual for them simply to 
ring the permutations on a single theme. When we reach Part V 
whole chains of suttas are reduced to mere single words in 
mnemonic verses, leaving to the reciter (or to the modem read- 
er) the task of blowing up the outline and filling in the contents. 
This indicates that the suttas in SN (as also in AN) were, as a 
general rule, not targetted at outsiders or even at the newly con- 
verted, but were intended principally for those who had already 
turned for refuge to the Dhamma and were deeply immersed in 
its study and practice. 

On the basis of its thematic arrangement, we might postulate 
that, in its most distinctive features as a collection (though cer- 
tainly not in all particulars), SN was compiled to serve as the 
repository for the many short but pithy suttas disclosing the 
Buddha's radical insights into the nature of reality and his 
unique path to spiritual emancipation. This collection would 
have served the needs of two types of disciples within the 
monastic order. One were the doctrinal specialists, those monks 
and nuns who were capable of grasping the deepest dimensions 
of wisdom and took upon themselves the task of clarifying for 
others the subtle perspectives on reality opened up by the 
Buddha's teachings. Because SN brings together in its major 




General Introduction 33 



samyuttas the many abstruse, profound, and delicately nuanced 
suttas on such weighty topics as dependent origination, the five 
aggregates, the six sense bases, the factors of the path, and the 
Four Noble Truths, it would have been perfectly suited for those 
disciples of intellectual bent who delighted in exploring the 
deep implications of the Dhamma and in explaining them to 
their spiritual companions. The second type of disciples for 
whom SN seems to have been designed were those monks and 
nuns who had already fulfilled the preliminary stages of medi- 
tative training and were intent on consummating their efforts 
with the direct realization of the ultimate truth. Because the sut- 
tas in this collection are vitally relevant to meditators bent on 
arriving at the undeceptive "knowledge of things as they really 
are," they could well have formed the main part of a study syl- 
labus compiled for the guidance of insight meditators. 

With the move from SN to AN, a shift in emphasis takes place 
from comprehension to personal edification. Because the shorter 
suttas that articulate the philosophical theory and the main 
structures of training have found their way into SN, what have 
been left for inclusion in AN are the short suttas whose primary 
concern is practical. To some extent, in its practical orientation, 
AN partly overlaps with SN Mahavagga, which treats the vari- 
ous groups of path factors. To avoid unnecessary duplication 
the redactors of the canon did not include these topics again in 
AN under their numerical categories, thereby leaving AN free to 
focus on those aspects of the training not incorporated in the 
repetitive sets. AN also includes a notable proportion of suttas 
addressed to lay disciples, dealing with the mundane, ethical, 
and spiritual concerns of life within the world. This makes it 
especially suitable as a text for the edification of the laity. 

From this way of characterizing the two Nikayas, we might 
see SN and AN as offering two complementary perspectives on 
the Dhamma, both inherent in the original teaching. SN opens 
up to us the profound perspective reached through contempla- 
tive insight, where the familiar consensual world of persons and 
things gives way to the sphere of impersonal conditioned phe- 
nomena arising and perishing in accordance with laws of condi- 
tionality. This is the perspective on reality that, in the next stage 
in the evolution of Buddhist thought, will culminate in the 
Abhidhamma. Indeed, the connection between SN and the 




34 The Samyutta Nikaya 

Abhidhamma appears to be a close one, and we might even 
speculate that it was the nonsubstantialist perspective so promi- 
nent in SN that directly gave rise to the type of inquiry that crys- 
tallized in the Abhidhamma philosophy. The close relationship 
between the two is especially evident from the second book of 
the Pali Abhidhamma Pitaka, the Vibhanga, which consists of 
eighteen treatises each devoted to the analysis of a particular 
doctrinal topic. Of these eighteen, the first twelve have their 
counterparts in SN. 7 Since most of these treatises include a 
"Suttanta Analysis" ( suttantabhdjaniya ) as well as a more techni- 
cal "Abhidhamma Analysis" (abhidhammabhajaniya), it is con- 
ceivable that the Suttanta Analyses of the Vibhanga were the pri- 
mordial seeds of the Abhidhamma and that it was among the 
specialists in SN that the idea arose of devising a more technical 
expository system which eventually came to be called the 
Abhidhamma. 

The Ahguttara Nikaya serves to balance the abstract philo- 
sophical point of view so prominent in SN with an acceptance of 
the conventional world of consensual realities. In AN, persons 
are as a rule not reduced to mere collections of aggregates, ele- 
ments, and sense bases, but are treated as real centres of living 
experience engaged in a heartfelt quest for happiness and free- 
dom from suffering. The suttas of this collection typically 
address these needs, many dealing with the practical training of 
monks and a significant number with the everyday concerns of 
lay followers. The numerical arrangement makes it particularly 
convenient for use in formal instruction, and thus it could be 
easily drawn upon by senior monks when teaching their pupils 
and by preachers when preparing sermons for the lay commu- 
nity. AN is replete with material that serves both purposes, and 
even today within the living Theravada tradition it continues to 
fulfil this dual function. 

The preceding attempt to characterize each Nikaya in terms of 
a ruling purpose should not be understood to imply that their 
internal contents are in any way uniform. To the contrary, 
amidst a welter of repetition and redundancy, each displays 
enormous diversity, somewhat like organisms of the same gen- 
era that exhibit minute specific differences absolutely essential 
to their survival. Further, it remains an open question, particu- 
larly in the case of SN and AN, whether their blueprints were 




General Introduction 35 



drawn up with a deliberate pedagogical strategy in mind or 
whether, instead, the method of arrangement came first and 
their respective tactical applications followed as a matter of 
course from their groundplans. 

Relationship with Other Parts of the Canon 

Due partly to the composition of the suttas out of blocks of stan- 
dardized, transposable text called pericopes, and partly to com- 
mon points of focus throughout the Sutta Pitaka, a considerable 
amount of overlapping can be discovered between the contents 
of the four Nikayas. In the case of SN, parallels extend not only 
to the other three Nikayas but to the Vinaya Pitaka as well. Thus 
we find three SN suttas of great importance also recorded in the 
Vinaya Mahavagga, represented as the first three discourses 
given by the Buddha at the dawn of his ministry: the Dhamma- 
cakkappavattana, the Anattalakkhana, and the Adittapariyaya 
(56:11; 22:59; 35:28). 8 In the Vinaya, too, there are parallels to the 
SN suttas on the Buddha's encounters with Mara (4:4, 5), on his 
hesitation to teach the Dhamma (6:1), on his first meeting with 
Anathapindika (10:8), on the secession of Devadatta (17:35), and 
on the tormented spirits seen by Mahamoggallana (19:1-21). 
While it is possible that both the Vinaya and SN received this 
material via separate lines of oral transmission, in view of the 
fact that the narrative portions of the Vinaya Pitaka appear to 
stem from a later period than the Nikayas, we might conjecture 
that the redactors of the Vinaya drew freely upon texts pre- 
served by the Samyutta reciters when composing the frame- 
works for the disciplinary injunctions. 

SN includes as individual suttas material which, in DN, is 
embedded in larger suttas. The most notable instances of this are 
segments of the Mahaparinibbana Sutta (e.g., at 6:15; 47:9; 47:12; 
51:10), but we find as well a few snippets shared by the 
Mahasatipatthana Sutta (47:1, 2; 45:8) and a short ( cula ) version 
of the Mahanidana Sutta (12:60). The latter shares with its larger 
counterpart (DN No. 15) only the opening paragraph but there- 
after diverges in a completely different direction. Again, any 
solution to the question of borrowing can only be hypothetical. 

The compilers of the canon seem to have laid down stringent 
rules governing the allocation of texts between SN and AN, 




36 The Samyutta Nikaya 

intended to avoid extensive reduplication when a doctrinal 
theme is also a numerical set. Still, within the bounds set by that 
condition, a certain amount of overlapping has taken place 
between the two Nikayas. They hold in common the suttas on 
Rohitassa's search for the end of the world (2:26), on the lion's 
roar (22:78), on the ten qualities of the stream-enterer (12:41 = 
55:28), on the death of Kokalika (6:9-10), on the five hindrances 
(46:55, but in AN without the section on the enlightenment fac- 
tors), as well as several large blocks of text that in SN do not 
constitute separate suttas. 

It is, however, between SN and MN that the boundary 
appears to have been the most permeable, for SN contains five 
whole suttas also found in MN (22:82; 35:87, 88, 121; 36:19), as 
well as the usual common text blocks. We cannot know whether 
this dual allocation of the suttas was made with the general con- 
sent of the redactors responsible for the whole Sutta Pitaka or 
came about because the separate companies of reciters responsi- 
ble for the two Nikayas each thought these suttas fitted best into 
their own collections. But in view of the fact that in SN several 
suttas appear in two sainyuttas, thus even in the same Nikaya, 
the first alternative is not implausible. Suttas from SN have also 
found their way into the smaller works of the Khuddaka 
Nikaya — the Suttanipata, the Udana, and the Itivuttaka — while 
the correspondence between verses is legion, as can be seen 
from Concordance 1 (B). 

Literary Features of the Samyutta 

Of the four Nikayas, SN seems to be the one most heavily sub- 
jected to "literary embellishment." While it is possible that some 
of the variations stemmed from the Buddha himself, it also 
seems plausible that many of the more minute elaborations were 
introduced by the redactors of the canon. I wish to call attention 
to two distinctive features of the collection which bear testimony 
to this hypothesis. We might conveniently call them "template 
parallelism" and "auditor-setting variation." The texts that 
exhibit these features are collated in Concordances 3 and 4 
respectively. Here I will explain the principles that lie behind 
these editorial devices and cite a few notable examples of each. 

Template parallels are suttas constructed in accordance with 




General Introduction 37 



the same formal pattern but which differ in the content to which 
this pattern is applied. The template is the formal pattern or 
mould; the template sutta, a text created by applying this mould 
to a particular subject, the "raw material" to be moulded into a 
sutta. Template parallels cut across the division between 
samyuttas and show how the same formula can be used to make 
identical statements about different categories of phenomena, 
for example, about the elements, aggregates, and sense bases 
(i dhatu , khandha, dyatana), or about path factors, enlightenment 
factors, and spiritual faculties ( magganga , bojjhanga, indriya). The 
recurrence of template parallels throughout SN gives us an 
important insight into the structure of the Buddha's teaching. It 
shows that the teaching is constituted by two intersecting com- 
ponents: a formal component expressed by the templates them- 
selves, and a material component provided by the entities that 
are organized by the templates. The application of the templates 
to the material components instructs us how the latter are to be 
treated. Thus we are made to see, from the template suttas, that 
the constituent factors of existence are to be understood with 
wisdom; that the defilements are to be abandoned; and that the 
path factors are to be developed. 

The templates are in turn sometimes subsumed at a higher 
level by what we might call a paradigm, that is, a particular per- 
spective offering us a panoramic overview of the teaching as a 
whole. Paradigms generate templates, and templates generate 
suttas. Thus all one need do to compose different suttas is to 
subject various types of material to the same templates generat- 
ed by a single paradigm. 

SN abounds in examples of this. One prevalent paradigm in 
the collection, central to the Dhamma, is the three characteristics 
of existence: impermanence ( anicca ), suffering (dukkha), and non- 
self ( anatta ). This paradigm governs whole series of suttas both 
in SN 22 and SN 35, the royal samyuttas of Parts III and IV, 
respectively; for it is above all the five aggregates and the six 
pairs of sense bases that must be seen with insight in order to 
win the fruits of liberation. The "three characteristics paradigm" 
generates four common templates: impermanent, etc., in the 
three times; the simple contemplation of impermanence, etc.; 
impermanent, etc., through causes and conditions; and, most 
critical in the Buddha's soteriological plan, the "what is imper- 




38 The Samyutta Nikdya 



manent is suffering" template, which sets the three characteris- 
tics in relation to one another. 

Another major paradigm is the triad of gratification, danger, 
and escape ( assada , adinava, nissarana), which generates three 
templates. At AN I 258-60 we find these templates used to gen- 
erate three suttas in which the material content is the world as a 
whole ( loka ). SN, apparently drawing upon certain ways of 
understanding the concept of the world, contains twelve suttas 
churned out by these templates — three each in the samyuttas on 
the elements and the aggregates (14:31-33; 22:26-28), and six in 
the samyutta on the sense bases (35:13-18; six because the inter- 
nal and external sense bases are treated separately). This para- 
digm is in turn connected to another, on the qualities of true 
ascetics and brahmins, and together they give birth to three 
more recurrent templates on how true ascetics and brahmins 
understand things: by way of the gratification triad; by way of 
the origin pentad (the gratification triad augmented by the ori- 
gin and passing away of things); and by way of the noble-truth 
tetrad (modelled on the Four Noble Truths: suffering, its origin, 
its cessation, and the way to its cessation). These templates gen- 
erate suttas on the four elements, gain and honour, the five 
aggregates, feelings, and the faculties. The last template is also 
applied several times to the factors of dependent origination, 
but strangely they are all missing in the Salayatanasamyutta. 

The main cause of suffering, according to the Buddha, is crav- 
ing (tanha), also known as desire and lust (chanda-raga). In SN 
the task of removing craving serves as a paradigm which gener- 
ates another set of templates, arrived at by splitting and then 
recombining the terms of the compound: abandon desire, aban- 
don lust, abandon desire and lust. These are each connected sep- 
arately to whatever is impermanent, whatever is suffering, and 
whatever is nonself (intersecting with the three characteristics 
paradigm), thereby giving rise to nine templates. These are then 
extended to the aggregates and to the internal and external 
sense bases, generating respectively nine and eighteen suttas 
(22:137-45; 35:168-85). 

Some templates must have emerged from the conversations 
into which the monks were drawn in their everyday lives, such 
as the one based on the question why the holy life is lived under 
the Blessed One (35:81, 152; 38:4; 45:5, 41-48). Part V, on the 




General Introduction 39 



groups pertaining to the path, employs still new templates, 
though without a single dominant paradigm. Many of the tem- 
plates occur in the repetition series, which are elaborated in full 
only in the Maggasamyutta and thereafter abbreviated in mne- 
monic verses. But more substantive templates generate suttas in 
the bodies of these samyuttas, which will be discussed at greater 
length in the introduction to Part V. 

If we closely inspect the concordance of template parallels, we 
would notice that certain templates are not employed to gener- 
ate suttas in domains where they seem perfectly applicable. 
Thus, as noted above, we do not find the "ascetics and brah- 
mins" templates applied to the six sense bases, or the "noble and 
emancipating" template applied to the five spiritual faculties, or 
the "seven fruits and benefits" template applied to the four 
establishments of mindfulness. This raises the intriguing ques- 
tion whether these omissions were made by deliberate design, 
or because the applications were overlooked, or because suttas 
got lost in the process of oral transmission. To arrive at cogent 
hypotheses concerning this question we would have to compare 
the Pali recension of SN with the Chinese translation of the 
Samyuktagama, which would no doubt be a major undertaking 
requiring a rare combination of skills. 

The second distinctive editorial technique of SN is what I call 
"auditor-setting variation." This refers to suttas that are identi- 
cal (or nearly identical) in content but differ in regard to the per- 
son to whom they are addressed, or in the protagonist involved 
(in a sutta involving a "plot"), or in the circumstances under 
which they are spoken. The most notable example of this device 
is the sutta on how a bhikkhu attains or fails to attain Nibbana, 
which occurs seven times (at 35:118, 119, 124, 125, 126, 128, 131), 
in exactly the same words, but addressed to different auditors, 
including the deva-king Sakka and the gandhabba Pancasikha. 
As the Buddha must have reiterated many suttas to different 
inquirers, the question arises why this one was selected for such 
special treatment. Could it have been a way of driving home, 
to the monks, what they must do to win the goal of the holy 
life? Or were there more mundane motives behind the redun- 
dancy, such as a desire to placate the families of important lay 
supporters? 

Under this category fall several instances where a sutta is 




40 The Samyutta Nikaya 



spoken by the Buddha a first time in response to a question from 
Ananda, a second time to Ananda on his own initiative, a third 
time in response to a question from a group of bhikkhus, and a 
fourth time to a group of bhikkhus on his own initiative (e.g., 
36:15-18; 54:13-16). Again, the Radhasamyutta includes two 
vaggas of twelve suttas each identical in all respects except that 
in the first (23:23-34) Radha asks for a teaching while in the sec- 
ond (23:35-46) the Buddha takes the initiative in speaking. 

A third literary embellishment, not quite identical with audi- 
tor-setting variation, is the inclusion of chains of suttas that ring 
the permutations on a simple idea by using different phrasing. 
Thus the Ditthisamyutta (24) contains four "trips" ( gamana ) on 
speculative views differing only in the framework within which 
the exposition of views is encased (partial exception being made 
of the first trip, which for some unclear reason lacks a series of 
views included in the other three). In the Vacchagottasamyutta 
(33), the wanderer so named approaches the Buddha five times 
with the same question, about the reason why the ten specula- 
tive views arise in the world, and each time the answer is given 
as not knowing one of the five aggregates; each question and 
answer makes a separate sutta. Not content with this much, the 
compilers of the canon seem to have felt obliged to make it clear 
that each answer could have been formulated using a different 
synonym for lack of knowledge. Thus the samyutta is built up 
out of ten variants on the first pentad, identical in all respects 
except for the change of synonyms. The Jhanasamyutta (34) 
exhibits still another literary flourish, the "wheel" ( cakka ) of per- 
mutations, whereby a chain of terms is taken in pairwise combi- 
nations, exhausting all possibilities. 

Technical Notes 

Here I will discuss a few technical matters pertaining to the 
translation, emphasizing particularly why my renderings here 
sometimes differ from those used in MLDB. For the sake of pre- 
cision, I usually refer to SN by volume, page, and line numbers 
of Ee (Eel in references to Part I), and use the samyutta and 
sutta numbers only when the whole sutta is relevant. 9 




General Introduction 41 



The Repetitions 

Readers of the Pali suttas are invariably irked, and sometimes 
dismayed, by the ponderous repetitiveness of the texts. In SN 
these are more blatant than in the other Nikayas, even to the 
extent that in whole vaggas the suttas might differ from one 
another only in regard to a single word or phrase. Besides this 
type of reiterative pattern, we also come across the liberal use of 
stock definitions, stereotyped formulas, and pericopes typical of 
the Nikayas as a whole, stemming from the period when they 
were transmitted orally. It is difficult to tell how much of the 
repetition stems from the Buddha himself, who as an itinerant 
teacher must have often repeated whole discourses with only 
slight variations, and how much is due to zealous redactors 
eager to ring every conceivable change on a single idea and pre- 
serve it for posterity. It is hard, however, not to suspect that the 
latter have had a heavy hand in the redaction of the texts. 

To avoid excessive repetitiveness in the translation I have had 
to make ample use of elisions. In this respect I follow the printed 
editions of the Pali texts, which are also highly abridged, but a 
translation intended for a contemporary reader requires still 
more compression if it is not to risk earning the reader's wrath. 
On the other hand, I have been keen to see that nothing essential 
to the original text, including the flavour, has been lost due to 
the abridgement. The ideals of considerateness to the reader and 
fidelity to the text sometimes make contrary demands on a 
translator. 

The treatment of repetition patterns in which the same utter- 
ance is made regarding a set of items is a perpetual problem in 
translating Pali suttas. When translating a sutta about the five 
aggregates, for example, one is tempted to forgo the enumera- 
tion of the individual aggregates and instead turn the sutta into 
a general statement about the aggregates as a class. To my mind, 
such a method veers away from proper translation towards para- 
phrase and thus risks losing too much of the original text. My 
general policy has been to translate the full utterance in relation 
to the first and last members of the set, and merely to enumerate 
the intermediate members separated by ellipsis points. Thus, in 
a sutta about the five aggregates, I render the statement in full 
only for form and consciousness, and in between have "feeling 




42 The Samyutta Nikaya 

... perception ... volitional formations ..." implying thereby 
that the full statement likewise applies to them. With the bigger 
sets I often omit the intermediate terms, rendering the statement 
only for the first and last members. 

This approach has required the frequent use of ellipsis points, 
a practice which also invites criticism. Several consulting read- 
ers thought I might improve the aesthetic appearance of the 
page (especially in Part IV) by rephrasing repetitive passages in 
a way that would eliminate the need for ellipsis points. I accepted 
this suggestion in regard to repetitions in the narrative frame- 
work, but in texts of straight doctrinal exposition I adhered to 
my original practice. The reason is that I think it an important 
responsibility of the translator, when translating passages of 
doctrinal significance, to show exactly where text is being elided, 
and for this ellipsis points remain the best tool at hand. 

Dhamma 

Rather than embark on the quest for a single English rendering 
that can capture all the meanings of this polyvalent Pali word, I 
have settled for the more pragmatic approach of using different 
renderings intended to match its different applications. 10 When 
the word denotes the Buddha's teaching, I have retained the Pali 
"Dhamma," for even "teaching" fails to convey the idea that 
what the Buddha teaches as the Dhamma is not a system of 
thought original to himself but the fundamental principles of 
truth, virtue, and liberation discovered and taught by all 
Buddhas throughout beginningless time. This is the Dhamma 
venerated by the Buddhas of the past, present, and future, 
which they look upon as their own standard and guide (see 6:2). 
From an internal "emic" point of view, the Dhamma is thus 
more than a particular religious teaching that has appeared at a 
particular epoch of human history. It is the timeless law in 
which reality, truth, and righteousness are merged in a seamless 
unity, and also the conceptual expression of this law in a body 
of spiritual and ethical teachings leading to the highest goal, 
Nibbana, which is likewise comprised by the Dhamma. The 
word "Dhamma," however, can also signify teachings that 
deviate from the truth, including the erroneous doctrines of the 




General Introduction 43 



"outside" teachers. Thus the Jain teacher Nigantha Nataputta is 
said to "teach the Dhamma to his disciples" (IV 317,25) — certainly 
not the Buddha's teaching. 

In one passage I render Dhamma as "righteousness" (at the Se 
counterpart of IV 303,21). This is in the epithet dhammaraja used 
for a universal monarch, where "king of righteousness" fits bet- 
ter than "king of the Dhamma," the significance the epithet has 
relative to the Buddha. The corresponding adjective, dhammika, 
is "righteous." 

When dhamma occurs as a general term of reference, often in 
the plural, I usually render it "things." As such, the word does 
not bear the narrow sense of concrete material objects but 
includes literally every-thing, such as qualities, practices, acts, 
and relationships. Thus the four factors of stream-entry are, as 
dhammas, things; so too are the twelve factors of dependent orig- 
ination, the five aggregates, the six pairs of sense bases, and the 
diverse practices leading to enlightenment. Used in the plural, 
dhamma can also mean teachings, and so I render it at III 225,9 
foil., though the exact sense there is ambiguous and the word 
might also mean the things that are taught rather than the teach- 
ings about them. One expression occurring in two suttas (II 58,5-4; 

IV 328,21-22), imina dhammena, can be most satisfactorily ren- 
dered "by this principle," though here dhamma points to the 
Dhamma as the essential teaching. Again, at I 167,9 (= I 168,25, 
173,10), we have dhamme sati, "when this principle exists," a rule 
of conduct followed by the Buddha. 

When plural dhamma acquires a more technical nuance, in con- 
texts with ontological overtones, I render it "phenomena." For 
instance, paticca-samuppanna dhamma are "dependently arisen 
phenomena" (II 26,7), and each of the five aggregates is loke 
lokadhamma, "a world-phenomenon in the world" that the 
Buddha has penetrated and taught (III 139,22 foil.). When the 
word takes on a more psychological hue, I render it "states." 
The most common example of this is in the familiar pair kusala 
dhamma, wholesome states, and akusald dhamma, unwholesome 
states (found, for example, in the formula for right effort; 

V 9,17-27). The enlightenment factor dhammavicaya-sambojjhahga 
is said to be nurtured by giving careful attention to pairs of con- 
trasting mental states (among them wholesome and unwhole- 
some states; V 66,18), and thus I render it "the enlightenment 




44 The Samyutta Nikaya 



factor of discrimination of states." But since the dhammas investi- 
gated can also be the four objective supports of mindfulness 
(V 331-32), dhammavicaya might have been translated "discrimi- 
nation of phenomena." Sometimes dhamma signifies traits of 
character more persistent than transient mental states; in this 
context I render it "qualities," e.g., Mahakassapa complains that 
the bhikkhus "have qualities which make them difficult to 
admonish" (II 204,3-4). 

As a sense base and element, the dhammayatana and dhamma- 
dhatu are the counterparts of the manayatana, the mind base, and 
the manovinhanadhatu, the mind-consciousness element. The 
appropriate sense here would seem to be that of ideas and men- 
tal images, but the commentaries understand dhammas in these 
contexts to include not only the objects of consciousness but its 
concomitants as well. Thus I translate it "mental phenomena," 
which is wide enough to encompass both these aspects of expe- 
rience. As the fourth satipatthana, objective base of mindfulness, 
dhamma is often translated "mind-objects." So I rendered it in 
MLDB, but in retrospect this seems to me unsatisfactory. Of 
course, any existent can become an object of mind, and thus all 
dhammas in the fourth satipatthana are necessarily mind-objects; 
but the latter term puts the focus in the wrong place. I now under- 
stand dhammas to be phenomena in general, but phenomena 
arranged in accordance with the categories of the Dhamma, the 
teaching, in such a way as to lead to a realization of the essential 
Dhamma embodied in the Four Noble Truths. 

Finally, -dhamma as a suffix has the meaning "is subject to" or 
"has the nature of." Thus all dependently arisen phenomena are 
"subject to destruction, vanishing, fading away, and cessation" 
( khayadhamma , vayadhamma, virdgadhamma, nirodhadhamma; 
II 26,9 foil.). The five aggregates are "of impermanent nature, of 
painful nature, of selfless nature" ( aniccadhamma , dukkhadhamma, 
anattadhamma ; III 195-96). 

SaSjkhAra 

In MLDB I had changed Ven. Nanamoli's experimental render- 
ing of sahkhara as "determinations" back to his earlier choice, 
"formations." Aware that this word has its own drawbacks, in 
preparing this translation I had experimented with several alter- 




General Introduction 45 



natives. The most attractive of these was "constructions," but in 
the end I felt that this term too often led to obscurity. Hence, like 
the land-finding crow which always returns to the ship when 
land is not close by (see Vism 657; Ppn 21:65), I had to fall back 
on "formations," which is colourless enough to take on the 
meaning being imparted by the context. Sometimes I prefixed 
this with the adjective "volitional" to bring out the meaning 
more clearly. 

Sahkhara is derived from the prefix sam (= con), "together," 
and the verb karoti, "to make." The noun straddles both sides of 
the active-passive divide. Thus sankharas are both things which 
put together, construct, and compound other things, and the 
things that are put together, constructed, and compounded. 

In SN the word occurs in five major doctrinal contexts: 

(1) As the second factor in the formula of dependent origina- 
tion, sankharas are the kammically active volitions responsible, in 
conjunction with ignorance and craving, for generating rebirth 
and sustaining the forward movement of samsara from one life 
to the next. Sahkhara is synonymous with kamma, to which it is 
etymologically related, both being derived from karoti. These 
sankharas are distinguished as threefold by their channel of 
expression, as bodily, verbal, and mental (II 4,8-10, etc.); they are 
also divided by ethical quality into the meritorious, demeritori- 
ous, and imperturbable (II 82,9-13). To convey the relevant sense 
of sahkhara here I render the term "volitional formations." The 
word might also have been translated "activities," which makes 
explicit the connection with kamma, but this rendering would 
sever the connection with sahkhara in contexts other than 
dependent origination, which it seems desirable to preserve. 

(2) As the fourth of the five aggregates, sahkhara is defined as 
the six classes of volitions ( cha cetanakdya, III 60,25-28), that is, 
volition regarding the six types of sense objects. Hence again I 
render it volitional formations. But the sahkhdrakkhandha has a 
wider compass than the sahkhara of the dependent origination 
series, comprising all instances of volition and not only those 
that are kammically active. In the Abhidhamma Pitaka and the 
commentaries the sahkharakkhandha further serves as an 
umbrella category for classifying all mental concomitants of 
consciousness apart from feeling and perception. It thus comes 
to include all wholesome, unwholesome, and variable mental 




46 The Samyutta Nikaya 



factors mentioned but not formally classified among the aggre- 
gates in the Sutta Pitaka. 

(3) In the widest sense, sahkhara comprises all conditioned 
things, everything arisen from a combination of conditions. In 
this sense all five aggregates, not just the fourth, are sankharas 
(see III 132,22-27), as are all external objects and situations 
(II 191,11-17). The term here is taken to be of passive derivation — 
denoting what is conditioned, constructed, compounded — 
hence I render it simply "formations," without the qualifying 
adjective. This notion of sahkhara serves as the cornerstone of a 
philosophical vision which sees the entire universe as constituted 
of conditioned phenomena. What is particularly emphasized 
about sankharas in this sense is their impermanence. Recognition 
of their impermanence brings insight into the unreliable nature 
of all mundane felicity and inspires a sense of urgency directed 
towards liberation from samsara (see 15:20; 22:96). 

(4) A triad of sankharas is mentioned in connection with the 
attainment of the cessation of perception and feeling: the bodily 
formation, the verbal formation, and the mental formation 
(IV 293,7-28). The first is in-and-out breathing (because breath is 
bound up with the body); the second, thought and examination 
(because by thinking one formulates the ideas one expresses by 
speech); the third, perception and feeling (because these things 
are bound up with the mind). Two of these terms — the bodily 
formation and the mental formation — are also included in the 
expanded instructions on mindfulness of breathing (V 311,21-22; 
312,4-5). 

(5) The expression padhanasahkhara occurs in the formula for 
the four iddhipadas, the bases for spiritual power. The text 
explains it as the four right kinds of striving (V 268,8-19). I ren- 
der it "volitional formations of striving." Though, strictly speak- 
ing, the expression signifies energy ( viriya ) and not volition 
(cetana), the qualifier shows that these formations occur in an 
active rather than a passive mode. 

Apart from these main contexts, the word sahkhara occurs in 
several compounds — ayusahkhara (II 266,19; V 262,22-23), jivita- 
sahkhdra (V 152,29-153,2) bhavasatikhdra (V 263,2) — which can be 
understood as different aspects of the life force. 

The past participle connected with sahkhara is sahkhata, which I 




General Introduction 47 



translate “conditioned." Unfortunately I could not render the two 
Pali words into English in a way that preserves the vital connec- 
tion between them: “formed" is too specific for sankhata, and 
"conditions" too wide for sahkhard (and it also encroaches on the 
domain of paccaya). If “constructions" had been used for sahkhard, 
sankhata would have become "constructed," which preserves the 
connection, though at the cost of too stilted a translation. 
Regrettably, owing to the use of different English words for the 
pair, a critically important dimension of meaning in the suttas is 
lost to view. In the Pali we can clearly see the connection: the 
sahkharas, the active constructive forces instigated by volition, 
create and shape conditioned reality, especially the conditioned 
factors classified into the five aggregates and the six internal sense 
bases; and this conditioned reality itself consists of sahkharas in 
the passive sense, called in the commentaries sahkhata-sahkhard. 

Further, it is not only this connection that is lost to view, but 
also the connection with Nibbana. For Nibbana is the asahkhata, 
the unconditioned, which is called thus precisely because it is 
neither made by sahkharas nor itself a sahkhara in either the 
active or passive sense. So, when the texts are taken up in the 
Pali, we arrive at a clear picture in fine focus: the active sahkharas 
generated by volition perpetually create passive sahkharas, the 
sankhata dhammas or conditioned phenomena of the five aggre- 
gates (and, indirectly, of the objective world); and then, through 
the practice of the Buddha's path, the practitioner arrives at the 
true knowledge of conditioned phenomena, which disables the 
generation of active sahkharas, putting an end to the constructing 
of conditioned reality and opening up the door to the Deathless, 
the asahkhata, the unconditioned, which is Nibbana, final libera- 
tion from impermanence and suffering. 

NamarOpa 

In MLDB, I also had changed Ven. Nanamoli's "name-and- 
form" back to his earlier rendering, "mentality-materiality." In 
some respects the latter is doctrinally more accurate, but it is 
also unwieldly, particularly when translating verse, and thus 
here I return to "name-and-form." The compound was of pre- 
Buddhistic origins and is used in the Upanisads to denote the 




48 The Samyutta Nikaya 

differentiated manifestation of brahman, the nondual reality. For 
the sages of the Upanisads, namarupa is the manifestation of 
brahman as multiplicity, apprehended by the senses as diversi- 
fied appearances or forms, and by thought as diversified names 
or concepts (the assignment of names and concepts being under- 
stood as grounded in objective reality rather than as the end- 
product of a purely subjective process). The Buddha adopted 
this expression and invested it with a meaning consonant with 
his own system. Here it becomes the physical and cognitive 
sides of individual existence. In the expression bahiddha 
namarupa, "external name-and-form" (at II 24,2), we seem to find 
a vestige of the original meaning — the world as distinguished 
according to its appearances and names — but divested of the 
monistic implications. 

In the Buddha's system, riipa is defined as the four great ele- 
ments and the form derived from them. Form is both internal to 
the person (as the body with its senses) and external (as the 
physical world). The Nikayas do not explain derived form 
( upadaya rupam), but the Abhidhamma analyses it into some 
twenty-four kinds of secondary material phenomena which 
include the sensitive substances of the sense faculties and four of 
the five sense objects (the tactile object is identified with three of 
the great elements — earth, heat, and air — which each exhibit 
tangible properties). Though I render nama as name, this should 
not be taken too literally. Nama is the assemblage of mental fac- 
tors involved in cognition: feeling, perception, volition, contact, 
and attention ( vedana , sahha, cetana, phassa, manasikara; II 3,34-35). 
These are called "name" because they contribute to the process 
of cognition by which objects are subsumed under conceptual 
designations. 

It should be noted that in the Nikayas, namarupa does not 
include consciousness ( vihhana ). Consciousness is its condition, 
and the two are mutually dependent, like two sheaves of reeds 
leaning one against the other (II 114,17-19). Consciousness can 
operate only in dependence on a physical body (riipa) and in 
conjunction with its constellation of concomitants (nama); con- 
versely, only when consciousness is present can a compound of 
material elements function as a sentient body and the mental 
concomitants participate in cognition. Occasionally the texts 
speak of the "descent of consciousness" (vihhanassa avakkanti) 




General Introduction 49 



serving as a condition for name-and-form (II 91,14-15); this 
means that the arrival of the current of consciousness from the 
past existence into the new one is the necessary condition for the 
arising of a new psychophysical organism at conception. 
Sometimes too the texts speak of the descent of name-and-form 
(namarupassa avakkanti, II 66,12, 90,19, 101,13); this denotes the 
beginning of sentient life when the current of consciousness, 
arriving from the previous existence, becomes established under 
the fresh conditions. 

Nibbana, Parinibbana 

As is well known, nibbana literally means the extinction of a fire. 
In popular works on Buddhism, nibbana plain and simple is 
often taken to signify Nibbana as experienced in life, parinibbana 
Nibbana attained at death. This is a misinterpretation. Long ago 
EJ. Thomas pointed out (possibly on the basis of a suggestion 
by E. Kuhn) that the prefix pari- converts a verb from the expres- 
sion of a state into the expression of the achievement of an 
action, so that the corresponding noun nibbana becomes the state 
of release, parinibbana the attaining of that state. 11 The distinction 
does not really work very well for the verb, as we find both 
parinibbayati and nibbdyati used to designate the act of attaining 
release, but it appears to be fairly tenable in regard to the nouns. 
(In verse, however, we do sometimes find nibbana used to 
denote the event, for example in the line pajjotass’ eva nibbanam 
at v. 612c.) Words related to both nibbana and parinibbana desig- 
nate both the attaining of release during life through the experi- 
ence of full enlightenment, and the attaining of final release 
from conditioned existence through the breakup of the physical 
body of death. Thus, for instance, the verb parinibbayati is com- 
monly used to describe how a bhikkhu achieves release while 
alive (e.g., at II 82,20; III 54,3; IV 23,8-9, etc.) and also to indicate 
the passing away of the Buddha or an arahant (e.g., at I 158,23; 
V 161,25). 

The past participle forms, nibbuta and parinibbuta, are from a 
different verbal root than the nouns nibbana and parinibbana. The 
former is from nir + vr, the latter from nir + va. The noun appro- 
priate to the participles is nibbuti, which occasionally occurs in 
the texts as a synonym for nibbana but with a function that is 




50 The Samyutta Nikdya 



more evocative (of tranquillity, complete rest, utter peace) than 
systematic. (It seems no prefixed noun parinibbuti is attested to 
in Pali.) At an early time the two verb forms were conflated, so 
that the participle parinibbuta became the standard adjective 
used to denote one who has undergone parinibbana. Like the 
verb, the participle is used in apposition to both the living 
Buddha or arahant (I 1,21, 187,8) and the deceased one (I 122,13, 
158,24). Possibly, however, parinibbuta is used in relation to the 
living arahant only in verse, while in prose its technical use is 
confined to one who has expired. In sutta usage, even when the 
noun parinibbana denotes the passing away of an arahant (partic- 
ularly of the Buddha), it does not mean "Nibbana after death." It 
is, rather, the event of passing away undergone by one who has 
already attained Nibbana during life. 

The suttas distinguish between two elements of Nibbana: the 
Nibbana element with residue ( sa-upadisesa-nibbanadhatu ) and 
the Nibbana element without residue ( anupadisesa - 
nibbanadhatu) — the residue (upadisesa) being the compound of 
the five aggregates produced by prior craving and kamma 
(It 38-39). The former is the extinction of lust, hatred, and delu- 
sion attained by the arahant while alive; the latter is the remain- 
derless cessation of all conditioned existence that occurs with 
the arahant's death. In the commentaries the two elements of 
Nibbana are respectively called kilesaparinibbana, the quenching 
of defilements at the attainment of arahantship, and khandha- 
parinibbana, the quenching of the continuum of aggregates with 
the arahant's demise. Though the commentaries treat the two 
Nibbana elements and the two kinds of parinibbana as inter- 
changeable and synonymous, in sutta usage it may be preferable 
to see the two kinds of parinibbana as the events which give 
access to the two corresponding Nibbana elements. Parinibbana, 
then, is the act of quenching; nibbana, the state of quenchedness. 

To explain the philology of a term is not to settle the question 
of its interpretation. What exactly is to be made of the various 
explanations of Nibbana given in the Nikayas has been a subject 
of debate since the early days of Buddhism, with the ground 
divided between those who regard it as the mere extinction of 
defilements and cessation of existence and those who under- 
stand it as a transcendental ( lokuttara ) ontological reality. In SN 
some suttas explain Nibbana as the destruction of lust, hatred, 




General Introduction 51 



and delusion, which emphasizes the experiential psychological 
dimension; elsewhere it is called the unconditioned, which 
seems to place the stress on ontological transcendence. The 
Theravada commentators regard Nibbana as an unconditioned 
element. 12 They hold that when Nibbana is called the destruc- 
tion of the defilements (of lust, hatred, and delusion, etc.) and 
the cessation of the five aggregates, this requires interpretation. 
Nibbana itself, as an existent, is unborn, unmade, unbecome, 
unconditioned (see Ud 80-81). It is in dependence on this ele- 
ment ( tam agamma), by arriving at it, that there takes place the 
destruction of the defilements and release from conditioned 
existence. Nibbana itself, however, is not reducible to these two 
events, which are, in their actual occurrence, conditioned events 
happening in time. On this interpretation, the two Nibbana ele- 
ments are seen as stages in the full actualization of the uncondi- 
tioned Nibbana, not simply as two discrete events. 

In the present work I leave nibbana untranslated, for the term 
is too rich in evocative meaning and too defiant of conceptual 
specification to be satisfactorily captured by any proposed 
English equivalent. I translate parinibbdna as "final Nibbana," 
since the noun form usually means the passing away of an ara- 
hant (or the Buddha), final release from conditioned existence; 
sometimes, however, its meaning is ambiguous, as in the state- 
ment "the Dhamma [is] taught by the Blessed One for the sake 
of final Nibbana without clinging ( anupadaparinibbanattham )" 
(IV 48,78), which can mean either Nibbana during life or the full 
cessation of existence. 

The verb parinibbayati perhaps could have been incorporated 
into English with "nibbanize," which would be truest to the Pali, 
but this would be too much at variance with current conven- 
tions. Thus when the verb refers to the demise of the Buddha or 
an arahant, I render it "attains final Nibbana," but when it des- 
ignates the extinguishing of defilements by one who attains 
enlightenment, I render it simply "attains Nibbana." We also 
find a personal noun form, parinibbayi, which I render "an 
attainer of Nibbana," as it can be construed in either sense. In 
prose the past participle parinibbuta, used as a doctrinal term, 
always occurs with reference to a deceased arahant and so it is 
translated "has attained final Nibbana." In verse, it can take on 
either meaning; when it describes a living arahant (or the 




52 The Samyutta Nikaya 

Buddha) I translate it more freely as "fully quenched." The 
unprefixed form nibbuta does not always carry the same techni- 
cal implications as parinibbuta, but can mean simply "peaceful, 
satisfied, at ease," without necessarily establishing that the one 
so described has attained Nibbana. 13 At I 24,11 and II 279,8 it has 
this implication; at I 236,21 it seems to mean simply peaceful; at 
III 43, in the compound tadahganibbuta, it definitely does not 
imply Nibbana, for the point there is that the monk has only 
approximated to the real attainment of the goal. Cognates of 
parinibbana appear in colloquial speech with a nondoctrinal 
sense; for example, both parinibbayati and parinibbuta are used to 
describe the taming of a horse (at MN I 446,8-10). But even here 
they seem to be used with a "loaded meaning," since the horse 
simile is introduced to draw a comparison with a monk who 
attains arahantship. 

Other Changes 

In MLDB I rendered vitakka and vicara respectively as "applied 
thought" and "sustained thought." In this translation they 
become "thought" and "examination." The latter is surely closer 
to the actual meaning of vicara. When vitakka is translated as 
"thought," however, a word of caution is necessary. In common 
usage, vitakka corresponds so closely to our "thought" that no 
other rendering seems feasible; for example, in kamavitakka, sen- 
sual thought, or its opposite, nekkhammavitakka, thought of 
renunciation. When, however, vitakka and vicara occur as con- 
stituents of the first jhana, they do not exercise the function of 
discursive thinking characteristic of ordinary consciousness. 
Here, rather, vitakka is the mental factor with the function of 
applying the mind to the object, and vicara the factor with the 
function of examining the object nondiscursively in order to 
anchor the mind in the object. 

Bhava, in MLDB, was translated "being." In seeking an alter- 
native, I had first experimented with "becoming," but when the 
shortcomings in this choice were pointed out to me I decided to 
return to "existence," used in my earlier translations. Bhava, 
however, is not "existence" in the sense of the most universal 
ontological category, that which is shared by everything from 
the dishes in the kitchen sink to the numbers in a mathematical 




General Introduction 53 



equation. Existence in the latter sense is covered by the verb 
atthi and the abstract noun atthita. Bhava is concrete sentient exis- 
tence in one of the three realms of existence posited by Buddhist 
cosmology, a span of life beginning with conception and ending 
in death. In the formula of dependent origination it is under- 
stood to mean both (i) the active side of life that produces 
rebirth into a particular mode of sentient existence, in other 
words rebirth-producing kamma; and (ii) the mode of sentient 
existence that results from such activity. 

Sakkdya is a term for the five aggregates as a collective whole 
(III 159,10-13). The word is derived from sat + kaya, and literally 
means “the existing body," the assemblage of existent phenomena 
that serve as the objective basis of clinging. Most translators ren- 
der it “personality," a practice I followed in MLDB (departing 
from Ven. Nanamoli, who rendered it, too literally in my view, 
“embodiment"). But since, under the influence of modern psy- 
chology, the word “personality" has taken on connotations quite 
foreign to what is implied by sakkdya, I now translate it as "iden- 
tity" (a suggestion made to me by Ven. Thanissaro Bhikkhu). 
Sakkaya-ditthi accordingly becomes "identity view," the view of a 
self existing either behind or among the five aggregates. 

Nibbida, in MLDB, was translated “disenchantment." However, 
the word or its cognates is sometimes used in ways which sug- 
gest that something stronger is intended. Hence I now translate 
the noun as “revulsion" and the corresponding verb nibbindati 
as “to experience revulsion." What is intended by this is not a 
reaction of emotional disgust, accompanied by horror and aver- 
sion, but a calm inward turning away from all conditioned exis- 
tence as comprised in the five aggregates, the six sense bases, 
and the first noble truth. Revulsion arises from knowledge and 
vision of things as they really are ( yathabhutananadassana ), and 
naturally leads to dispassion ( viraga ) and liberation ( vimutti ; on 
the sequence, see 12:23). 




54 The Samyutta Nikaya 



Notes to General Introduction 

1 The Burmese textual tradition of SN, followed by the Pali 
Text Society edition, counts fifty-six samyuttas, but the 
Sinhalese tradition counts fifty-four. The difference comes 
about because the Sinhalese tradition treats the Abhi- 
samayasamyutta (our 13) as a subchapter of the Nidana- 
samyutta (12), and the Vedanasamyutta (our 36) as a sub- 
chapter of the Salayatanasamyutta (35). Neither of these 
allocations seems justifiable, as these minor samyuttas 
have no explicit thematic connection with the topics of the 
larger samyuttas into which the Sinhalese tradition has 
incorporated them. 

2 I use "Vagga" to refer to the major parts, and "vagga" to 
refer to the subchapters. Since the Oriental scripts in which 
the texts are preserved do not have distinct capital and 
lower case letters, they use the same word for both with- 
out orthographic differentiation. 

3 Buddhaghosa's figure is given at Sp I 18 , 9 - 10 , Sv I 23 , 16 - 17 , 
and Spk I 2 , 25 - 26 . 

4 Norman makes this point in Pali Literature, p. 31. 

5 For the arrangement of the Chinese Samyuktagama I rely 
on Anesaki, "The Four Buddhist Agamas in Chinese." 

6 "Categories of Sutta in the Pali Nikayas." See especially 

pp. 71-84. 

7 The twelve chapters of the Vibhangu with counterparts in 
SN are as follows: (1) Khandhavibhanga (= SN 22); (2) 
Ayatana- (= 35); (3) Dhatu- (= 14); (4) Sacca- (= 56); (5) 
Indriya- (= 48); (6) Paticca-samuppada- (= 12); (7) 
Satipatthana- (= 47); (8) Sammappadhana- (= 49); (9) 
Iddhipada- (= 51); (10) Bojjhahga- (= 46); (11) Magga- 
(= 45); (12) Jhana- (= 53). 

8 My references here are all to SN (by samyutta and sutta). 
To find the parallels, use Concordance 2 (B), pp. 1984-85. 

9 What follows partly overlaps with MLDB, pp. 52-58, but 
as my handling of certain terms differs from that of the 
earlier work, a full discussion is justified. 

10 Norman takes a similar approach to his translation of 
dhamma in EV I. See his discussion of the word at EV I, n. 
to 2 (p. 118). 




General Introduction 55 



11 History of Buddhist Thought, p. 121, n. 4. 

12 This is clearly maintained in the debate on Nibbana 
recorded at Vism 507-9 (Ppn 16:67-74). See too the long 
extract from the Paramatthamahjusa, Dhammapala's com- 
mentary on Vism, translated by Nanamoli at Ppn pp. 
825-26, n. 18. 

13 For a play on the two senses of nibbuta, see the Bodhi- 
satta's reflections before his great renunciation at Ja I 60-61. 




Part I 

The Book with Verses 
( Sagathavagga ) 




Contents 



Introduction 69 



Chapter I 
1 Devatasamyutta 

Connected Discourses with Devatas 



I. A Reed 

1 (1) Crossing the Flood 89 

2 (2) Emancipation 90 

3 (3) Reaching 90 

4 (4) Time Flies By 91 

5 (5) How Many Must One Cut? 91 

6 (6) Awake 91 

7 (7) Not Penetrated 92 

8 (8) Utterly Muddled 92 

9 (9) One Prone to Conceit 93 

10 (10) Forest 93 

II. Nandana 

ll(l)Nandana 94 

12 (2) Delight 94 

13 (3) None Equal to That for a Son 95 

14 (4) The Khattiya 95 

15 (5) Murmuring 95 

16 (6) Drowsiness and Lethargy 96 

17 (7) Difficult to Practise 96 

18 (8) A Sense of Shame 96 

19 (9) A Little Hut 97 

20 (10) Samiddhi 97 



59 




60 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



III. A Sword 

21 (1) A Sword 100 

22 (2) It Touches 101 

23 (3) Tangle 101 

24 (4) Reining in the Mind 101 

25 (5) The Arahant 102 

26 (6) Sources of Light 102 

27 (7) Streams 103 

28 (8) Those of Great Wealth 103 

29 (9) Four Wheels 104 

30 (10) Antelope Calves 104 

IV. The Satullapa Host 

31 (1) With the Good 104 

32 (2) Stinginess 106 

33 (3) Good 108 

34 (4) There Are No 110 
35(5) Faultfinders 112 

36 (6) Faith 114 

37 (7) Concourse 115 

38 (8) The Stone Splinter 116 

39 (9) Pajjunna's Daughter (1) 118 

40 (10) Pajjunna's Daughter (2) ll c 

V. Ablaze 

41(1) Ablaze 119 

42 (2) Giving What? 120 

43 (3) Food 121 

44 (4) One Root 121 

45 (5) Perfect 121 

46 (6) Nymphs 122 

47 (7) Planters of Groves 122 

48 (8) Jeta's Grove 123 

49 (9) Stingy 123 

50 (10) Ghatikara 125 

VI. Old Age 

51 (1) Old Age 127 

52 (2) Undecaying 127 

53 (3) The Friend 127 




Table of Contents 61 



54 (4) Support 128 

55 (5) Produces (1) 128 

56 (6) Produces (2) 128 

57 (7) Produces (3) 129 

58 (8) The Deviant Path 129 

59 (9) Partner 129 

60 (10) Poetry 130 

VII. Weighed Down 

61 (1) Name 130 

62 (2) Mind 130 

63 (3) Craving 131 

64 (4) Fetter 131 
65 (5) Bondage 131 

66 (6) Afflicted 131 

67 (7) Ensnared 132 

68 (8) Shut In 132 

69 (9) Desire 132 

70 (10) World 133 

VIII. Having Slain 

71 (1) Having Slain 133 

72 (2) Chariot 133 

73 (3) Treasure 134 

74 (4) Rain 134 

75 (5) Afraid 135 

76 (6) Does Not Decay 135 

77 (7) Sovereignty 136 

78 (8) Love 136 

79 (9) Provisions for a Journey 137 

80 (10) Source of Light 137 

81 (11) Without Conflict 138 

Chapter II 
2 Devaputtasamyutta 

Connected Discourses with Young Devas 

I. The First Subchapter (Suriya) 

1 (1) Kassapa (1) 139 

2 (2) Kassapa (2) 140 




62 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagxa) 



3 (3) Magha 140 

4 (4) Magadha 140 

5 (5) Damali 141 

6 (6) Kamada 142 

7 (7) Pancalacanda 142 
8(8)Tayana 143 

9 (9) Candima 144 

10 (10) Suriya 145 

II. Anathapindika 

11 (1) Candimasa 146 

12 (2) Venhu 147 

13 (3) Dighalatthi 147 

14 (4) Nandana 147 

15 (5) Candana 148 

16 (6) Vasudatta 149 

17 (7) Subrahma 149 

18 (8) Kakudha 149 

19 (9)Uttara 150 

20 (10) Anathapindika 151 

III. Various Sectarians 

21 (1) Siva 152 

22 (2) Khema 153 

23 (3) Seri 154 

24 (4) Ghatikara 156 

25 (5) Jantu 156 

26 (6) Rohitassa 157 

27 (7) Nanda 158 

28 (8) Nandi visala 159 

29 (9) Susima 159 

30 (10) Various Sectarians 161 

Chapter III 
3 Kosalasamyutta 

Connected Discourses with the Kosalan 

I. The First Subchapter (Bondage) 

1 (1) Young 164 

2 (2) A Person 166 




Table of Contents 63 



3 (3) Aging and Death 167 

4 (4) Dear 167 

5 (5) Self-Protected 169 

6 (6) Few 169 

7 (7) The Judgement Hall 170 

8 (8) Mallika 170 

9 (9) Sacrifice 171 

10 (10) Bondage 172 

II. The Second Subchapter (Childless) 

11 (1) Seven Jatilas 173 

12 (2) Five Kings 175 

13 (3) A Bucket Measure of Food 176 

14 (4) Battle (1) 177 

15 (5) Battle (2) 178 

16 (6) Daughter 179 

17 (7) Diligence (1) 179 

18 (8) Diligence (2) 180 

19 (9) Childless (1) 182 

20 (10) Childless (2) 183 

III. The Third Subchapter (The Kosalan Pentad) 

21 (1) Persons 185 

22 (2) Grandmother 188 

23 (3) World 189 

24 (4) Archery 190 

25 (5) The Simile of the Mountain 192 

Chapter IV 
4 Marasamyutta 

Connected Discourses with Mara 

I. The First Subchapter (Life Span) 

1(1) Austere Practice 195 

2 (2) The King Elephant 196 

3 (3) Beautiful 196 

4 (4) Mara's Snare (1) 197 

5 (5) Mara's Snare (2) 198 

6 (6) Serpent 199 

7 (7) Sleep 199 




64 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



8 (8) He Delights 200 

9 (9) Life Span (1) 201 

10 (10) Life Span (2) 201 

II. The Second Subchapter (Rulership) 

11 (1) The Boulder 202 

12 (2) Lion 202 

13 (3) The Splinter 203 

14 (4) Suitable 204 

15 (5) Mental 205 

16 (6) Almsbowls 205 

17 (7) Six Bases for Contact 206 

18 (8) Alms 207 

19 (9) The Farmer 208 

20 (10) Rulership 209 

III. The Third Subchapter (The Mara Pentad) 

21(1) A Number 210 

22 (2) Samiddhi 211 

23 (3) Godhika 212 

24 (4) Seven Years of Pursuit 215 

25 (5) Mara's Daughters 217 

Chapter V 
5 Bhikkhunisamyutta 
Connected Discourses with Bhikkhunis 

1 Alavika 221 

2 Soma 222 

3 Gotami 223 

4 Vijaya 224 

5 Uppalavanna 225 

6 Cala 226 ’ ’ 

7 Upacala 227 

8 Sisupacala 227 

9 Sela 228 

10 Vajira 229 




Table of Contents 65 



Chapter VI 
6 Brahmasamyutta 

Connected Discourses with Brahmas 



I. The First Subchapter (The Request) 

1(1) Brahma's Request 231 

2 (2) Reverence 233 

3 (3) Brahmadeva 235 

4 (4) Brahma Baka 237 

5 (5) A Certain Brahma (Another View) 239 

6 (6) A Brahma World (Negligence) 242 

7 (7) Kokalika (1) 243 

8 (8) Tissaka 243 

9 (9) Brahma Tudu 244 

10 (10) Kokalika (2) 245 

II. The Second Subchapter (Brahma Pentad) 

11 (1) Sanahkumara 247 

12 (2) Devadatta 247 

13 (3) Andhakavinda 248 

14 (4) Arunavati 249 

15 (5) Final Nibbana 251 

Chapter VII 
7 Brahmanasamyutta 
Connected Discourses with Brahmins 

I. The Arahants 

1(1) Dhananjani 254 

2 (2) Abuse 255 

3 (3) Asurindaka 257 

4 (4) Bilahgika 258 

5 (5) Ahimsaka 258 

6 (6) Tangle 259 

7 (7) Suddhika 260 

8 (8) Aggika 260 

9 (9) Sundarika 262 

10 (10) Many Daughters 264 




66 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



II. The Lay Followers 

11 (1) Kasi Bharadvaja 266 

12 (2) Udaya 268 

13 (3) Devahita 269 

14 (4) The Affluent One 271 

15 (5) Manatthaddha 272 

16 (6) Paccanika 274 

17 (7) Navakammika 272 

18 (8) The Wood Gatherers 275 

19 (9) The Mother Supporter 277 

20 (10) The Mendicant 277 

21 (11) Saiigarava 278 

22 (12) Khomadussa 279 

Chapter VIII 
8 Vafigisasamyutta 

Connected Discourses with Vangisa 

1 Renounced 280 

2 Discontent 281 

3 Well Behaved 282 

4 Ananda 283 

5 Well Spoken 284 

6 Sariputta 285 

7 Pavarana 286 

8 Over a Thousand 288 

9 Kondanha 290 

10 Moggallana 291 

11 Gaggara 292 

12 Vangisa 292 

Chapter IX 
9 Vanasamyutta 

Connected Discourses in the Woods 

1 Seclusion 294 

2 Rousing 295 

3 Kassapagotta 296 

4 A Number 296 

5 Ananda 297 




T able of Contents 67 



6 Anuruddha 297 

7 Nagadatta 298 

8 Family Mistress 299 

9 Vajjian Prince (or Vesali) 300 

10 Reciting 300 

11 Unwholesome Thoughts 301 

12 Noon 301 

13 Loose in Sense Faculties 302 

14 The Thief of Scent 303 

Chapter X 
10 Yakkhasamyutta 

Connected Discourses with Yakkhas 

1 Indaka 305 

2 Sakkanamaka 305 

3 Suciloma 306 

4 Manibhadda 307 

5 Sanu 308 

6 Piyahkara 309 

7 Punabbasu 310 

8 Sudatta 311 

9 Sukka (1) 313 

10 Sukka (2) 313 

11 Cira 314 

12 Alavaka 314 



Chapter XI 
11 Sakkasamyutta 

Connected Discourses with Sakka 

I. The First Subchapter (Suvira) 

1 (1) Suvira 317 
2(2)Susima 318 

3 (3) The Crest of the Standard 319 

4 (4) Vepacitti (or Patience) 321 

5 (5) Victory by Well-Spoken Counsel 323 

6 (6) The Bird Nests 325 

7 (7) One Should Not Transgress 325 

8 (8) Verocana, Lord of the Asuras 326 




68 I. The Book with Verses (Saxathavagga) 

9 (9) Seers in a Forest 327 

10 (10) Seers by the Ocean 327 

II. The Second Subchapter (The Seven Vows) 

11 (1) Vows 329 

12 (2) Sakka's Names 329 

13 (3) Mahali 330 
14 (4) Poor 331 

15 (5) A Delightful Place 332 

16 (6) Bestowing Alms 332 

17 (7) Veneration of the Buddha 333 

18 (8) The Worship of Householders (or Sakka's 

Worship (1)) 333 

19 (9) The Worship of the Teacher (or Sakka's 

Worship (2)) 335 

20 (10) The Worship of the Saiigha (or Sakka's 

Worship (3)) 336 

III. The Third Subchapter (Sakka Pentad) 

21 (1) Having Slain 337 

22 (2) Ugly 338 

23 (3) Magic 339 

24 (4) Transgression 339 

25 (5) Nonanger 340 



Notes 341 




Introduction 



The Sagathavagga is so called because all the suttas in this book 
contain verses, at least one, usually more. The Vagga is divided 
into eleven samyuttas containing a total of 271 suttas. Most of 
these samyuttas are subdivided into several vaggas, usually of 
ten suttas each. In four samyuttas (3, 4, 6, 11), the last vagga con- 
tains only five suttas, half the standard number, and these are 
therefore called "pentads" (paficaka). Four samyuttas are not 
divided into separate vaggas (5, 8, 9, 10), and thus may be con- 
sidered as made up of a single vagga. I have numbered the sut- 
tas consecutively within each samyutta starting from 1, with the 
number within the vagga given in parenthesis. The recent PTS 
edition of the Sagathavagga (Ee2) numbers the suttas consecu- 
tively through the entire collection, from 1 to 271. 

The number of verses varies from edition to edition, depend- 
ing on differences in readings and on alternative ways of group- 
ing padas or lines into stanzas; for a sequence of twelve padas 
might be divided into either two stanzas of six lines each or 
three stanzas of four lines each. Ee2 is the only one that numbers 
the verses, and this edition has 945; of these I have not included 
three (vv. 70, 138, 815), for reasons explained in the notes 
(nn. 53, 96, 573). Many of the verses occur several times within 
the Samyutta Nikaya, usually within the Sagathavagga, occa- 
sionally elsewhere, as can be seen from Concordance 1 (A). The 
verses also have extensive parallels elsewhere in the Pali Canon. 
A large number are shared by such texts as the Thera- and 
Therigathas, the Suttanipata, the Dhammapada, and the Jatakas, 
as well as by the other Nikayas. They are also quoted in para- 
canonical texts such as the Milindapahha, the Petakopadesa, and 



69 




70 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



the N ettippakarana. A significant number have parallels in the 
vast corpus of non-Pali Indian Buddhist literature, such as the 
Patna and Gandhari Dharmapadas, the Udanavarga, the Maha- 
vastu, and even the much later Yogacarabhumi. All these "exter- 
nal" parallels are shown in Concordance 1 (B). Doubtlessly some 
of the verses were not original to the suttas in our collection but 
belonged to the vast, free floating mass of Buddhist didactic 
verse which the compilers of the texts pinned down to specific 
contexts by providing them with narrative settings such as those 
found in the Sagathavagga. 

Of the eleven samyuttas in this Vagga, eight revolve around 
encounters between the Buddha (or his disciples) and beings 
from other planes of existence. Since we will repeatedly run 
across beings from nonhuman planes in the other Vaggas too, a 
short summary of the Buddhist picture of the sentient universe 
will help us to identify them and to understand their place in 
early Buddhist cosmology. (See Table 3, which gives a visual 
representation of this cosmology.) 



Table 3 

The Thirty-One Planes of Existence according to 
Traditional Theravada Cosmology 
(see CMA 5:3-7) 



The Formless Realm (4 planes) 

(31) Base of neither-perception-nor-nonperception 

(30) Base of nothingness 

(29) Base of infinity of consciousness 

(28) Base of infinity of space 



The Form Realm (16 planes) 

Fourth jhana plane: Five Pure Abodes 
(27) Akanittha realm 
(26) Clear-sighted realm 
(25) Beautiful realm 
(24) Serene realm 
(23) Durable realm 




Introduction 71 



Ordinary fourth jhana plane 
(22) Nonpercipient beings 
(21) Devas of great fruit 

Third jhana plane 

(20) Devas of steady aura 
(19) Devas of measureless aura 
(18) Devas of minor aura 

Second jhana plane 

(17) Devas of streaming radiance 
(16) Devas of measureless radiance 
(15) Devas of minor radiance 

First jhana plane 

(14) Mahabrahma realm 
(13) Brahma's ministers 
(12) Brahma's assembly 



The Sense-Sphere Realm (11 planes) 

Seven good destinations 
Six sense-sphere heavenly realms 
(11) Paranimmitavasavatti devas 
(10) Nimmanarati devas 
(9) Tusita devas 
(8) Yama devas 
(7) Tavatimsa devas 
(6) Four Great Kings 
Human realm 

(5) Human realm 

Four bad destinations 
(4) Host of asuras 
(3) Domain of ghosts 
(2) Animal realm 
(1) Hell realms 



The early Buddhist texts envisage a universe with three princi- 
pal tiers subdivided into numerous planes. The lowest tier is the 




72 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



sense-sphere realm (kamadhatu), so called because the driving 
force within this realm is sensual desire. The sense-sphere realm 
(in the oldest cosmology) contains ten planes: the hells (niraya), 
planes of extreme torment; the animal realm ( tiracchanayoni ); the 
domain of petas or ghosts (pettivisaya) , shade-like spirits subject 
to various kinds of misery; the human realm ( manussaloka ); and 
six sense-sphere heavens ( sagga ) inhabited by the devas, celestial 
beings who enjoy far greater happiness, beauty, power, and 
glory than we know in the human realm. Later tradition adds 
the asuravisaya, the domain of titans or antigods, to the bad 
destinations, though in the Nikayas they are depicted as occupy- 
ing a region adjacent to the Tavatimsa heaven, from which they 
often launch invasions against the devas. 

Above the sense-sphere realm is the form realm ( rupadhatu ), 
where gross material form has vanished and only the subtler 
kinds of form remain. The realm is divided into four main tiers 
with several planes in each. The inhabitants of these planes are 
also devas, though to distinguish them from the gods of the sen- 
suous heavens they are usually called brahmas. The life spans in 
the various brahma planes increase exponentially, being far 
longer than those in the sensuous heavens, and sensual desire 
has largely abated. The prevalent mode of experience here is 
meditative rather than sensory, as these planes are the ontologi- 
cal counterparts of the four jhanas or meditative absorptions. 
They include the five "Pure Abodes" ( suddhavasa ), spheres of 
rebirth accessible only to nonretumers. 

Beyond the form realm lies an even more exalted sphere of 
existence called the formless realm ( arupadhatu ). The beings in 
this realm consist solely of mind, without a material basis, as 
physical form is here entirely absent. The four planes that make 
up this realm, successively more subtle, are the ontological 
counterparts of the four aruppas or formless meditative attain- 
ments, after which they are named: the base of the infinity of 
space, the base of the infinity of consciousness, the base of noth- 
ingness, and the base of neither-perception-nor-nonperception. 

The suttas often compress this elaborate cosmology into a sim- 
pler scheme of five destinations ( pahcagati ): the hells, the animal 
realm, the domain of ghosts, the human realm, and the deva 
world. The last includes all the many deva planes of the three 
realms. The first three are called the plane of misery (apaya- 




Introduction 73 



bhumi), the nether world ( vinipata ), or the bad destinations ( dug - 
gati); the human realm and the deva planes are collectively 
called the good destinations ( sugati ). Rebirth into the plane of 
misery is the fruit of unwholesome kamma, rebirth into the 
good destinations the fruit of wholesome kamma. Beyond all 
realms and planes of existence is the unconditioned, Nibbana, 
the final goal of the Buddha's teaching. 

L Devatasamyutta 

Devata is an abstract noun based on deva, but in the Nikayas it is 
invariably used to denote particular celestial beings, just as the 
English word "deity," originally an abstract noun meaning the 
divine nature, is normally used to denote the supreme God of 
theistic religions or an individual god or goddess of polytheistic 
faiths. Though the word is feminine, the gender comes from the 
abstract suffix -td and does not necessarily mean the devatas are 
female. The texts rarely indicate their sex, though it seems they 
can be of either sex and perhaps sometimes beyond sexual dif- 
ferentiation. 

For Buddhism the devas are not immortal gods exercising a 
creative role in the cosmic process. They are simply elevated 
beings, blissful and luminous, who had previously dwelt in the 
human world but had been reborn in the celestial planes as the 
fruit of their meritorious deeds. With rare exceptions they are 
just as much in bondage to delusion and desire as human 
beings, and they equally stand in need of guidance from the 
Enlightened One. The Buddha is the "teacher of devas and 
humans" (satthd devamanussanam), and though squarely estab- 
lished in the human world he towers above the most exalted 
deities by reason of his supreme wisdom and perfect purity. 

The devas usually come to visit the Buddha in the deep still- 
ness of the night, while the rest of the world lies immersed in 
sleep. The Devatasamyutta gives us a record of their conversa- 
tions. Sometimes the devas come to recite verses in praise of the 
Master, sometimes to ask questions, sometimes to request 
instruction, sometimes to win approval of their views, some- 
times even to challenge or taunt him. On approaching they 
almost always bow down to him in homage, for the Buddha is 
their spiritual and moral superior. Not to bow down to him, as 




74 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 

some devas do (see 1:35), is provocative, a deliberate withhold- 
ing of due respect. 

Each of the four Nikayas opens with a sutta of deep signifi- 
cance. Though the first sutta of SN is very short, it is rich in 
implications. In this case a devata comes to the Buddha to ask 
how he "crossed the flood," that is, how he attained deliverance, 
and in his reply the Buddha points to the "middle way" as the 
key to his attainment. This answer conveys the essential spirit of 
the Dhamma, which avoids all extremes in views, attitudes, and 
conduct. The commentary draws out the ramifications of the 
Buddha's statement with a list of seven extremes, philosophical 
and practical, transcended by the middle way. 

The following suttas in this samyutta cover a wide spectrum 
of subjects without any particular logic in their sequence. They 
range from the simple to the profound, from the commonplace 
to the sublime, from the humorous to the stern. The exchanges 
discuss such ethical practices as giving, service to others, and 
noninjury; the difficulties of renunciation and the life of medita- 
tion; the call for earnest effort; the sorrows of human existence 
and the need for deliverance. There are also suttas on the bliss 
and equanimity of the arahant, and a few which touch on his 
transcendental stature. In most suttas the prose portion serves 
no other function than to establish a framework for the conver- 
sation, which eventually falls away leaving only an exchange of 
verses with the speakers' identities understood. But we occa- 
sionally find brief stories, such as that of the female devata who 
tried to seduce the bhikkhu Samiddhi (1:20), or of the "faultfind- 
ing devas" who accused the Buddha of hypocrisy (1:35), or of 
the visit paid to the Buddha by a group of devas when his foot 
was injured by a stone splinter (1:38). 

Usually the personal identity of the devata is not revealed. An 
exception is the pair of suttas where the two Kokanada sisters, 
daughters of the weather god Pajjunna, visit the Buddha and 
praise him and his Dhamma (1:39^10). Sometimes verses spoken 
by an anonymous deity recur elsewhere with the identity speci- 
fied; for example, v. 22 reappears as v. 461, ascribed to Mara the 
Evil One; w. 156-59 reappear as w. 312-15, ascribed to Anatha- 
pindika, the celestial reincarnation of the great philanthropist. It 
is also rare for the suttas to assign the devas to particular realms, 
but there are exceptions, such as those on the "extolling of the 




Introduction 75 



good" host of devas ( satullapakayikd deva ; 1:31-34, etc.) and the 
one on the devas of the Pure Abodes ( suddhavasakayika deva-, 
1:37). The commentary, cited in the notes, often provides more 
background information. 

When the devata does not ask a question but voices an opin- 
ion, a contrast is usually established between the viewpoint of 
the deity, generally valid from within his or her limited hori- 
zons, and the viewpoint of the Buddha, who sees things far 
beyond the ken of the devas (see, e.g., vv. 3-6). Sometimes a 
group of devas express their opinions, which the Buddha sur- 
passes with his own more profound contribution (vv. 78-84, 
95-101). In several suttas the verses are not spoken in the con- 
text of a conversation but express the personal views of the 
deva, which the Buddha tacitly endorses (w. 136-40), and two 
verses are simple paeans of praise to the Blessed One (w. 147, 
148). Beginning with v. 183, the suttas assume a standard for- 
mat, with the devas posing a series of riddles which the Buddha 
answers to their satisfaction. A memorable example of this is the 
riddle about the type of killing that the Buddha approves of, to 
which the answer is the killing of anger (vv. 223-24). In one 
sutta we find a gentle touch of humour: a devata has asked the 
Buddha a series of questions, apparently mundane in intent, but 
before the Blessed One can reply another devata breaks in and 
gives his own answers, which remain at the mundane level. 
Then the Buddha replies, lifting the dialogue to the transcendent 
plane (w. 229-31). Because of its varied content and the piquan- 
cy of its verses, within the Theravada tradition, at least in Sri 
Lanka, the Devatasamyutta is extremely popular as a source of 
texts to be drawn upon for sermons. 

2. Devaputtasamyutta 

The devaputtas, or "sons of the devas," are young devas newly 
arisen in their respective heavenly planes; devaduhitas, "daugh- 
ters of the devas," are also mentioned in the commentary but 
none appear in this samyutta. The commentary says these 
beings are reborn spontaneously in the laps of the devas. While 
the devatas in the preceding samyutta remain mostly anony- 
mous, the young devas are always identified by name, and it is 
surprising to find that several of them — or at least their verses — 




76 I. The Book with Verses (SagathUvaxga) 



have already appeared in the Devatasamyutta (see 2:3, 4, 16, 19, 
20, 21, 24, 27). This suggests that the dividing line between the 
two classes of deities is not a hard and fast one, just as the divid- 
ing line between an adult and an adolescent is not hard and fast. 
A relatively large proportion of the verses in this chapter focus 
on the monastic training, substantially more than in the Devata- 
samyutta. The texts themselves do not drop any hints as to why 
this should be so; at least there are none that are readily visible. 

Several suttas raise points of special interest from a doctrinal 
perspective. We meet, for example, the young deva Damali who 
thought that the arahant must still "strive without weariness," 
until the Buddha told him that the arahant had completed his 
task and need not strive further (2:5). The commentary says this 
sutta is almost unique in that the Buddha here does not speak in 
praise of effort. Again, we meet Tayana, whose verses on exer- 
tion are applauded by the Blessed One and, the next morning, 
are commended by him to the monks (2:8). The two suttas on 
the capture of the moon god Candima and the sun god Suriya 
include verses that must have functioned as charms for termi- 
nating lunar and solar eclipses (2:9, 10); in Sri Lanka they are 
included in the Maha Pint Pota, "The Great Book of Protection," 
made up of suttas and other chants recited for spiritual and 
physical protection. We also meet Subrahma, whose single verse 
is one of the pithiest expressions in world literature of the 
anguish at the heart of the human condition (2:17). The story of 
Rohitassa, who tried to reach the end of the world by travelling, 
elicits from the Buddha a momentous reply about where the 
world and its end are ultimately to be found (2:26). In this 
samyutta we also meet two young devas named Venhu and Siva 
(at 2:12 and 2:21), who may be early prototypes of the Indian 
gods Visnu and Siva (the Sanskrit forms of their names); our 
text, however, apparently dates from a period before they 
became the chief deities of theistic devotional Hinduism. The 
last sutta in the chapter (2:30) introduces us to a group of young 
devas who were formerly disciples of the Buddha's rivals on the 
Indian scene, Purana Kassapa, Makkhali Gosala, and Nigantha 
Nataputta, teachers whose views had been unequivocally reject- 
ed by the Buddha. It is thus perplexing that their disciples 
should have been reborn in heaven, especially when the first 
two teachers propagated such doctrines as moral anarchism and 




Introduction 77 



fatalism. But the conclusion reached in the sutta is that such 
teachers were as far from the stature of true holy men as the 
jackal is from the lion. 

3. KOSALASAMY UTTA 

This chapter introduces us to King Pasenadi of Kosala. 
According to the Buddhist texts, Pasenadi was deeply devoted 
to the Buddha and often sought his counsel, though there is no 
record of him reaching any stage of awakening (and thus 
medieval Sri Lankan tradition holds that he was a bodhisatta, 
who does not attain enlightenment so that he might continue 
fulfilling the perfect virtues that culminate in Buddhahood). 
Pasenadi had been led to the Buddha by his wife. Queen 
Mallika, whose devotion to the Master he had previously resented. 
The story of how Mallika convinced him of the Buddha's wis- 
dom is related in MN No. 87; MN No. 89 gives us a moving 
account of the king's last meeting with the Master when they 
were both in their eightieth year. The first sutta of the Kosala- 
samyutta apparently records Pasenadi's first meeting with the 
Blessed One, after his confidence had been aroused by Mallika's 
ruse. Here the Buddha is described as young, and when the king 
questions the claim that such a youthful ascetic can be perfectly 
enlightened, the Buddha replies with a series of verses that dis- 
pels the king's doubts and inspires him to go for refuge. 

Unlike the first two samyuttas, the present one employs sub- 
stantial prose backgrounds to the verses, and often the stanzas 
merely restate metrically the moral of the Buddha's discourse. 
Though the topics discussed are not especially profound, they 
are almost all relevant to the busy lay person faced with the dif- 
ficult challenge of living a moral life in the world. Especially 
noteworthy is the stress they lay on the need to adhere unflinch- 
ingly to the path of rectitude amidst the world's temptations. 
Several suttas (3:4, 5) show how easy it is to fall away from 
righteous standards, especially in an age like the Buddha's 
when, as in our own time, stiff competition for wealth, position, 
and power was driving hallowed ethical values out of circula- 
tion. The remedy against temptation is diligence (appamada), and 
when the Buddha extols diligence to the king the word does not 
mean, as it does in a monastic context, constant devotion to 




78 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



meditation, but persistence in the performance of meritorious 
deeds. For a man like Pasenadi, a happy rebirth rather than 
Nibbana is the immediate goal. 

The king's conversation with Mallika, in which they both 
admit they cherish themselves more than anyone else (3:8), elic- 
its from the Buddha a verse which gives an ethical slant to a 
metaphysical thesis found in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad, also 
occurring in a conversation between husband and wife, that of 
all things the self is the most precious. This raises the interesting 
question whether the close correspondence between the two is 
sheer coincidence (not impossible) or the result of a deliberate 
reworking by the Buddha of the old Upanisad. On another occa- 
sion we see the king display lack of acumen in his assessment of 
ascetics (3:11) — perhaps a hint that his commitment to the 
Dhamma was not unwavering — and the Buddha's response 
offers astute counsel on how to judge a person's character. 

In this samyutta we even find, from the Master's golden lips, 
enlightened advice for losing weight (3:12), while two other 
suttas provide an historical perspective on the conflict between 
Kosala and Magadha, with reflections on war and peace 
(3:14-15). Of timely interest is the Buddha's verse explaining to 
the king that a woman can turn out better than a man (3:16). 
Elsewhere the Buddha rejects the idea, propagated by the brah- 
mins, that birth is an important criterion of spiritual worth, 
stressing instead that the true marks of spiritual nobility are eth- 
ical purity and wisdom (3:24). 

A theme that recurs throughout this samyutta is the inevitabil- 
ity of death and the inexorable operation of the law of kamma, 
which ensures that good and bad actions meet with due recom- 
pense. Beings pass from bright states to dark ones and from 
dark states to bright ones depending on their actions (3:21). All 
that we take with us when we die are our good and bad deeds, 
and thus we should be sure to accumulate merits, for in the next 
world these are "the support for living beings" (3:4, 20, 22). 
Among several texts on the inevitability of death, the most 
memorable is the last sutta in the chapter (3:25), with its startling 
parable of the mountains advancing from all quarters, crushing 
everything in their way. 




Introduction 79 



4. Marasamyutta 

Mara is the Evil One of Buddhism, the Tempter and Lord of 
Sensuality bent on distracting aspirants from the path to libera- 
tion and keeping them trapped in the cycle of repeated birth and 
death. Sometimes the texts use the word "Mara" in a metaphori- 
cal sense, as representing the inward psychological causes of 
bondage such as craving and lust (22:63-65) and the external 
things to which we become bound, particularly the five aggre- 
gates themselves (23:11-12). But it is evident that the thought 
world of the suttas does not conceive Mara only as a personifica- 
tion of humankind's moral frailty, but sees him as a real evil 
deity out to frustrate the efforts of those intent on winning the 
ultimate goal. The proof of this lies in his pursuit of the Buddha 
and the arahants after their enlightenment, which would not be 
credible if he were conceived of merely as a psychological pro- 
jection. 

The Marasamyutta opens in the vicinity of the Bodhi Tree 
soon after the Buddha has attained the supreme enlightenment. 
Here Mara challenges the Blessed One's claim to have reached 
the goal. He taunts him for abandoning the path of self -mortifi- 
cation (4:1), tries to frighten him by assuming horrific shapes 
(4:2), and seeks to break his equanimity by displaying beautiful 
and hideous forms (4:3). For the Buddha to triumph in these 
contests he need only call Mara's bluff, to announce that he 
knows the adversary before him is none other than the Evil One. 
Then Mara must disappear, frustrated and mournful. 

Mara also appears as the cynic who denies that mortals can 
attain perfect purity (4:4, 15). On several occasions he tries to 
confound the monks while they are listening to the Buddha 
speak, but each time the Buddha calls his number (4:16, 17, 19). 
On another occasion Mara tries to tempt the Master with the 
lure of worldly power, but the Buddha staunchly rejects this 
(4:20). Especially impressive is the Godhika Sutta (4:23), where 
the bhikkhu Godhika, afflicted with an illness that obstructs his 
meditative progress, plans to take his own life. Mara presents 
himself before the Buddha, pleading with him to discourage his 
disciple from such folly, but the Master extols devotion to the 
goal even at the cost of life. At the end of the sutta Mara is 
searching vainly for the rebirth-consciousness of Godhika, 




80 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



unaware that the monk had attained Nibbana and expired “with 
consciousness unestablished." 

The last two suttas in this samyutta take us back to the site of 
the enlightenment. Here we see first Mara and then Mara's three 
daughters — Tanha, Arati, and Raga (Craving, Discontent, and 
Lusting) — trying to find a point of vulnerability in the newly 
enlightened Buddha, but their efforts are in vain and they must 
depart disappointed (4:24, 25). 

5. BhikkhunIsamyutta 

The Bhikkhunisamyutta is a compilation of ten short suttas in 
mixed prose and verse, undivided into vaggas. The protagonists 
are all bhikkhunis, Buddhist nuns. Though several of its thirty- 
seven verses have parallels in the Therigatha (mentioned in the 
notes and Concordance 1 (B)), a substantial number are unique 
to this collection, while often the variations in roughly parallel 
versions are themselves of intrinsic interest. At least one nun in 
the Bhikkhunisamyutta, Vajira, does not appear at all in the 
Therigatha, while the case of another nun, Sela, is problematic. 
A comparison between the two collections also brings to light 
some noteworthy differences in the ascription of authorship. 
Since SN and the Therigatha were evidently transmitted by dif- 
ferent lines of reciters, it was only too easy for verses to break off 
from their original narrative setting and merge with a different 
background story connecting them to a different author. 

All the ten suttas are constructed according to the same pat- 
tern, a direct confrontation between Mara and an individual 
nun. This structure probably accounts for the placement of the 
Bhikkhunisamyutta immediately after the Marasamyutta. Each 
sutta of this collection begins with a nun going off by herself to 
pass the day in solitary meditation. Then Mara approaches her 
with a challenge — a provocative question or a taunt — intending 
to make her fall away from concentration. What Mara has failed 
to realize is that each of these nuns is an arahant who has seen 
so deeply into the truth of the Dhamma that she is utterly inac- 
cessible to his wiles. Far from being flustered by Mara's chal- 
lenge, the nun promptly guesses her adversary's identity and 
meets his challenge with a sharp retort. 

In a dialogue that brings together the Lord of Sensuality with 




Introduction 81 



a solitary nun one might expect each of Mara's overtures to be 
aimed at sexual seduction. This, however, is so only in several 
suttas. The actual themes of the discourses vary widely and 
expose us to a broad range of perspectives on the attitudes and 
insights of the renunciant life. The contrast between the allure- 
ment and misery of sensual pleasures is the theme of 5:1, 4, and 

5. In all three cases the nuns sharply rebuke Mara with verses 
that reveal their utter indifference to his solicitations. 

Mara's dialogue with Soma (5:2) voices the ancient Indian 
prejudice that women are endowed with "mere two-fingered 
wisdom'' and thus cannot attain Nibbana. Soma's rejoinder is a 
forceful reminder that enlightenment does not depend on gen- 
der but on the mind's capacity for concentration and wisdom, 
qualities accessible to any human being who earnestly seeks to 
penetrate the truth. In 5:3, Mara approaches Kisagotami, the 
heroine of the well-known parable of the mustard seed, trying to 
arouse her matern al instincts to beget another son. His challenge 
thus touches on sensuality only indirectly, his primary appeal 
being aimed at the feminine desire for children. 

The last two suttas are philosophical masterpieces, compress- 
ing into a few tight stanzas insights of enormous depth and 
wide implications. When Mara challenges Sela with a question 
on the origins of personal existence, she replies with a masterly 
poem that condenses the whole teaching of dependent origina- 
tion into three four-line stanzas adorned with an illuminating 
simile (5:9). He poses a similar problem to Vajira, who answers 
with a stunning exposition of the teaching of nonself, illustrating 
the composite nature of personal identity with the famous simile 
of the chariot (5:10). 

Though set against a mythological background in an ancient 
world whose customs and norms seem so remote from our own, 
these poems of the ancient nuns still speak to us today through 
their sheer simplicity and uncompromising honesty. They need 
no ornamentation or artifice to convey their message, for they 
are sufficient in themselves to startle us with the clarity of 
unadorned truth. 

6. Brahmas amyutt a 

Brahma was the supreme deity of early Brahmanism, conceived 




82 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 

as the creator of the universe and venerated by the brahmins 
with sacrifices and rituals. Occasionally this conception of 
Brahma persists in the Buddhist canon, though as a target of 
criticism and satire rather than as an article of faith. In such con- 
texts the word "brahma" is used as a proper name, often aug- 
mented to Mahabrahma, "Brahma the Great." The Buddha rein- 
terpreted the idea of brahma and transformed the single, all- 
powerful deity of the brahmins into a class of exalted gods 
dwelling in the form realm ( rupadhatu ) far above the sense- 
sphere heavens. Their abode is referred to as "the brahma 
world," of which there are many, of varying dimensions and 
degrees of hegemony. Within their realm the brahmas dwell in 
companies, and Mahabrahma (or sometimes a brahma of a more 
personal name) is seen as the ruler of that company, complete 
with ministers and assembly. Like all sentient beings, the 
brahmas are impermanent, still tied to the round of rebirth, 
though sometimes they forget this and imagine themselves 
immortal. 

The path to rebirth in the brahma world is mastery over the 
jhanas, each of which is ontologically attuned to a particular 
level of the form realm (see Table 3). Sometimes the Buddha 
mentions the four "divine abodes" ( brahmavihara ) as the means 
to rebirth in the brahma world. These are the "immeasurable" 
meditations on lovingkindness, compassion, altruistic joy, and 
equanimity ( metta , karuna, mudita, upekkha). 

The Nikayas offer an ambivalent evaluation of the brahmas, as 
can be seen from the present samyutta. On the one hand, certain 
brahmas are depicted as valiant protectors of the Buddha's dis- 
pensation and devoted followers of the Master. But precisely 
because of their longevity and elevated stature in the cosmic 
hierarchy, the brahmas are prone to delusion and conceit; 
indeed, they sometimes imagine they are all-powerful creators 
and rulers of the universe. Perhaps this dual evaluation reflects 
the Buddha's ambivalent attitude towards the brahmins: admi- 
ration for the ancient spiritual ideals of the brahmin life (as pre- 
served in the expressions brahmacariya and brahmavihara) cou- 
pled with rejection of the pretensions of the contemporary brah- 
mins to superiority based on birth and lineage. 

The most eminent of the brahmas devoted to the Buddha is 
Brahma Sahampati, who appears several times in SN. Soon after 




Introduction 83 



the enlightenment he descends from his divine abode and reap- 
pears before the Blessed One to beseech him to teach the 
Dhamma to the world (6:1). He applauds the Buddha's rever- 
ence for the Dhamma (6:2), extols an arahant bhikkhu on alms 
round (6:3), reproaches the evil Devadatta (6:12), and shows up 
again at the Buddha's parinibbana, where he recites a verse of 
eulogy (6:15). He will also appear in other samyuttas (at 11:17; 
22:80; 47:18, 43; and 48:57). 

Brahmas of the deluded type are epitomized by Brahma Baka, 
who imagined himself eternal and had to be divested of this 
illusion by the Master (6:4). On another occasion, an unnamed 
brahma imagined he was superior to the arahants, and the 
Buddha and four great disciples visited his realm to make him 
alter his views (6:5). We also witness a contest between a negli- 
gent brahma, stiff with pride, and two colleagues of his, devo- 
tees of the Buddha, who sweep away his illusions (6:6). The 
penultimate sutta shows a disciple of the past Buddha Sikhi 
awing a whole assembly of proud brahmas with his display of 
psychic powers (6:14). This samyutta also relates the sad story of 
the monk Kokalika, a cohort of Devadatta, who tried to defame 
the chief disciples Sariputta and Moggallana and had to reap the 
kammic result as a rebirth in hell (6:9-10). The last sutta in this 
collection, included here only because of Brahma Sahampati's 
single verse, is a parallel of the death scene in the long 
Mahaparinibbana Sutta of the Digha Nikaya. 

7. BRAHMANASAMYUTTA 

This samyutta, recording the Buddha's conversations with brah- 
mins, contains two vaggas, each with a different unifying theme. 
In the first all the brahmins who come to the Buddha, often 
angry (7:1-4) or disdainful (7:7-9), are so deeply stirred by his 
words that they ask for ordination into the Sangha and "not 
long afterwards" attain arahantship. These suttas display the 
Buddha as the incarnation of patience and peace, capable of 
working, in those who would attack him, the miracle of trans- 
formation simply by his unshakable equanimity and impeccable 
wisdom. In this vagga we also see how the Buddha assessed the 
brahmin claim to superior status based on birth. He here inter- 
prets the word "brahmin" by way of its original meaning, as a 




84 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 

holy man, and on this basis redefines the true brahmin as the 
arahant. The three Vedas which the brahmins revered and dili- 
gently studied are replaced by the three vijjas or true knowl- 
edges possessed by the arahant: knowledge of past births, of the 
laws of kammic retribution, and of the destruction of the taints 
(7:8). The last sutta adds a touch of humour, still recognizable 
today, by depicting the contrast between the oppressive cares of 
the household life and the untrammelled freedom of the life of 
renunciation (7:10). 

In the second vagga the brahmins come to challenge the 
Buddha in still different ways, and again the Buddha rises to the 
occasion with his inexhaustible wit and wisdom. In this vagga, 
however, though the Buddha inspires in his antagonists a newly 
won faith, the brahmin converts do not become monks but declare 
themselves lay followers "who have gone for refuge for life." 

8. VainjgIsasamyutta 

The bhikkhu Vangisa was declared by the Buddha the foremost 
disciple of those gifted with inspirational speech ( patibhana - 
vantanam, at AN I 24,21). This title accrued to him on account of 
his skill in composing spontaneous verse. His verses make up 
the longest chapter in the Theragatha, whose seventy-one verses 
(Th 1209-79) closely correspond with those in the present 
samyutta but lack the prose frameworks. Another poem by 
Vangisa, found at Sn II, 12, is not included in the present compi- 
lation but does have a counterpart in the Theragatha. 

The verses of Vangisa are not mere metrical aphorisms (as arc 
so many verses in this collection) but skilfully wrought poetic 
compositions that can well claim an honoured place in early 
Indian poetry. They also reveal, with unabashed honesty, the tri- 
als and temptations which their author faced in his career as z 
monk. Having an aesthetic bent of character and a natura: 
appreciation of sensuous beauty, Vangisa must have gone 
through a difficult struggle in his early days as a monk adjusting 
to the strict discipline required of a bhikkhu, with its training ir 
sense restraint and vigilant control of the mind. The early sutta; 
in this chapter (8:1-4) speak of his battle against sensual lust, hi; 
susceptibility to the charms of the opposite sex, and his firn 
determination not to succumb but to continue bravely along th< 




Introduction 85 



path laid down by his Master. They also tell of his proclivity to 
pride, no doubt based on his natural talent as a poet, and of his 
endeavour to subdue this flaw of character. Later in his monas- 
tic career, apparently after he gained a greater degree of self- 
mastery, he often extolled the Buddha in verse, and on one occa- 
sion the Blessed One requested him to compose extemporane- 
ous verses (8:8). In other poems he praises the great disciples 
Sariputta, Moggallana, and Kondahna (8:6, 9, 10). The last poem 
in the samyutta, partly autobiographical, concludes with a dec- 
laration that the author has become an arahant equipped with 
the three true knowledges and other spiritual powers (8:12). 

9. Vanasamyutta 

This samyutta consists of fourteen suttas most of which are con- 
structed according to a stereotyped pattern. A bhikkhu is living 
alone in a woodland thicket, where he should be meditating 
ardently, but human weakness gets the better of him and causes 
him to swerve from his religious duties. Then a devata dwelling 
in the thicket takes compassion on him and chides him in verse, 
seeking to reawaken his sense of urgency. Apparently these 
devatas are not celestial beings, like those we meet in the 
Devatasamyutta, but dryads or fairies, and they seem to be fem- 
inine. On a few occasions the devata errs in her assessment of 
the bhikkhu's behaviour. Thus in 9:2 the devata comes to 
reproach the bhikkhu for taking a nap, unaware he has already 
attained arahantship, and in 9:8 for associating too closely with a 
woman, again unaware the bhikkhu is an arahant (according to 
the commentary). In 9:6, a devata from the Tavatimsa heaven 
tries to persuade the Venerable Anuruddha to aspire for rebirth 
in her realm, but he declares that he has ended the process of 
rebirth and will never take another existence. The last sutta in 
the chapter (9:14) also occurs in the Jatakas, interestingly with 
the Bodhisatta in the role played here by the bhikkhu. 

10. Yakkhasamyutta 

The yakkhas are fierce spirits inhabiting remote areas such as 
forests, hills, and abandoned caves. They are depicted as of 
hideous mien and wrathful temperament, but when given offer- 




86 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



ings and shown respect they become benign and may protect 
people rather than harm them. Many of the shrines that dotted 
the North Indian countryside were built to honour the yakkhas 
and secure their favours. Though living in misery they have the 
potential for awakening and can attain the paths and fruits oi 
the spiritual life. 

The suttas in this chapter cover a wide range of topics. Whal 
unites them is not so much the content of the verses but theii 
propagational function in showing the Buddha as the invincible 
sage who, by his skilful means, can tame and transform even the 
most violent and fearsome ogres, such as Suciloma (10:3) and 
Alavaka (10:12). The samyutta also includes two charming tales 
of female yakkhas, famished spirits haunting the outskirts ol 
Jeta's Grove, who are so deeply moved by the Buddha's ser- 
mons and the chanting of the monks that they turn over a new 
leaf and become pious lay devotees (10:6, 7). In this samyutta 
too we find the story of Anathapindika's first meeting with the 
Buddha, which was abetted by friendly advice from a benevo- 
lent yakkha (10:8). In three suttas the yakkhas speak verses in 
praise of bhikkhunis (10:9-11). 

11. Sakkasamyutta 

In the early Buddhist pantheon, Sakka is the ruler of the devas 
in the Tavatimsa heaven and also a follower of the Buddha. A 
long conversation between him and the Buddha, culminating in 
his attainment of stream-entry, is told in the Sakkapanha Sutta 
(DN No. 20). This samyutta does not report the Buddha's own 
encounters with Sakka, but gives (in the Buddha's words) 
accounts of Sakka's deeds and conversations. The suttas are thus 
presented as fables, but fables which always embody a moral 
message. The samyutta also includes the famous Dhajagga Sutta 
(11:3), in which the Buddha commends to the monks recollec- 
tion of the Three Jewels — the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the 
Sangha — as an antidote to fear. 

In Buddhist legend the Tavatimsa devas are perpetually being 
attacked by the asuras, the titans, beings of great physical 
prowess and violent ambition who seek to conquer them and 
take control of their domain. The Sakkasamyutta repeatedly pits 
Sakka in struggle against the leaders of the asuras, Vepacitti and 




Introduction 87 



Verocana. The two sides can be read as symbolizing alternative 
political philosophies. The asura leaders favour rule by force 
and retaliation against enemies; they rationalize aggression and 
extol the ethic of "might makes right." Sakka, in contrast, stands 
for rule by righteousness, patience towards aggressors, and the 
compassionate treatment of wrongdoers (11:4, 5, 8). Sakka and 
the devas honour sages and holy men, the asuras scorn them, 
and thus the sages help the devas but curse the asuras (11:9, 10). 

In this samyutta Sakka appears as the ideal lay devotee. He 
earned his place as ruler of the devas, while he was still a human 
being, by fulfilling seven vows which embody the standards of 
the virtuous householder (11:11). His understanding of the 
Buddha's excellence is inferior to Brahma Sahampati's (11:17), 
but in three suttas he eloquently proclaims the reasons for his 
devotion to the Buddha, the Sangha, and even devout house- 
holders (11:18-20). In the last three suttas, the Buddha holds up 
Sakka's patience and forgiveness as a model for the bhikkhus 
(11:23-25). 




[1] <1> Part I: The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



Homage to the Blessed One, 
the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One 

Chapter I 

1 Devatasamyutta 

Connected Discourses with Devatas 



I. A Reed 



1 (1) Crossing the Blood 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. 
Then, when the night had advanced, a certain devata of stun- 
ning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's Grove, approached 
the Blessed One. Having approached, he paid homage to the 
Blessed One, stood to one side, and said to him: 

"How, dear sir, did you cross the flood?" 1 

"By not halting, friend, and by not straining I crossed the 
flood. "2 

"But how is it, dear sir, that by not halting and by not strain- 
ing you crossed the flood?" 

"When I came to a standstill, friend, then I sank; but when I 
struggled, then I got swept away. It is in this way, friend, that by 
not halting and by not straining I crossed the flood." 3 <2> 

[The devata:] 

1 "After a long time at last I see 
A brahmin who is fully quenched. 

Who by not halting, not straining. 

Has crossed over attachment to the world." 4 



89 




90 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



This is what that devata said. 5 The Teacher approved. Then 
that devata, thinking, "The Teacher has approved of me," paid 
homage to the Blessed One and, keeping him on the right, dis- 
appeared right there. [2] 



2 (2) Emancipation 

<3> At Savatthi. Then, when the night had advanced, a certain 
devata of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's Grove, 
approached the Blessed One. Having approached, he paid hom- 
age to the Blessed One, stood to one side, and said to him: 

"Do you know, dear sir, emancipation, release, seclusion for 
beings?" 6 

"I know, friend, emancipation, release, seclusion for beings." 
"But in what way, dear sir, do you know emancipation, 
release, seclusion for beings?" 

[The Blessed One:] 

2 "By the utter destruction of delight in existence, 7 
By the extinction of perception and consciousness. 

By the cessation and appeasement of feelings: <4> 

It is thus, friend, that I know for beings — 

Emancipation, release, seclusion." 8 

3 (3) Reaching 

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, that devata recited this verse 
in the presence of the Blessed One: 

3 "Life is swept along, short is the life span; 

No shelters exist for one who has reached old age. 

Seeing clearly this danger in death. 

One should do deeds of merit that bring happiness." 9 

[The Blessed One:] 

4 "Life is swept along, short is the life span; 

No shelters exist for one who has reached old age. 

Seeing clearly this danger in death, 

A seeker of peace should drop the world's bait." 10 [3] <5> 




1. Devatasamyutta 91 



4 (4) Time Flies By 

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, that devata recited this verse 
in the presence of the Blessed One: 

5 "Time flies by, the nights swiftly pass; 

The stages of life successively desert us. 11 
Seeing clearly this danger in death, 

One should do deeds of merit that bring happiness." 

[The Blessed One:] 

6 "Time flies by, the nights swiftly pass; 

The stages of life successively desert us. 

Seeing clearly this danger in death, 

A seeker of peace should drop the world's bait." 

5 (5) How Many Must One Cut? 

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, that devata recited this verse 
in the presence of the Blessed One: 

7 "How many must one cut, how many abandon, 

And how many further must one develop? 

When a bhikkhu has surmounted how many ties 
Is he called a crosser of the flood?" 

[The Blessed One:] <6> 

8 "One must cut off five, abandon five, 

And must develop a further five. 

A bhikkhu who has surmounted five ties 
Is called a crosser of the flood." 12 

6 (6) Awake 

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, that devata recited this verse 
in the presence of the Blessed One: 

9 "How many are asleep when [others] are awake? 

How many are awake when [others] sleep? 




92 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



By how many does one gather dust? 

By how many is one purified?" 

[The Blessed One:] 

10 "Five are asleep when [others] are awake; 
Five are awake when [others] sleep. 

By five things one gathers dust, 

By five things one is purified." 13 [4] <7> 



7 (7) Not Penetrated 

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, that devata recited this verse 
in the presence of the Blessed One: 

11 "Those who have not penetrated things. 

Who may be led into others' doctrines. 

Fast asleep, they have not yet awakened: 

It is time for them to awaken." 14 

[The Blessed One:] 

12 "Those who have penetrated things well, 

Who cannot be led into others' doctrines, 

Those awakened ones, having rightly known, 

Fare evenly amidst the uneven." 15 

8 (8) Utterly Muddled 

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, that devata recited this verse 
in the presence of the Blessed One: 

13 "Those who are utterly muddled about things. 

Who may be led into others' doctrines, <8> 

Fast asleep, they have not yet awakened: 

It is time for them to awaken." 

[The Blessed One:] 

14 "Those who aren't muddled about things, 

Who cannot be led into others' doctrines, 

Those awakened ones, having rightly known, 

Fare evenly amidst the uneven." 




1. Devatasamyutta 93 



9(9) One Prone to Conceit 

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, that devata recited this verse 
in the presence of the Blessed One: 

15 "There is no taming here for one fond of conceit. 

Nor is there sagehood for the unconcentrated: 

Though dwelling alone in the forest, heedless, 

One cannot cross beyond the realm of Death." 16 

[The Blessed One:] 

16 "Having abandoned conceit, well concentrated, 

With lofty mind, everywhere released: <9> 

While dwelling alone in the forest, diligent. 

One can cross beyond the realm of Death." 17 [5] 

10 (10) Forest 

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, that devata recited this verse 
in the presence of the Blessed One: 

17 "Those who dwell deep in the forest, 

Peaceful, leading the holy life. 

Eating but a single meal a day: 

Why is their complexion so serene?" 18 

[The Blessed One:] 

18 "They do not sorrow over the past, 

Nor do they hanker for the future. 

They maintain themselves with what is present: 

Hence their complexion is so serene. 

19 "Through hankering for the future, 

Through sorrowing over the past. 

Fools dry up and wither away 
Like a green reed cut down." 




94 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



<10> II. Nandana 

11 (1) Nandana 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. 
There the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: 
"Bhikkhus!" 

“Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said 
this: 

"Once in the past, bhikkhus, a certain devata of the Tavatimsa 
host was revelling in Nandana Grove, <11> supplied and 
endowed with the five cords of celestial sensual pleasure, 
accompanied by a retinue of celestial nymphs. On that occasion 
he spoke this verse: 

20 '"They do not know bliss 
Who have not seen Nandana, 

The abode of the glorious male devas 
Belonging to the host of Thirty.' 19 [6] 

"When this was said, bhikkhus, a certain devata replied to 
that devata in verse: 

21 "'Don't you know, you fool. 

That maxim of the arahants? 

Impermanent are all formations; 

Their nature is to arise and vanish. 

Having arisen, they cease: 

Their appeasement is blissful.'" 20 

12 (2) Delight 

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, that devata recited this verse 
in the presence of the Blessed One: <12> 

22 "One who has sons delights in sons. 

One with cattle delights in cattle. 

Acquisitions truly are a man's delight; 

Without acquisitions one does not delight." 21 




1 . Devatasamyutta 95 



[The Blessed One:] 

23 "One who has sons sorrows over sons, 

One with cattle sorrows over cattle. 
Acquisitions truly are a man's sorrows; 
Without acquisitions one does not sorrow." 



13 (3) None Equal to That for a Son 

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, that devata spoke this verse in 
the presence of the Blessed One: 

24 "There is no affection like that for a son. 

No wealth equal to cattle. 

There is no light like the sun. 

Among the waters the ocean is supreme." 22 

[The Blessed One:] 

25 "There is no affection like that for oneself. 

No wealth equal to grain. 

There is no light like wisdom. 

Among the waters the rain is supreme." <13> 

14 (4) The Khattiya 

26 "The khattiya is the best of bipeds, 

The ox, the best of quadrupeds; 

A maiden is the best of wives, 

The first bom, the best of sons." 23 

27 "The Buddha is the best of bipeds, 

A steed, the best of quadrupeds; 

An obedient woman is the best of wives, 

A dutiful boy, the best of sons." [7] 



15 (5) Murmuring 

28 "When the noon hour sets in 

And the birds have settled down, <14> 
The mighty forest itself murmurs: 

How fearful that appears to me!" 24 




96 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



29 "When the noon hour sets in 

And the birds have settled down, 
The mighty forest itself murmurs: 
How delightful that appears to me!" 



26 (6) Drowsiness and Lethargy 

30 "Drowsiness, lethargy, lazy stretching, <15> 
Discontent, torpor after meals: 

Because of this, here among beings, 

The noble path does not appear." 

31 "Drowsiness, lethargy, lazy stretching. 
Discontent, torpor after meals: 

When one dispels this with energy. 

The noble path is cleared." 25 



27 (7) Difficult to Practise 

32 "The ascetic life is hard to practise 
And hard for the inept to endure. 

For many are the obstructions there 
In which the fool founders." 

33 "How many days can one practise the ascetic life 
If one does not rein in one's mind? 

One would founder with each step 
Under the control of one's intentions. 26 

34 "Drawing in the mind's thoughts 

As a tortoise draws its limbs into its shell, <16> 
Independent, not harassing others, fully quenched, 
A bhikkhu would not blame anyone." 27 

18 (8) A Sense of Shame 

35 "Is there a person somewhere in the world 
Who is restrained by a sense of shame. 

One who draws back from blame 

As a good horse does from the whip?" 28 




1. Devatasamyutta 97 



36 "Few are those restrained by a sense of shame 
Who fare always mindful; 

Few, having reached the end of suffering. 

Fare evenly amidst the uneven." [8] <17 > 

19 (9) A Little Hut 

37 "Don't you have a little hut? 

Don't you have a little nest? 

Don't you have any lines extended? 

Are you free from bondage?" 

38 "Surely I have no little hut. 

Surely I have no little nest, 

Surely I have no lines extended, 

Surely I'm free from bondage." 29 

39 "What do you think I call a little hut? 

What do you think I call a little nest? 

What do you think I call lines extended? 

What do you think I call bondage?" 30 

40 "It's a mother that you call a little hut, 

A wife that you call a little nest, <18> 

Sons that you call lines extended. 

Craving that you tell me is bondage." 

41 "It's good that you have no little hut. 

Good that you have no little nest, 

Good that you have no lines extended, 

Good that you are free from bondage." 

20 (10) Samiddhi 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Rajagaha in the Hot Springs Park. Then the 
Venerable Samiddhi, having risen at the first flush of dawn, 
went to the hot springs to bathe. Having bathed in the hot 
springs and come back out, he stood in one robe drying his 
limbs. 




98 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 

Then, when the night had advanced, a certain devata of stun- 
ning beauty, illuminating the entire hot springs, approached the 
Venerable Samiddhi. Having approached, she stood in the air 
and addressed the Venerable Samiddhi in verse: 31 <19> 

42 "Without having enjoyed you seek alms, bhikkhu, 

You don't seek alms after you've enjoyed. 

First enjoy, bhikkhu, then seek alms: 

Don't let the time pass you by!" [9] 

43 "I do not know what the time might be; 

The time is hidden and cannot be seen. 

Hence, without enjoying, I seek alms: 

Don't let the time pass me by!" 32 

Then that devata alighted on the earth and said to the 
Venerable Samiddhi: "You have gone forth while young, 
bhikkhu, a lad with black hair, endowed with the blessing of 
youth, in the prime of life, without having dallied with sensual 
pleasures. Enjoy human sensual pleasures, bhikkhu; do not 
abandon what is directly visible in order to pursue what takes 
time." 

"I have not abandoned what is directly visible, friend, in order 
to pursue what takes time. I have abandoned what takes time in 
order to pursue what is directly visible. <20> For the Blessed 
One, friend, has stated that sensual pleasures are time-consum- 
ing, full of suffering, full of despair, and the danger in them is 
still greater, while this Dhamma is directly visible, immediate, 
inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be personally experi- 
enced by the wise." 33 

"But how is it, bhikkhu, that the Blessed One has stated that 
sensual pleasures are time-consuming, full of suffering, full of 
despair, and the danger in them is still greater? How is it that 
this Dhamma is directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come 
and see, applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise?" 

"I am newly ordained, friend, not long gone forth, just recent- 
ly come to this Dhamma and Discipline. I cannot explain it in 
detail. But that Blessed One, the Arahant, the Perfectly 
Enlightened One, is dwelling at Rajagaha in the Hot Springs 
Park. Approach that Blessed One and ask him about this matter. 




1. Devatdsamyutta 99 



As he explains it to you, so you should remember it." 

"It isn't easy for us to approach that Blessed One, bhikkhu, as 
he is surrounded by other devatas of great influence. 34 If you 
would approach him <21 > and ask him about this matter, we 
will come along too in order to hear the Dhamma." 

"Very well, friend," the Venerable Samiddhi replied. Then he 
approached the Blessed One, paid homage to him, sat down to 
one side, [10] and reported his entire discussion with that 
devata, [11] <22-23> ( verses 44-45, included in the report, repeat 
verses 42-43) adding: "If that devata's statement is true, vener- 
able sir, then that devata should be close by." 

When this was said, that devata said to the Venerable 
Samiddhi: "Ask, bhikkhu! Ask, bhikkhu! For I have arrived." 

Then the Blessed One addressed that devata in verse: 

46 "Beings who perceive what can be expressed 
Become established in what can be expressed. <24> 

Not fully understanding what can be expressed, 

They come under the yoke of Death. 35 

47 "But having fully understood what can be expressed, 

One does not conceive 'one who expresses.' 

For that does not exist for him 
By which one could describe him. 36 

"If you understand, spirit, speak up." 

"I do not understand in detail, venerable sir, the meaning of 
what was stated in brief by the Blessed One. Please, venerable 
sir, let the Blessed One explain it to me in such a way that I 
might understand in detail the meaning of what he stated in 
brief." [12] 

[The Blessed One:] 

48 "One who conceives 'I am equal, better, or worse,' 

Might on that account engage in disputes. 

But one not shaken in the three discriminations 
Does not think, 'I am equal or better.' 37 <25> 

"If you understand, spirit, speak up." 

"In this case too, venerable sir, I do not understand in detail . . . 




100 I. The Book with Verses (Sagatltavagga) 



let the Blessed One explain it to me in such a way that I might 
understand in detail the meaning of what he stated in brief." 

[The Blessed One:] 

49 "He abandoned reckoning, did not assume conceit; 38 
He cut off craving here for name-and-f orm. 

Though devas and humans search for him 

Here and beyond, in the heavens and all abodes, 

They do not find the one whose knots are cut, 

The one untroubled, free of longing. 

"If you understand, spirit, speak up." 

"I understand in detail, venerable sir, the meaning of what 
was stated in brief by the Blessed One thus: <26> 

50 "One should do no evil in all the world, 

Not by speech, mind, or body. 

Having abandoned sense pleasures. 

Mindful and clearly comprehending. 

One should not pursue a course 

That is painful and harmful." 39 

[13] <2 7> III. A Sword 

21 (1) A Sword 

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, that devata recited this verse 
in the presence of the Blessed One: 

51 "As if smitten by a sword. 

As if his head were on fire, 

A bhikkhu should wander mindfully 
To abandon sensual lust." 

[The Blessed One:] 

52 "As if smitten by a sword. 

As if his head were on fire, 

A bhikkhu should wander mindfully 
To abandon identity view." 40 




1. D evatdsamyutta 101 



22 (2) It Touches <28> 

53 “It does not touch one who does not touch. 
But then will touch the one who touches. 
Therefore it touches the one who touches. 
The one who wrongs an innocent man." 41 

54 "If one wrongs an innocent man, 

A pure person without blemish. 

The evil falls back on the fool himself 
Like fine dust thrown against the wind." 42 



23 (3) Tangle 

55 "A tangle inside, a tangle outside. 

This generation is entangled in a tangle. 

I ask you this, O Gotama, 

Who can disentangle this tangle?" 43 <29> 

56 "A man established on virtue, wise. 
Developing the mind and wisdom, 

A bhikkhu ardent and discreet: 

He can disentangle this tangle. 44 

57 "Those for whom lust and hatred 

Along with ignorance have been expunged. 
The arahants with taints destroyed: 

For them the tangle is disentangled. 45 

58 "Where name-and-form ceases. 

Stops without remainder. 

And also impingement and perception of form: 
It is here this tangle is cut." 46 [14] 

24 ( 4) Reining in the Mind 

59 "From whatever one reins in the mind. 

From that no suffering comes to one. <30> 
Should one rein in the mind from everything, 
One is freed from all suffering." 




102 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



60 "One need not rein in the mind from everything 
When the mind has come under control. 

From whatever it is that evil comes, 

From this one should rein in the mind." 47 



25 (5) The Arahant 

61 "If a bhikkhu is an arahant. 

Consummate, with taints destroyed. 

One who bears his final body. 

Would he still say, 'I speak'? 

And would he say, 'They speak to me'?" 48 

62 "If a bhikkhu is an arahant, <31> 

Consummate, with taints destroyed. 

One who bears his final body. 

He might still say, 'I speak,' 

And he might say, 'They speak to me.' 

Skilful, knowing the world's parlance, 

He uses such terms as mere expressions." 49 

63 "When a bhikkhu is an arahant, 

Consummate, with taints destroyed. 

One who bears his final body. 

Is it because he has come upon conceit 
That he would say, 'I speak,' 

That he would say, 'They speak to me'?" 50 

64 "No knots exist for one with conceit abandoned; 

For him all knots of conceit are consumed. 

Though the wise one has transcended the conceived, [15] 
He still might say, 'I speak,' <32> 

He might say too, 'They speak to me.' 

Skilful, knowing the world's parlance, 

He uses such terms as mere expressions." 51 

26 (6) Sources of Light 

65 "How many sources of light are in the world 
By means of which the world is illumined? 




1. Devatasamyutta 103 



We have come to ask the Blessed One this: 

How are we to understand it?" 

66 "There are four sources of light in the world; 

A fifth one is not found here. 

The sun shines by day, 

The moon glows at night, 

67 And fire flares up here and there 
Both by day and at night. 

But the Buddha is the best of those that shine: <33; 
He is the light unsurpassed." 

27 (7) Streams 

68 "From where do the streams turn back? 

Where does the round no longer revolve? 

Where does name-and-form cease. 

Stop without remainder?" 

69 "Where water, earth, fire, and air. 

Do not gain a footing: 

It is from here that the streams turn back, 

Here that the round no longer revolves; 

Here name-and-form ceases. 

Stops without remainder." 52 

28 (8) Those of Great Wealth <34> 

71 53 "Those of great wealth and property, 

Even khattiyas who rule the country. 

Look at each other with greedy eyes. 

Insatiable in sensual pleasures. 

72 Among these who have become so avid. 

Flowing along in the stream of existence. 

Who here have abandoned craving? 

Who in the world are no longer avid?" 54 

73 "Having left their homes and gone forth. 

Having left their dear sons and cattle, 

Having left behind lust and hatred, <35> 




104 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



Having expunged ignorance — 

The arahants with taints destroyed 

Are those in the world no longer avid." [16] 

29 (9) Four Wheels 

74 "Having four wheels and nine doors, 

Filled up and bound with greed. 

Born from a bog, O great hero! 

How does one escape from it?" 55 

75 "Having cut the thong and the strap, 

Having cut off evil desire and greed. 

Having drawn out craving with its root: 

Thus one escapes from it." 56 

30 (10) Antelope Calves <36> 

76 "Having approached you, we ask a question 
Of the slender hero with antelope calves, 

Greedless, subsisting on little food. 

Wandering alone like a lion or naga. 

Without concern for sensual pleasures: 

How is one released from suffering?" 57 

77 "Five cords of sensual pleasure in the world. 

With mind declared to be the sixth: 

Having expunged desire here, 

One is thus released from suffering." 58 

<37> IV. The Satullapa Host 

31 ( 1) With the Good 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. 
Then, when the night had advanced, a number of devatas 
belonging to the Satullapa host, of stunning beauty, illuminating 
the entire Jeta's Grove, approached the Blessed One. 59 Having 




l.D evatasamyutta 105 



approached, they paid homage to the Blessed One and stood to 
one side. [17] 

Then one devata, standing to one side, recited this verse in the 
presence of the Blessed One: 

78 "One should associate only with the good; <38> 

With the good one should foster intimacy. 

Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good, 

One becomes better, never worse." 

Then five other devatas in turn recited their verses in the pres- 
ence of the Blessed One: 

79 "One should associate only with the good; 

With the good one should foster intimacy. 

Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good. 

Wisdom is gained, but not from another." 60 

80 "One should associate only with the good; 

With the good one should foster intimacy. 

Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good, <39> 

One does not sorrow in the midst of sorrow." 

81 "One should associate only with the good; 

With the good one should foster intimacy. 

Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good. 

One shines amidst one's relations." 

82 "One should associate only with the good; 

With the good one should foster intimacy. 

Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good, 

Beings fare on to a good destination." 

83 "One should associate only with the good; 

With the good one should foster intimacy. 

Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good. 

Beings abide comfortably." 61 

Then another devata said to the Blessed One: "Which one, 
Blessed One, has spoken well?" 




106 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



“You have all spoken well in a way. 62 But listen to me too: [18] 

84 “One should associate only with the good; 

With the good one should foster intimacy. 

Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good, 

One is released from all suffering." 

This is what the Blessed One said. Elated, those devatas paid 
homage to the Blessed One and, keeping him on the right, they 
disappeared right there. 

32 (2) Stinginess 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Savatthi in 
Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Then, when the night had 
advanced, a number of devatas belonging to the Satullapa host, 
of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's Grove, 
approached the Blessed One. Having approached, they paid 
homage to the Blessed One and stood to one side. 

Then one devata, standing to one side, recited this verse in the 
presence of the Blessed One: 

85 "Through stinginess and negligence 
A gift is not given. 

One who knows, desiring merit, <40> 

Should surely give a gift." 

Then another devata recited these verses in the presence of the 
Blessed One: 

86 "That which the miser fears when he does not give 
Is the very danger that comes to the nongiver. 

The hunger and thirst that the miser fears 
Afflict that fool in this world and the next. 

87 "Therefore, having removed stinginess, 

The conqueror of the stain should give a gift. 63 
Deeds of merit are the support for living beings 
[When they arise] in the other world." 




1. Devatasamyutta 107 



Then another devata recited these verses in the presence of the 
Blessed One: 

88 "They do not die among the dead 
Who, like fellow travellers on the road. 

Provide though they have but a little: 

This is an ancient principle. 64 <41> 

89 "Some provide from the little they have. 

Others who are affluent don't like to give. 

An offering given from what little one has 
Is worth a thousand times its value." [19] 

Then another deyata recited these verses in the presence of the 
Blessed One: 

90 "The bad do not emulate the good. 

Who give what is hard to give 
And do deeds hard to do: 

The Dhamma of the good is hard to follow. 

91 "Therefore their destination after death 
Differs for the good and the bad: ' 

The bad go to hell, 

The good are bound for heaven." 

Then another devata said to the Blessed One: "Which one, 
Blessed One, has spoken well?" 

"You have all spoken well in a way. But listen to me too: <42> 

92 "If one practises the Dhamma 
Though getting on by gleaning, 

If while one supports one's wife 
One gives from the little one has, 

Then a hundred thousand offerings 
Of those who sacrifice a thousand 
Are not worth even a fraction 

[Of the gift] of one like him." 65 

Then another devata addressed the Blessed One in verse: 




108 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



93 "Why does their sacrifice, vast and grand, 

Not share the value of the righteous one's gift? 

Why are a hundred thousand offerings 

Of those who sacrifice a thousand 
Not worth even a fraction 
[Of the gift] of one like him?" 

Then the Blessed One answered that devata in verse: 

94 "Since they give while settled in unrighteousness, 

Having slain and killed, causing sorrow. 

Their offering — tearful, fraught with violence — 

Shares not the value of the righteous one's gift. <43> 

That is why a hundred thousand offerings 
Of those who sacrifice a thousand 
Are not worth even a fraction 
[Of the gift] of one like him." [20] 

33 (3) Good 

At Savatthi. Then, when the night had advanced, a number of 
devatas belonging to the Satullapa host, of stunning beauty, illu- 
minating the entire Jeta's Grove, approached the Blessed One. 
Having approached, they paid homage to the Blessed One and 
stood to one side. 

Then one devata, standing to one side, uttered this inspired 
utterance in the presence of the Blessed One: 

"Good is giving, dear sir! 

95 "Through stinginess and negligence 
A gift is not given. 

One who knows, desiring merit. 

Should surely give a gift." 

Then another devata uttered this inspired utterance in the 
presence of the Blessed One: 



Good is giving, dear sir! 




1. Devatasamyutta 109 



And further: 

Even when there's little, giving is good. <44> 



96 "Some provide from what little they have. 

Others who are affluent don't like to give. 

An offering given from what little one has 
Is worth a thousand times its value." 

Then another devata uttered this inspired utterance in the 
presence of the Blessed One: 

"Good is giving, dear sir! 

Even when there's little, giving is good. 

And further: 

When done with faith too, giving is good. 

97 "Giving and warfare are similar, they say: 

A few good ones conquer many. 

If one with faith gives even a little. 

He thereby becomes happy in the other world." 66 

Then another devata uttered this inspired utterance in the 
presence of the Blessed One: 

"Good is giving, dear sir! 

Even when there's little, giving is good. [21] 

When done with faith too, giving is good. 

And further: 

The gift of a righteous gain is also good. <45> 

98 "When he gives a gift of a righteous gain 
Obtained by exertion and energy, 

Having passed over Yama's Vetarani River, 

That mortal arrives at celestial states." 67 

Then another devata uttered this inspired utterance in the 
presence of the Blessed One: 

"Good is giving, dear sir! 

Even when there's little, giving is good. 




110 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



When done with faith too, giving is good; 

The gift of a righteous gain is also good. 

And further: 

Giving discriminately too is good. 68 

99 "Giving discriminately is praised by the Fortunate One — 
To those worthy of offerings 
Here in the world of the living. 

What is given to them bears great fruit 
Like seeds sown in a fertile field." 

Then another devata uttered this inspired utterance in the 
presence of the Blessed One: 

"Good is giving, dear sir! 

Even when there's little, giving is good. 

When done with faith too, giving is good; 

The gift of a righteous gain is also good. 

Giving with discretion too is good. <46> 

And further: 

Restraint towards living beings is also good. 

100 "One who fares harming no living beings 
Does no evil from fear of others' censure. 

In that they praise the timid, not the brave, 

For out of fear the good do no evil." 

Then another devata said to the Blessed One: [22] "Which one, 
Blessed One, has spoken well?" 

"You have all spoken well in a way. But listen to me too: 

101 "Surely giving is praised in many ways. 

But the path of Dhamma surpasses giving. 

For in the past and even long ago. 

The good and wise ones attained Nibbana." 69 

34 (4) There Are No <47> 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Savatthi in 
Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Then, when the night had 




1. Devatasamyutta 111 



advanced, a number of devatas belonging to the Satullapa host, 
of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's Grove, 
approached the Blessed One. Having approached, they paid 
homage to the Blessed One and stood to one side. 

Then one devata, standing to one side, recited this verse in the 
presence of the Blessed One: 

102 "There are among humans 

No permanent sensual pleasures; 

Here there are just desirable things. 

When a person is bound to these, 

Heedless in their midst. 

From Death's realm he does not reach 
The state of no-more-coming-back." 70 

[Another devata:] "Misery is bom of desire; suffering is born 
of desire. By the removal of desire, misery is removed; by the 
removal of misery, suffering is removed." 71 

[The Blessed One:] 

103 "They are not sense pleasures, the world's pretty things: 
Man's sensuality is the intention of lust. <48> 

The pretty things remain as they are in the world 
But the wise remove the desire for them. 72 [23] 

104 "One should discard anger, cast off conceit. 

Transcend all the fetters. 

No sufferings torment one who has nothing. 

Who does not adhere to name-and-form. 73 

105 "He abandoned reckoning, did not assume conceit; 

He cut off craving here for name-and-form. 

Though devas and humans search for him 

Here and beyond, in the heavens and all abodes, 

They do not find the one whose knots are cut, 

The one untroubled, free of longing." 

106 "If devas and humans have not seen 
The one thus liberated here or beyond," 

[said the Venerable Mogharaja], 




112 I. The B o ok with Verses (Sagathavagga) 

"Are they to be praised who venerate him. 

The best of men, faring for the good of humans?" 74 <49> 

107 "Those bhikkhus too become worthy of praise, 

[Mogharaja," said the Blessed One,] 

"Who venerate him, the one thus liberated. 

But having known Dhamma and abandoned doubt, 

Those bhikkhus become even surmounters of ties." 75 

35 (5) Faultfinders 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Savatthi in 
Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Then, when the night had 
advanced, a number of "faultfinding" devatas, of stunning 
beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's Grove, approached the 
Blessed One and stood in the air 76 [24] 

Then one devata, standing in the air, recited this verse in the 
presence of the Blessed One: 

108 "If one shows oneself in one way 
While actually being otherwise, 

What one enjoys is obtained by theft 
Like the gains of a cheating gambler." 77 

[Another devata:] <50> 

109 "One should speak as one would act; 

Don't speak as one wouldn't act. 

The wise clearly discern the person 
Who does not practise what he preaches." 

[The Blessed One:] 

110 "Not by mere speech nor solely by listening 
Can one advance on this firm path of practice 
By which the wise ones, the meditators, 

Are released from the bondage of Mara. 

111 "Truly, the wise do not pretend. 

For they have understood the way of the world. 

By final knowledge the wise are quenched: 

They have crossed over attachment to the world." 




1. Devatasamyutta 113 



Then those devatas, having alighted on the earth, prostrated 
themselves with their heads at the Blessed One's feet and said to 
the Blessed One: <51>"A transgression overcame us, venerable 
sir, being so foolish, so stupid, so unskilful that we imagined we 
could assail the Blessed One. Let the Blessed One pardon us for 
our transgression seen as such for the sake of restraint in the 
future." 

Then the Blessed One displayed a smile. 78 Those devatas, find- 
ing fault to an even greater extent, then rose up into the air. One 
devata recited this verse in the presence of the Blessed One: 

112 "If one does not grant pardon 

To those who confess transgression, 

Angry at heart, intent on hate, 

One strongly harbours enmity." 

[The Blessed One:] <52> 

113 "If there was no transgression. 

If here there was no going astray. 

And if enmities were appeased, 

Then one would be faultless here." 79 

[A devata:] 

114 "For whom are there no transgressions? 

For whom is there no going astray? 

Who has not fallen into confusion? 

And who is the wise one, ever mindful?" [25] 

[The Blessed One:] 

115 "The Tathagata, the Enlightened One, 

Full of compassion for all beings: 

For him there are no transgressions. 

For him there is no going astray; 

He has not fallen into confusion, 

And he is the wise one, ever mindful. 

116 "If one does not grant pardon 

To those who confess transgression, <53> 

Angry at heart, intent on hate, 

One strongly harbours enmity. 




114 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



In that enmity I do not delight. 

Thus I pardon your transgression." 

36 (6) Faith 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Savatthi in 
Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Then, when the night had 
advanced, a number of devatas belonging to the Satullapa host, 
of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's Grove, 
approached the Blessed One. Having approached, they paid 
homage to the Blessed One and stood to one side. 

Then one devata, standing to one side, recited this verse in the 
presence of the Blessed One: 

117 "Faith is a person's partner; 

If lack of faith does not persist. 

Fame and renown thereby come to him, <54> 

And he goes to heaven on leaving the body." 

Then another devata recited these verses in the presence of the 
Blessed One: 80 

118 "One should discard anger, cast off conceit. 

Transcend all the fetters. 

No ties torment one who has nothing, 

Who does not adhere to name-and-form." 81 

[Another devata:] 

119 "Foolish people devoid of wisdom 
Devote themselves to negligence. 

But the wise man guards diligence 
As his foremost treasure. 

120 "Do not yield to negligence, 

Don't be intimate with sensual delight. 

For the diligent ones, meditating. 

Attain supreme happiness." [26] 




1. P evatasamyutta 115 



37 (7) Concourse <55> 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling among the Sakyans at Kapilavatthu in the Great Wood 
together with a great Sangha of bhikkhus, with five hundred 
bhikkhus all of whom were arahants. 82 And the devatas from 
ten world systems had for the most part assembled in order to 
see the Blessed One and the Bhikkhu Sangha. Then the thought 
occurred to four devatas of the host from the Pure Abodes: 83 
"This Blessed One is dwelling among the Sakyans at 
Kapilavatthu in the Great Wood together with a great Sangha of 
bhikkhus, with five hundred bhikkhus all of whom are arahants. 
And the devatas from ten world systems have for the most part 
assembled in order to see the Blessed One and the Bhikkhu 
Sangha. Let us also approach the Blessed One and, in his pres- 
ence, each speak our own verse." 

Then, just as quickly as a strong man might extend his drawn- 
in arm or draw in his extended arm, those devatas disappeared 
from among the devas of the Pure Abodes <56> and reappeared 
before the Blessed One. Then those devatas paid homage to the 
Blessed One and stood to one side. Standing to one side, one 
devata recited this verse in the presence of the Blessed One: 

121 "A great concourse takes place in the woods. 

The deva hosts have assembled. 

We have come to this Dhamma concourse 
To see the invincible Sangha." 

Then another devata recited this verse in the presence of the 
Blessed One: 

122 "The bhikkhus there are concentrated; 

They have straightened their own minds. 

Like a charioteer who holds the reins. 

The wise ones guard their faculties." [27] 

Then another devata recited this verse in the presence of the 
Blessed One: 

123 "Having cut through barrenness, cut the cross-bar. 




116 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



Having uprooted Indra's pillar, unstirred. 

They wander about pure and stainless. 

Young nagas well tamed by the One with Vision." 84 <57> 

Then another devata recited this verse in the presence of the 
Blessed One: 

124 "Those who have gone to the Buddha for refuge 
Will not go to the plane of misery. 

On discarding the human body. 

They will fill the hosts of devas." 85 



38 (8) The Stone Splinter 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Rajagaha in the Maddakucchi Deer Park. Now on 
that occasion the Blessed One's foot had been cut by a stone 
splinter. 86 Severe pains assailed the Blessed One — bodily feel- 
ings that were painful, racking, sharp, piercing, harrowing, dis- 
agreeable. But the Blessed One endured them, mindful and 
clearly comprehending, without becoming distressed. Then the 
Blessed One had his outer robe folded in four, and he lay down 
on his right side in the lion posture with one leg overlapping the 
other, mindful and clearly comprehending. <58> 

Then, when the night had advanced, seven hundred devatas 
belonging to the Satullapa host, of stunning beauty, illuminating 
the entire Maddakucchi Deer Park, approached the Blessed One. 
Having approached, they paid homage to the Blessed One and 
stood to one side. 

Then one devata, standing to one side, uttered this inspired 
utterance in the presence of the Blessed One: [28] "The ascetic 
Gotama is indeed a naga, sir! And when bodily feelings have 
arisen that are painful, racking, sharp, piercing, harrowing, dis- 
agreeable, through his naga-like manner he endures them, 
mindful and clearly comprehending, without becoming dis- 
tressed." 87 

Then another devata uttered this inspired utterance in the 
presence of the Blessed One: "The ascetic Gotama is indeed a 
lion, sir! And when bodily feelings have arisen that are painful, 
racking, sharp, piercing, harrowing, disagreeable, through his 




1. Devatasamyutta 117 



leonine manner he endures them, mindful and clearly compre- 
hending, without becoming distressed." 

Then another devata uttered this inspired utterance in the 
presence of the Blessed One: "The ascetic Gotama is indeed a 
thoroughbred, sir! And when bodily feelings have arisen that 
are painful ... disagreeable, through his thoroughbred manner 
he endures them, mindful and clearly comprehending, without 
becoming distressed." 

Then another devata uttered this inspired utterance in the 
presence of the Blessed One: "The ascetic Gotama is indeed a 
chief bull, sir! <59> And when bodily feelings have arisen that 
are painful ... disagreeable, through his chief bull's manner he 
endures them, mindful and clearly comprehending, without 
becoming distressed." 

Then another devata uttered this inspired utterance in the 
presence of the Blessed One: "The ascetic Gotama is indeed a 
beast of burden, sir! And when bodily feelings have arisen that 
are painful ... disagreeable, through his beast-of-burden's man- 
ner he endures them, mindful and clearly comprehending, with- 
out becoming distressed." 

Then another devata uttered this inspired utterance in the 
presence of the Blessed One: "The ascetic Gotama is indeed 
tamed, sir! And when bodily feelings have arisen that are 
painful, racking, sharp, piercing, harrowing, disagreeable, 
through his tamed manner he endures them, mindful and clear- 
ly comprehending, without becoming distressed." 

Then another devata uttered this inspired utterance in the 
presence of the Blessed One: "See his concentration well devel- 
oped and his mind well liberated — not bent forward and not 
bent back, and not blocked and checked by forceful suppres- 
sion! 88 If anyone would think such a one could be violated — 
such a naga of a man, such a lion of a man, [29] such a thorough- 
bred of a man, <60> such a chief bull of a man, such a beast of 
burden of a man, such a tamed man — what is that due to apart 
from lack of vision?" 

125 Though brahmins learned in the five Vedas 
Practise austerities for a hundred years, 

Their minds are not rightly liberated: 

Those of low nature do not reach the far shore. 89 




118 I. The Book with Ver ses (Sagathavagga) 



126 They founder in craving, bound to vows and rules. 
Practising rough austerity for a hundred years. 

But their minds are not rightly liberated: 

Those of low nature do not reach the far shore. 

127 There is no taming here for one fond of conceit, 

Nor is there sagehood for the unconcentrated: 

Though dwelling alone in the forest, heedless, <61 > 

One cannot cross beyond the realm of Death. 

128 Having abandoned conceit, well concentrated. 

With lofty mind, everywhere released: 

While dwelling alone in the forest, diligent, 

One can cross beyond the realm of Death. 

39 (9) Pajjunna's Daughter (1) 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was dwell- 
ing at Vesali in the Great Wood in the Hall with the Peaked 
Roof. Then, when the night had advanced, Kokanada, Pajjunna's 
daughter, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Great 
Wood, approached the Blessed One. 90 Having approached, she 
paid homage to the Blessed One, stood to one side, and recited 
these verses in the presence of the Blessed One: 91 

129 "I worship the Buddha, the best of beings, 

Dwelling in the woods at Vesali. [30] <62> 

Kokanada am I, 

Kokanada, Pajjunna's daughter. 92 

130 "Earlier I had only heard that the Dhamma 
Has been realized by the One with Vision; 

But now I know it as a witness 

While the Sage, the Fortunate One, teaches. 

131 "Those ignorant people who go about 
Criticizing the noble Dhamma 

Pass on to the terrible Roruva hell 

And experience suffering for a long time. 93 




1. Devatasamyutta 119 



132 "But those who have peace and acquiescence 
In regard to the noble Dhamma, 

On discarding the human body. 

Will fill the host of devas." 94 

40 (10) Pajjunna's Daughter (2) <63> 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Vesali in the Great Wood, in the Hall with the 
Peaked Roof. Then, when the night had advanced, Cula- 
kokanada, Pajjunna's [younger] daughter, of stunning beauty, 
illuminating the entire Great Wood, approached the Blessed 
One. Having approached, she paid homage to the Blessed One, 
stood to one side, and recited these verses in the presence of the 
Blessed One: 

133 "Here came Kokanada, Pajjunna's daughter. 

Beautiful as the gleam of lightning. 

Venerating the Buddha and the Dhamma, 

She spoke these verses full of meaning. [31] 

134 "Though the Dhamma is of such a nature 
That I might analyse it in many ways, 

I will state its meaning briefly 

To the extent I have learnt it by heart. 95 

135 "One should do no evil in all the world, <64> 

Not by speech, mind, or body. 

Having abandoned sense pleasures. 

Mindful and clearly comprehending. 

One should not pursue a course 
That is painful and harmful." 

V. Ablaze 



41 (1) Ablaze 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. 
Then, when the night had advanced, a certain devata of stun- 




120 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



ning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's Grove, approached 
the Blessed One. <65> Having approached, he paid homage to 
the Blessed One, stood to one side, and recited these verses in 
the presence of the Blessed One: 

136 "When one's house is ablaze 
The vessel taken out 

Is the one that is useful. 

Not the one left burnt inside. 

137 "So when the world is ablaze 
With [the fires of] aging and death. 

One should take out [one's wealth] by giving: 

What is given is well salvaged. [32] <66> 

139 96 "What is given yields pleasant fruit. 

But not so what is not given. 

Thieves take it away, or kings. 

It gets burnt by fire or is lost. 

140 "Then in the end one leaves the body 
Along with one's possessions. 

Having understood this, the wise person 
Should enjoy himself but also give. 

Having given and enjoyed as fits his means. 

Blameless he goes to the heavenly state." 

42 (2) Giving What? 

[A devata:] 

141 "Giving what does one give strength? 

Giving what does one give beauty? 

Giving what does one give ease? 

Giving what does one give sight? 

Who is the giver of all? 

Being asked, please explain to me." <67> 

[The Blessed One:] 

142 "Giving food, one gives strength; 

Giving clothes, one gives beauty; 




Giving a vehicle, one gives ease; 
Giving a lamp, one gives sight. 



1. Devatasamyutta 121 



143 "The one who gives a residence 
Is the giver of all. 

But the one who teaches the Dhamma 
Is the giver of the Deathless." 

43 (3) Food 

144 "They always take delight in food. 

Both devas and human beings. 

So what sort of spirit could it be 
That does not take delight in food?" 97 

145 "When they give out of faith 
With a heart of confidence, 

Food accrues to [the giver] himself 
Both in this world and the next. <68> 

146 "Therefore, having removed stinginess. 

The conqueror of the stain should give a gift. 
Merits are the support for living beings 
[When they arise] in the other world." 

44(4) One Root 
[A devata:] 

147 "The seer has crossed over the abyss 
With its one root, two whirlpools. 

Three stains, five extensions. 

An ocean with twelve eddies." 98 [33] 



45 (5) Perfect 



[A devata:] 

148 "Behold him of perfect name. 

The seer of the subtle goal. 

The giver of wisdom, unattached 
To the lair of sensual pleasures. <69> 




122 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



Behold the wise one, all-knowing. 

The great seer treading the noble path." 99 

4:6(6) Nymphs 

149 "Resounding with a host of nymphs. 
Haunted by a host of demons! 

This grove is to be called 'Deluding': 

How does one escape from it?" 100 

150 "The straight way' that path is called. 

And 'fearless' is its destination. 

The chariot is called 'unrattling/ 

Fitted with wheels of wholesome states. 

151 "The sense of shame is its leaning board. 
Mindfulness its upholstery; 

I call the Dhamma the charioteer. 

With right view running out in front. 101 <70> 

152 "One who has such a vehicle — 

Whether a woman or a man — 

Has, by means of this vehicle. 

Drawn close to Nibbana." 102 



47 (7) Planters of Groves 

153 "For whom does merit always increase. 

Both by day and by night? 

Who are the people going to heaven. 

Established in Dhamma, endowed with virtue?" 

154 "Those who set up a park or a grove. 

The people who construct a bridge, 

A place to drink and a well. 

Those who give a residence: 103 

155 "For them merit always increases. 

Both by day and by night; 




1. Devatasamyutta 123 



Those are the people going to heaven. 

Established in Dhamma, endowed with virtue." <71> 

48(8) ] eta's Grove 

[The devata Anathapindika:] 

156 "This indeed is that Jeta's Grove, 

The resort of the Order of seers. 

Dwelt in by the Dhamma King, 

A place that gives me joy. 104 [34] 

157 "Action, knowledge, righteousness. 

Virtue, an excellent life: 

By this are mortals purified. 

Not by clan or wealth. 

158 "Therefore a person who is wise. 

Out of regard for his own good. 

Should carefully examine the Dhamma: 

Thus he is purified in it. 

159 "Sariputta truly is endowed with wisdom. 

With virtue and with inner peace. 

Even a bhikkhu who has gone beyond 
At best can only equal him." 105 <7 2> 

49 (9) Stingy 
[A devata:] 

160 "Those who are stingy here in the world. 

Niggardly folk, revilers. 

People who create obstacles 
For others engaged in giving alms: 

161 What kind of result do they reap? 

What kind of future destiny? 

We've come to ask the Blessed One this: 

How are we to understand it?" 

[The Blessed One:] 

162 "Those who are stingy here in the world. 




124 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



Niggardly folk, revilers. 

People who create obstacles 
For others engaged in giving alms: 

They might be reborn in hell. 

In the animal realm or Yama's world. 106 

163 "If they come back to the human state 
They are bom in a poor family <73> 

Where clothes, food, pleasures, and sport 
Are obtained only with difficulty. 

164 "Whatever the fools may expect from others. 
Even that they do not obtain. 

This is the result in this very life; 

And in the future a bad destination." 

[A devata:] 

165 "We understand thus what you have said; 

We ask, O Gotama, another question: 

Those here who, on gaining the human state. 
Are amiable and generous. 

Confident in the Buddha and the Dhamma 
And deeply respectful towards the Sangha: 

166 What kind of result do they reap? 

What kind of future destiny? 

We've come to ask the Blessed One this: 

How are we to understand it?" <74> 

[The Blessed One:] 

167 "Those here who, on gaining the human state. 
Are amiable and generous. 

Confident in the Buddha and the Dhamma 
And deeply respectful towards the Sangha, 
These brighten up the heavens 
Where they've been reborn. 107 [35] 

168 "If they come back to the human state 
They are reborn in a rich family 
Where clothes, food, pleasures, and sport 
Are obtained without difficulty. 




1. Devatasamyutta 125 



169 "They rejoice like the devas who control 
The goods amassed by others. 108 

This is the result in this very life; 

And in the future a good destination." <75> 

50(10) Ghatikara 

[The devata Ghatikara:] 

170 "Seven bhikkhus reborn in Aviha 
Have been fully liberated. 

With lust and hatred utterly destroyed. 

They have crossed over attachment to the world." 109 

[The Blessed One:] 

171 "And who are those who crossed the swamp. 

The realm of Death so hard to cross? 

Who, having left the human body. 

Have overcome the celestial bond?" 110 

[Ghatikara:] 

172 "Upaka and Palaganda, 

With Pukkusati — these are three. 

Then Bhaddiya and Bhaddadeva, 

And Bahudanti and Pingiya. 

These, having left the human body. 

Have overcome the celestial bond." 111 

[The Blessed One:] <76> 

173 "Good is the word you speak of them. 

Of those who have abandoned Mara's snares. 

Whose Dhamma was it that they understood 
Whereby they cut through the bondage of existence?" 112 

[Ghatikara:] 

174 "It was not apart from the Blessed One! 

It was not apart from your Teaching! 

By having understood your Dhamma 
They cut through the bondage of existence. 




126 L The B ook with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



175 "Where name-and-form ceases. 

Stops without remainder: 

By understanding that Dhamma here 

They cut through the bondage of existence." 113 

[The Blessed One:] 

176 "Deep is the speech you utter. 

Hard to understand, very hard to grasp. 
Having understood whose Dhamma 
Do you utter such speech?" <77> 

[Ghatikara:] 

177 "In the past I was the potter, 

Ghatikara in Vehalihga. 

I supported my mother and father then 
As a lay follower of the Buddha Kassapa. [36] 

178 "I abstained from sexual intercourse, 

I was celibate, free from carnal ties. 

I was your fellow villager. 

In the past I was your friend. 

179 "I am the one who knows 
These seven liberated bhikkhus. 

Who with lust and hatred utterly destroyed 
Have crossed over attachment to the world." 

[The Blessed One:] 

180 "Just so it was at that time. 

As you say, O Bhaggava: 114 

In the past you were the potter, <78> 

Ghatikara in Vehalihga. 

You supported your mother and father then 
As a lay follower of the Buddha Kassapa. 

181 "You abstained from sexual intercourse. 

You were celibate, free from carnal ties. 

You were my fellow villager. 

In the past you were my friend." 




1. Devatasamyutta 127 



182 Such was the meeting that took place 
Between those friends from the past. 

Both now inwardly developed. 

Bearers of their final bodies. 115 

<79> VI. Old Age 

51 (1) Old Age 
[A devata:] 

183 "What is good until old age? 

What is good when established? 

What is the precious gem of humans? 
What is hard for thieves to steal?" 

[The Blessed One:] 

184 "Virtue is good until old age; 

Faith is good when established; 

Wisdom is the precious gem of humans; 
Merit is hard for thieves to steal." 

52 (2) Undecaying <8$> 

185 "What is good by not decaying? 

What is good when made secure? 

What is the precious gem of humans? 
What cannot be stolen by thieves?" 116 [37] 

186 "Virtue is good by not decaying; 

Faith is good when made secure; 

Wisdom is the precious gem of humans; 
Merit cannot be stolen by thieves." 

53 (3) The Friend 

187 "What is the friend of one on a journey? 
What is the friend in one's own home? 
What is the friend of one in need? 

What is the friend in the future life?" 117 




128 I. The Book with Verses (Sa%athavagga) 



188 "A caravan is the friend of one on a journey; <81> 
A mother is the friend in one's own home; 

A comrade when the need arises 
Is one's friend again and again. 

The deeds of merit one has done — 

That is the friend in the future life." 



54 (4) Support 

189 "What is the support of human beings? 
What is the best companion here? 

The creatures who dwell on the earth — 
By what do they sustain their life?" 

190 "Sons are the support of human beings, 
A wife the best companion; 

The creatures who dwell on the earth 
Sustain their life by rain." 118 <82> 

55 (5) Produces (1) 

191 "What is it that produces a person? 
What does he have that runs around? 
What enters upon samsara? 

What is his greatest fear?" <83> 

192 "It is craving that produces a person; 
His mind is what runs around; 

A being enters upon samsara; 

Suffering is his greatest fear." 

56 (6) Produces (2) 

193 "What is it that produces a person? 
What does he have that runs around? 
What enters upon samsara? 

From what is he not yet freed?" 

194 "Craving is what produces a person; 

His mind is what runs around; 




1. Devatasarnyutta 129 



A being enters upon samsara; 

He is not freed from suffering." [38] 



57 (7) Produces (3) 

195 "What is it that produces a person? 

What does he have that runs around? 

What enters upon samsara? 

What determines his destiny?" 

196 "Craving is what produces a person; 

His mind is what runs around; 

A being enters upon samsara; 

Kamma determines his destiny." 

58 (8) The Deviant Path 

197 "What is declared the deviant path? 

What undergoes destruction night and day? <84> 
What is the stain of the holy life? 

What is the bath without water?" 

198 "Lust is declared the deviant path; 

Life undergoes destruction night and day; 
Women are the stain of the holy life: 

Here menfolk are enmeshed. 

Austerity and the holy life — 

That is the bath without water." 119 

59 (9) Partner 

199 "What is a person's partner? 

What is it that instructs him? 

Taking delight in what is a mortal 
Released from all suffering?" 

200 "Faith is a person's partner, 

And wisdom is what instructs him. <85> 

Taking delight in Nibbana, a mortal 
Is released from all suffering." 




130 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



60 (10) Poetry 

201 "What is the scaffolding of verses? 

What constitutes their phrasing? 

On what base do verses rest? 

What is the abode of verses?" 

202 "Metre is the scaffolding of verses; 

Syllables constitute their phrasing; 

Verses rest on a base of names; 

The poet is the abode of verses." 120 

[39] <86> VII. Weighed Down 

61 (1) Name 

203 "What has weighed down everything? 
What is most extensive? 

What is the one thing that has 
All under its control?" 

204 "Name has weighed down everything; 
Nothing is more extensive than name. <87> 
Name is the one thing that has 

All under its control." 121 

62 (2) Mind 

205 "By what is the world led around? 

By what is it dragged here and there? 

What is the one thing that has 

All under its control?" 

206 "The world is led around by mind; 

By mind it's dragged here and there. 

Mind is the one thing that has 

All under its control." 122 




1. Devatasamyutta 131 



63 (3) Craving 

207 "By what is the world led around? 

By what is it dragged here and there? <88> 
What is the one thing that has 
All under its control?" 

208 "The world is led around by craving; 

By craving it is dragged here and there. 
Craving is the one thing that has 

All under its control." 

64 (4) Fetter 

209 "By what is the world tightly fettered? 
What is its means of travelling about? 

What is it that one must forsake 

In order to say, 'Nibbana'?" 

210 "The world is tightly fettered by delight; 
Thought is its means of travelling about. 
Craving is what one must forsake 

In order to say, 'Nibbana.'" 123 <89> 

65 (5) Bondage 

211 "By what is the world held in bondage? 
What is its means of travelling about? 

What is it that one must forsake 

To cut off all bondage?" [40] 

212 "The world is held in bondage by delight; 
Thought is its means of travelling about. 
Craving is what one must forsake 

To cut off all bondage." 

66 (6) Afflicted 

213 "By what is the world afflicted? 

By what is it enveloped? 




132 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



By what dart has it been wounded? 

With what is it always burning?" 124 <90> 

214 "The world is afflicted with death, 

Enveloped by old age; 

Wounded by the dart of craving, 

It is always burning with desire." 

67 (7) Ensnared 

215 "By what is the world ensnared? 

By what is it enveloped? 

By what is the world shut in? 

On what is the world established?" 

216 "The world is ensnared by craving; 

It is enveloped by old age; 

The world is shut in by death; 

The world is established on suffering." 125 <91> 

68 (8) Shut In 

217 "By what is the world shut in? 

On what is the world established? 

By what is the world ensnared? 

By what is it enveloped?" 

218 "The world is shut in by death; 

The world is established on suffering; 

The world is ensnared by craving; 

It is enveloped by old age." 

69 (9) Desire 

219 "By what is the world bound? 

By the removal of what is it freed? 

What is it that one must forsake 
To cut off all bondage?" 

220 "By desire is the world bound; 




1. Devatasamyutta 133 



By the removal of desire it is freed. 
Desire is what one must forsake <92> 
To cut off all bondage." [41] 



70(10) World 

221 "In what has the world arisen? 

In what does it form intimacy? 

By clinging to what is the world 
Harassed in regard to what?" 

222 "In six has the world arisen; 

In six it forms intimacy; 

By clinging to six the world 
Is harassed in regard to six." 126 

<93> VIII. Having Slain 

71 (1) Having Slain 

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, that devata addressed the 
Blessed One in verse: 

223 "Having slain what does one sleep soundly? 

Having slain what does one not sorrow? 

What is the one thing, O Gotama, 

Whose killing you approve?" 127 

[The Blessed One:] 

224 "Having slain anger, one sleeps soundly; 

Having slain anger, one does not sorrow; 

The killing of anger, O devata. 

With its poisoned root and honeyed tip: 

This is the killing the noble ones praise, 

For having slain that, one does not sorrow." 128 

72 (2) Chariot 

225 "What is the token of a chariot? 

What, the token of a fire? 




134 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



What is the token of a country? 

What, the token of a woman?" 129 [42] <94> 

226 "A standard is the token of a chariot; 

Smoke, the token of a fire; 

The king is a country's token; 

A husband, the token of a woman." 

73 (3) Treasure 

227 "What here is a man's best treasure? 

What practised well brings happiness? 

What is really the sweetest of tastes? 

How lives the one whom they say lives best?" 

228 "Faith is here a man's best treasure; 

Dhamma practised well brings happiness; 

Truth is really the sweetest of tastes; <95> 

One living by wisdom they say lives best." 130 

74 (4) Rain 
[A devata:] 

229 "What is the best of things that rise up? 

What excels among things that fall down? 

What is the best of things that go forth? 

Who is the most excellent of speakers?" 

[Another devata:] 

230 "A seed is the best of things that rise up; 

Rain excels among things that fall down; 

Cattle are the best of things that go forth; 

A son is the most excellent of speakers." 131 

[The Blessed One:] 

231 "Knowledge is the best of things that rise up; 
Ignorance excels among things that fall down; 
The Sangha is the best of things that go forth; 

The most excellent of speakers is the Buddha." 132 




1. Devatdsamyutta 135 



75 (5) Afraid <96> 

232 "Why are so many people here afraid 

When the path has been taught with many bases? 133 
I ask you, O Gotama, broad of wisdom: 

On what should one take a stand 
To have no fear of the other world?" 

233 "Having directed speech and mind rightly. 

Doing no evil deeds with the body, 

Dwelling at home with ample food and drink, [43] 
Faithful, gentle, generous, amiable: 

When one stands on these four things. 

Standing firmly on the Dhamma, 

One need not fear the other world." 134 



76 (6) Does Not Decay 

234 "What decays, what does not decay? 

What is declared the deviant path? <9 7> 

What is the impediment to [wholesome] states? 
What undergoes destruction night and day? 
What is the stain of the holy life? 

What is the bath without water? 

235 "How many fissures are there in the world 
Wherein the mind does not stand firm? 

We've come to ask the Blessed One this: 

How are we to understand it?" 

236 "The physical form of mortals decays. 

Their name and clan does not decay. 

Lust is declared the deviant path. 

Greed the impediment to [wholesome] states. 

237 "Life undergoes destruction night and day; 
Women are the stain of the holy life: 

Here's where menfolk are enmeshed. 

Austerity and the holy life — 

That is the bath without water. <98> 




136 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



238 "There are six fissures in the world 

Wherein the mind does not stand firm: 
Laziness and negligence. 

Indolence, lack of self-control. 
Drowsiness and lethargy — 

Avoid these fissures completely." 135 



77 (7) Sovereignty 

239 "What is sovereignty in the world? 

What ranks as the best of goods? 

What in the world is a rusty sword? 

What in the world is considered a plague? 

240 "Whom do they arrest when he takes away? 
And who, when he takes away, is dear? 

In whom do the wise take delight 
When he returns again and again?" <99> 

241 "Mastery is sovereignty in the world; 136 
A woman ranks as the best of goods; 

In the world anger is a rusty sword; 

Thieves in the world are considered a plague. 137 

242 "They arrest a thief when he takes away. 

But an ascetic who takes away is dear. 

The wise take delight in an ascetic 
When he returns again and again." [44] 



78 (8) Love 

243 "What should he not give who loves the good? 
What should a mortal not relinquish? 

What should one release when it's good, 

But not release when it's bad?" 

244 "A person should not give himself away; <100> 
He should not relinquish himself. 138 

One should release speech that is good. 

But not speech that is bad." 




1. Devatasamyutta 137 



79 (9) Provisions for a Journey 

245 "What secures provisions for a journey? 

What is the abode of wealth? 

What drags a person around? 

What in the world is hard to discard? 

By what are many beings bound 
Like birds caught in a snare?" 

246 "Faith secures provisions for a journey; 

Fortune is the abode of wealth; 

Desire drags a person around; 

Desire is hard to discard in the world. 

By desire many beings are bound <101> 

Like birds caught in a snare." 

80 (10) Source of Light 

247 "What is the source of light in the world? 

What in the world is the wakeful one? 

What are [the colleagues] of those living by work? 

What is one's course of movement? 

248 "What nurtures both the slack and active 
Just as a mother nurtures her child? 

The creatures who dwell on the earth — 

By what do they sustain their life?" 

249 "Wisdom is the source of light in the world; 
Mindfulness, in the world, is the wakeful one; 

Cattle are [the colleagues] of those living by work; <102> 
One's course of movement is the furrow. 139 

250 "Rain nurtures both the slack and active 
Just as a mother nurtures her child. 

Those creatures who dwell on the earth 
Sustain their life by rain." 




138 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



81 (11) Without Conflict 

251 "Who here in the world are placid? 
Whose mode of life is not squandered? 
Who here fully understand desire? 

Who enjoy perpetual freedom? [45] 

252 "Whom do parents and brothers worship 
When he stands firmly established? 

Who is the one of humble birth 

That even khattiyas here salute?" <103> 

253 "Ascetics are placid in the world; 

The ascetic life is not squandered; 
Ascetics fully understand desire; 

They enjoy perpetual freedom. 

254 "Parents and brothers worship an ascetic 
When he stands firmly established. 140 
Though an ascetic be of humble birth 
Even khattiyas here salute him." 




[46] <104> 



Chapter II 

2 Devaputtasamyutta 
Connected Discourses 
with Young Devas 



I. The First Subchapter 
(Suriya) 



1(1) Kassapa (1) 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was dwel- 
ling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Then, 
when the night had advanced, the young deva Kassapa, of stun- 
ning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's Grove, approached 
the Blessed One. 141 Having approached, he paid homage to the 
Blessed One, stood to one side, and said to the Blessed One: 

“The Blessed One has revealed the bhikkhu but not the 
instruction to the bhikkhu." 142 

"Well then, Kassapa, clear up this point yourself." 143 

255 "He should train in well-spoken counsel, 

And in the exercise of an ascetic, 

In a solitary seat, alone, 

And in the calming of the mind." 144 <105> 

This is what the young deva Kassapa said. The Teacher 
approved. Then the young deva Kassapa, thinking, "The 
Teacher has approved of me," paid homage to the Blessed One 
and, keeping him on the right, he disappeared right there. 



139 




140 I. The Book with Verses (Sagdthavagga) 



2(2) Kassapa (2) 

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, the young deva Kassapa recitec 
this verse in the presence of the Blessed One: 

256 "A bhikkhu should be a meditator, 

One who is liberated in mind, 

If he desires the heart's attainment. 

Bent on that as his advantage. 

Having known the world's rise and fall. 

Let him be lofty in mind and unattached." 145 [47] 



3(3) Magha 

At Savatthi. Then, when the night had advanced, the young 
deva Magha, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's 
Grove, approached the Blessed One. Having approached, he 
paid homage to the Blessed One, stood to one side, <106> and 
addressed the Blessed One in verse: 146 

257 "Having slain what does one sleep soundly? 

Having slain what does one not sorrow? 

What is the one thing, O Gotama, 

Whose killing you approve?" 

258 "Having slain anger, one sleeps soundly; 

Having slain anger, one does not sorrow; 

The killing of anger, O Vatrabhu, 

With its poisoned root and honeyed tip: 

This is the killing the noble ones praise, 

For having slain that, one does not sorrow." 



4 (4) Magadha 

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, the young deva Magadha 
addressed the Blessed One in verse: 

259 "How many sources of light are in the world 

By means of which the world is illumined? <107> 




2. Devaputtasamyutta 141 



We've come to ask the Blessed One this: 

How are we to understand it?" 

260 "There are four sources of light in the world; 

A fifth one is not found here. 

The sun shines by day. 

The moon glows at night, 

261 And fire flares up here and there 
Both by day and at night. 

But the Buddha is the best of those that shine: 

He is the light unsurpassed." 

5 (5) Damali 

At Savatthi. Then, when the night had advanced, the young 
deva Damali, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's 
Grove, approached the Blessed One. Having approached, he 
paid homage to the Blessed One, stood to one side, and recited 
this verse in the presence of the Blessed One: 

262 "This should be done by the brahmin: 

Striving without weariness, <108> 

That by his abandoning of sensual desires 
He does not yearn for existence." 147 

263 "For the brahmin there is no task to be done, 

[O Damali," said the Blessed One], 

"For the brahmin has done what should be done. 

While he has not gained a footing in the river, [48] 

A man will strain with all his limbs; 

But a footing gained, standing on the ground, 

He need not strain for he has gone beyond. 

264 "This is a simile for the brahmin, O Damali, 

For the taintless one, the discreet meditator. 

Having reached the end of birth and death. 

He need not strain for he has gone beyond." 148 <109> 




142 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



6 (6) Kamada 

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, the young deva Kamada said 
to the Blessed One: 

“Hard to do. Blessed One! Very hard to do. Blessed One!" ^9 

265 "They do even what is hard to do, 

[O Kamada," said the Blessed One,] 

"The trainees endowed with virtue, steadfast. 

For one who has entered the homeless life 
Contentment brings along happiness." 

"That is hard to gain. Blessed One, namely, contentment." 

266 "They gain even what is hard to gain, 

[O Kamada," said the Blessed One,] 

"Who delight in calming the mind. 

Whose minds, day and night. 

Take delight in development." 

"That is hard to concentrate. Blessed One, namely, the mind." 

267 "They concentrate even what is hard to concentrate, 

[O Kamada," said the Blessed One,] 

"Who delight in calming the faculties. 

Having cut through the net of Death, 

The noble ones, O Kamada, go their way." 

"The path is impassable and uneven. Blessed One." 150 <110> 

268 "Though the path is impassable and uneven. 

The noble ones walk it, Kamada. 

The ignoble ones fall down head first. 

Right there on the uneven path. 

But the path of the noble ones is even. 

For the noble are even amidst the uneven." 

7 (7) Pancalacanda 



At Savatthi. Standing to one side, the young deva Pancalacanda 
recited this verse in the presence of the Blessed One: 




2. Devaputtasamyutta 143 



269 "The one of broad wisdom has indeed found 
The opening in the midst of confinement. 

The Buddha who discovered jhana. 

The withdrawn chief bull, the sage." 151 

270 "Even in the midst of confinement they find it, 

[O Pancalacanda," said the Blessed One,] <111> 

"The Dhamma for the attainment of Nibbana — 

Those who have acquired mindfulness. 

Those perfectly well concentrated." 152 [49] 

8 (8) Tayana 

At Savatthi. Then, when the night had advanced, the young 
deva Tayana, formerly the founder of a religious sect, of stun- 
ning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's Grove, approached 
the Blessed One. 153 Having approached, he paid homage to the 
Blessed One, stood to one side, and recited these verses in the 
presence of the Blessed One: 

271 "Having exerted oneself, cut the stream! 

Dispel sensual desires, O brahmin! 

Without having abandoned sensual desires, 

A sage does not reach unity. 154 

272 "If one would do what should be done. 

One should firmly exert oneself. <112> 

For a slack wanderer's life 

Only scatters more dust. 

273 "Better left undone is the misdeed, 

A deed that later brings repentance. 

Better done is the good deed 
Which when done is not repented. 

274 "As kusa- grass, wrongly grasped. 

Only cuts one's hand. 

So the ascetic life, wrongly taken up, 

Drags one down to hell. 




144 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



275 "Any deed that is slackly done. 

Any corrupted vow, 

A holy life that breeds suspicion, 

Does not yield great fruit." 155 

This is what the young deva Tayana said. Having said this, he 
paid homage to the Blessed One and, keeping him on the right, 
he disappeared right there. 

Then, when the night had passed, the Blessed One addressed 
the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus, last night, when the night had 
advanced, the young deva Tayana, formerly the founder of a 
religious sect ... <113> ... approached me ... and in my presence 
recited these verses: 

276-80 "'Having exerted oneself, cut the stream! . . . [50] . . . 

Does not yield great fruit.' 

"This is what the young deva Tayana said. Having said this, 
he paid homage to me and, keeping me on the right, he disap- 
peared right there. Learn Tayana's verses, bhikkhus. Master 
<114> Tayana's verses, bhikkhus. Remember Tayana's verses, 
bhikkhus. Tayana's verses are beneficial, bhikkhus, they pertain 
to the fundamentals of the holy life." 



9 (9) Candima 

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion the young deva Candima had 
been seized by Rahu, lord of the asuras. 156 Then, recollecting the 
Blessed One, the young deva Candima on that occasion recited 
this verse: 

281 "Let homage be to you, the Buddha! 

0 hero, you are everywhere released. 

1 have fallen into captivity, 

So please be my refuge." 



Then, referring to the young deva Candima, the Blessed One 
addressed Rahu, lord of the asuras, in verse: 




2. Devaputtasamyutta 145 



282 "Candima has gone for refuge 
To the Tathagata, the Arahant. 

Release Candima, O Rahu, 

Buddhas have compassion for the world." 

Then Rahu, lord of the asuras, released the young deva Can- 
dima and hurriedly approached Vepacitti, lord of the asuras. 157 
Having approached, shocked and terrified, he stood to one side. 
<115> Then, as he stood there, Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, 
addressed him in verse: 

283 "Why, Rahu, did you come in a hurry? 

Why did you release Candima? 

Having come as if in shock. 

Why do you stand there frightened?" 

284 "My head would have split in seven parts, 

While living I would have found no ease. 

If, when chanted over by the Buddha's verse, 

I had not let go of Candima." [51] 

10(10) Suriya 

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion the young deva Suriya had 
been seized by Rahu, lord of the asuras. 158 Then, recollecting the 
Blessed One, the young deva Suriya on that occasion recited this 
verse: 

285 "Let homage be to you, the Buddha! 

0 hero, you are everywhere released. 

1 have fallen into captivity. 

So please be my refuge." <116> 

Then, referring to the young deva Suriya, the Blessed One 
addressed Rahu, lord of the asuras, in verse: 

286 "Suriya has gone for refuge 
To the Tathagata, the Arahant. 

Release Suriya, O Rahu, 

Buddhas have compassion for the world. 




146 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



287 "While moving across the sky, O Rahu, 

Do not swallow the radiant one. 

The maker of light in darkness, 

The disk of fiery might in the gloom. 

Rahu, release my child Suriya." 159 

Then Rahu, lord of the asuras, released the young deva Suriya 
and hurriedly approached Vepacitti, lord of the asuras. Having 
approached, shocked and terrified, he stood to one side. Then, 
as he stood there, Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, addressed him in 
verse: 

288 "Why, Rahu, did you come in a hurry? 

Why did you release Suriya? 

Having come as if in shock, <117> 

Why do you stand there frightened?" 

289 "My head would have split in seven parts, 

While living I would have found no ease. 

If, when chanted over by the Buddha's verses, 

I had not let go of Suriya." 

II. AnAthapinpika 



11 (1) Candimasa 

At Savatthi. Then, when the night had advanced, the young deva 
Candimasa, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's 
Grove, [52] approached the Blessed One. Having approached, 
he paid homage to the Blessed One, stood to one side, <118> 
and recited this verse in the presence of the Blessed One: 

290 "They will surely reach to safety 
Like deer in a mosquito-free marsh. 

Who, having attained the jhanas, 

Are unified, discreet, mindful." 160 

[The Blessed One:] 

291 "They will surely reach the far shore 
Like a fish when the net is cut. 




2. Devaputtasarnyutta 147 



Who, having attained the jhanas. 

Are diligent, with flaws discarded." 161 

12 (2) Venhu 

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, the young deva Venhu recited 
this verse in the presence of the Blessed One: 162 

292 "Happy indeed are those human beings 
Attending on the Fortunate One, 

Applying themselves to Gotama's Teaching, 

Who train in it with diligence." 163 <119> 

293 "When the course of teaching is proclaimed by me, 

[O Venhu," said the Blessed One,] 

"Those meditators who train therein. 

Being diligent at the proper time. 

Will not come under Death's control." 

23 (3) Dighalatthi 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrel 
Sanctuary. Then, when the night had advanced, the young deva 
Dighalatthi, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Bamboo 
Grove, approached the Blessed One. Having approached, he 
paid homage to the Blessed One, stood to one side, and recited 
this verse in the presence of the Blessed One: 

294 "A bhikkhu should be a meditator. 

One who is liberated in mind, 

If he desires the heart's attainment. 

Bent on that as his advantage. 

Having known the world's rise and fall, <120> 

Let him be lofty in mind and unattached." 



14 (4) Nandana 

Standing to one side, the young deva Nandana addressed the 
Blessed One in verse: 




148 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



295 "I ask you, Gotama, broad of wisdom — 

Unobstructed is the Blessed One's knowledge and vision: 
[53] 

What is he like whom they call virtuous? 

What is he like whom they call wise? 

What is he like who has passed beyond suffering? 

What is he like whom the devatas worship?" 

296 "One virtuous, wise, of developed mind. 

Concentrated, mindful, enjoying jhana. 

For whom all sorrows are gone, abandoned, 

A taint-destroyer bearing his final body: 

297 It is such a one that they call virtuous, <121> 

Such a one that they call wise. 

Such a one has passed beyond suffering. 

Such a one the devatas worship." 



15 (5) Candana 

Standing to one side, the young deva Candana addressed the 
Blessed One in verse: 

298 "Who here crosses over the flood. 

Unwearying by day and night? 

Who does not sink in the deep. 

Without support, without a hold?" 164 

299 "One always perfect in virtue. 

Endowed with wisdom, well concentrated. 

One energetic and resolute 

Crosses the flood so hard to cross. 

300 "One who desists from sensual perception. 

Who has overcome the fetter of form, <122> 

Who has destroyed delight in existence — 

He does not sink in the deep." 165 




2. Devaputtasamyutta 14 c 



16 (6) Vasudatta 

Standing to one side, the young deva Vasudatta recited this 
verse in the presence of the Blessed One: 

301 "As if smitten by a sword. 

As if his head were on fire, 

A bhikkhu should wander mindfully 
To abandon sensual lust." 

302 "As if smitten by a sword. 

As if his head were on fire, 

A bhikkhu should wander mindfully 
To abandon identity view." 

17(7) Subrahma 

<123> Standing to one side, the young deva Subrahm. 
addressed the Blessed One in verse: 166 

303 "Always frightened is this mind. 

The mind is always agitated [54] 

About unarisen problems 

And about arisen ones. 

If there exists release from fear. 

Being asked, please declare it to me." 167 

304 "Not apart from enlightenment and austerity. 

Not apart from restraint of the sense faculties. 

Not apart from relinquishing all. 

Do I see any safety for living beings." 168 

This is what the Blessed One said.... He [the young deva] dis- 
appeared right there. 

18 (8) Kakudha 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Saketa in the Anjana Grove, the Deer Park. Then, 
when the night had advanced, the young deva Kakudha, <124> 




150 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Anjana Grove, 
approached the Blessed One. Having approached, he paid hom- 
age to the Blessed One, stood to one side, and said to him: 

"Do you delight, ascetic?" 

"Having gained what, friend?" 

"Then, ascetic, do you sorrow?" 

"What has been lost, friend?" 

"Then, ascetic, do you neither delight nor sorrow?" 

"Yes, friend." 

305 "I hope that you're untroubled, bhikkhu. 

I hope no delight is found in you. 

I hope that when you sit all alone 
Discontent doesn't spread over you." 169 

306 "Truly, I'm untroubled, spirit. 

Yet no delight is found in me. 

And when I'm sitting all alone <125> 

Discontent doesn't spread over me." 

307 "How are you untroubled, bhikkhu? 

How is no delight found in you? 

How come, when you sit all alone. 

Discontent doesn't spread over you?" 

308 "Delight comes to one who is miserable. 

Misery to one filled with delight. 

As a bhikkhu undelighted, untroubled: 

That's how you should know me, friend." 

309 "After a long time at last I see 

A brahmin who is fully quenched, 

A bhikkhu undelighted, untroubled. 

Who has crossed over attachment to the world." 170 

19 (9) Uttar a 

Setting at Rajagaha. Standing to one side, the young deva Uttara 
recited this verse in the presence of the Blessed One: [55] <126> 




2. Devaputtasamyutta 151 



310 "Life is swept along, short is the life span; 

No shelters exist for one who has reached old age. 
Seeing clearly this danger in death. 

One should do deeds of merit that bring happiness." 

311 "Life is swept along, short is the life span; 

No shelters exist for one who has reached old age. 
Seeing clearly this danger in death, 

A seeker of peace should drop the world's bait." 



20 (10) Anathapindika 

Standing to one side, the young deva Anathapindika recited 
these verses in the presence of the Blessed One: 

312 "This indeed is that Jeta's Grove, 

The resort of the Order of seers, 

Dwelt in by the Dhamma King, 

A place that gives me joy. 

313 "Action, knowledge, righteousness. 

Virtue, an excellent life: 

By this are mortals purified, <127> 

Not by clan or wealth. 

314 "Therefore a person who is wise. 

Out of regard for his own good, [56] 

Should carefully examine the Dhamma: 

Thus he is purified in it. 

315 "Sariputta truly is endowed with wisdom. 

With virtue and with inner peace. 

Even a bhikkhu who has gone beyond 
At best can only equal him." 

This is what the young deva Anathapindika said. Having said 
this, he paid homage to the Blessed One and, keeping him on 
the right, he disappeared right there. 

Then, when the night had passed, the Blessed One addressed 
the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus, last night, when the night had 




152 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



advanced, a certain young deva ... approached me ... and in my 
presence recited these verses: 

316-19 "This indeed is that Jeta's Grove, ... <128> 

At best can only equal him.' 

"This is what that young deva said. Having said this, he paid 
homage to me and, keeping me on the right, he disappeared 
right there." 

When this was said, the Venerable Ananda said to the Blessed 
One: "Venerable sir, that young deva must surely have been 
Anathapindika. For Anathapindika the householder had full 
confidence in the Venerable Sariputta." 

"Good, good, Ananda! You have drawn the right inference by 
reasoning. 171 For that young deva, Ananda, was Anathapindika." 

<129> III. Various Sectarians 

21 (1) Siva 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was dwel- 
ling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Then, 
when the night had advanced, the young deva Siva, of stunning 
beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's Grove, approached the 
Blessed One. Having approached, he paid homage to the 
Blessed One, stood to one side, and recited these verses in the 
presence of the Blessed One: 172 

320 "One should associate only with the good; 

With the good one should foster intimacy. 

Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good. 

One becomes better, never worse. <130> 

321 "One should associate only with the good; 

With the good one should foster intimacy. 

Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good. 

Wisdom is gained, but not from another. 

322 "One should associate only with the good; 

With the good one should foster intimacy. 




2. Devaputtasamyutta 153 



Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good, 

One does not sorrow in the midst of sorrow. 

323 "One should associate only with the good; 

With the good one should foster intimacy. [57] 

Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good. 

One shines amidst one's relations. 

324 "One should associate only with the good; 

With the good one should foster intimacy. 

Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good. 

Beings fare on to a good destination. 

325 "One should associate only with the good; 

With the good one should foster intimacy. 

Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good. 

Beings abide comfortably." <131> 

Then the Blessed One replied to the young deva Siva in verse: 

326 "One should associate only with the good; 

With the good one should foster intimacy. 

Having learnt the true Dhamma of the good. 

One is released from all suffering." 

22 (2) Khema 

Standing to one side, the young deva Khema recited these verses 
in the presence of the Blessed One: 

327 "Foolish people devoid of wisdom 
Behave like enemies towards themselves. 

They go about doing evil deeds 
Which yield only bitter fruit. 

328 "That deed is not well performed 
Which, having been done, is then repented. 

The result of which one experiences 
Weeping with a tearful face. 




154 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



329 "But that deed is well performed 
Which, having been done, is not repented. 

The result of which one experiences 
Joyfully with a happy mind." 173 <132> 

[The Blessed One:] 

330 "One should promptly do the deed 
One knows leads to one's own welfare; 

The thinker, the wise one, should not advance 
With the reflection of the carter. 

331 "As the carter who left the highway, 

A road with an even surface. 

And entered upon a rugged bypath 
Broods mournfully with a broken axle — 

332 "So the fool, having left the Dhamma 
To follow a way opposed to Dhamma, 

When he falls into the mouth of Death 
Broods like the carter with a broken axle." 174 

23 (3) Seri 

Standing to one side, the young deva Seri addressed the Blessed 
One in verse: <133> 

333 "They always take delight in food. 

Both devas and human beings. 

So what sort of spirit could it be 
That does not take delight in food?" 

334 "When they give out of faith 
With a heart of confidence. 

Food accrues to [the giver] himself 
Both in this world and the next. 

335 "Therefore, having removed stinginess. 

The conqueror of the stain should give a gift. 

Merits are the support for living beings 
[When they arise] in the other world." [58] 




2. Devaputtasamyutta 155 



"It is wonderful, venerable sir! It is amazing, venerable sir! 
How well this was stated by the Blessed One: 

336-37 '"When they give out of faith ... <134> 

[When they arise] in the other world.' 

"Once in the past, venerable sir, I was a king named Seri, a 
donor, a philanthropist, one who spoke in praise of giving. At 
the four gates I had gifts given to ascetics, brahmins, paupers, 
wayfarers, mendicants, and beggars. Then, venerable sir, the 
harem women came to me and said: 'Your majesty gives gifts, 
but we do not give gifts. It would be good if, with your 
majesty's assistance, we too might give gifts and do meritorious 
deeds.' It occurred to me: 'I am a donor, a philanthropist, one 
who speaks in praise of giving. So when they say, "Let us give 
gifts," what am I to say to them?' So, venerable sir, I gave the 
first gate to the harem women. There the harem women gave 
gifts, and my gifts returned to me. <135> 

"Then, venerable sir, my khattiya vassals came to me and said: 
'Your majesty gives gifts, the harem women give gifts, but we 
do not give gifts. It would be good if, with your majesty's assis- 
tance, we too might give gifts and do meritorious deeds.' It 
occurred to me: 'I am a donor....' So, venerable sir, I gave the 
second gate to the khattiya vassals. There the khattiya vassals 
gave gifts, and my gifts returned to me. 

"Then, venerable sir, my troops came to me ... [59] ... So, 
venerable sir, I gave the third gate to the troops. There the 
troops gave gifts, and my gifts returned to me. <136> 

"Then, venerable sir, the brahmins and householders came to 
me ... So, venerable sir, I gave the fourth gate to the brahmins 
and householders. There the brahmins and householders gave 
gifts, and my gifts returned to me. 

"Then, venerable sir, my men came to me and said: 'Now 
your majesty is not giving gifts anywhere.' 175 When this was 
said, I told those men: 'Well then, I say, send half of the revenue 
generated in the outlying provinces from there to the palace. 
There itself give half as gifts to ascetics, brahmins, paupers, 
wayfarers, mendicants, and beggars.' 

"I did not reach any limit, venerable sir, to the meritorious 
deeds that I did for such a long time, to the wholesome deeds 




156 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



that I did for such a long time, <137> such that I could say: 
'There is just so much merit/ or 'There is just so much result of 
merit/ or 'For just so long am I to dwell in heaven/ It is wonder- 
ful, venerable sir! It is amazing, venerable sir! How well this was 
stated by the Blessed One: 

338 "'When they give out of faith 
With a heart of confidence. 

Food accrues to [the giver] himself 
Both in this world and the next. 

339 "'Therefore, having removed stinginess, 

The conqueror of the stain should give a gift. 

Deeds of merit are the support for living beings 
[When they arise] in the other world.'" [60] 



24 (4) Ghatikara 

Standing to one side, the young deva Ghatikara recited this 
verse in the presence of the Blessed One: . . . 

340-52 "Seven bhikkhus reborn in Aviha 
Have been fully liberated....'' 

... ( verses 340-52 = verses 170-82, in 1:50) <138^41>... 

Both now inwardly developed. 

Bearers of their final bodies. [61] 



25 (5) Jantu 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion a number of bhikkhus were 
dwelling among the Kosalans in a little forest hut on a slope of 
the Himalayas — restless, puffed up, personally vain, rough- 
tongued, rambling in their talk, muddle-minded, without clear 
comprehension, unconcentrated, scatter-brained, loose in their 
sense faculties. 176 

Then, on the Uposatha day of the fifteenth, the young deva Jantu 
approached those bhikkhus and addressed them in verses: 177 

353 "In the past the bhikkhus lived happily. 

The disciples of Gotama. 




2. Devaputtasamyutta 157 



Without wishes they sought their alms. 
Without wishes they used their lodgings. 
Having known the world's impermanence. 
They made an end to suffering. 

354 "But now like headmen in a village 
They make themselves hard to maintain. 
They eat and eat and then lie down, <142> 
Infatuated in others' homes. 178 

355 "Having reverently saluted the Sangha, 

I here speak only about some: 

They are rejected, without protector. 
Become just like the dead. 179 

356 "My statement is made with reference 
To those who dwell in negligence. 

As for those who dwell in diligence. 

To them I humbly pay homage." 



26 (6) Rohitassa 

At Savatthi. Standing to one side, the young deva Rohitassa said 
to the Blessed One: 

"Is it possible, venerable sir, by travelling to know or to see or 
to reach the end of the world, where one is not bom, does not 
age, does not die, does not pass away, and is not reborn?" <143> 

"As to that end of the world, friend, where one is not bom, 
does not age, does not die, does not pass away, and is not 
reborn — I say that it cannot be known, seen, or reached by trav- 
elling." 1811 

"It is wonderful, venerable sir! It is amazing, venerable sir! 
How well this was stated by the Blessed One: 'As to that end of 
the world, friend, ... I say that it cannot be known, seen, or 
reached by travelling.' 

"Once in the past, venerable sir, I was a seer named Rohitassa, 
son of Bhoja, possessed of spiritual power, able to travel through 
the sky. [62] My speed was such, venerable sir, that I could 
move just as swiftly as a firm-bowed archer — trained, skilful, 
practised, experienced — could easily shoot past the shadow of a 




1 58 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



palmyra tree with a light arrow. 181 My stride was such, vener- 
able sir, that it seemed to reach from the eastern ocean to the 
western ocean. Then, venerable sir, the wish arose in me: T will 
reach the end of the world by travelling.' <144> Possessing such 
speed and such a stride, and having a life span of a hundred 
years, living for a hundred years, I travelled for a hundred 
years, without pausing except to eat, drink, take meals and 
snacks, to defecate and urinate, to sleep and dispel fatigue; yet I 
died along the way without having reached the end of the 
world. 

"It is wonderful, venerable sir! It is amazing, venerable sir! 
How well this was stated by the Blessed One: 'As to that end of 
the world, friend, where one is not bom, does not age, does not 
die, does not pass away, and is not reborn — I say that it cannot 
be known, seen, or reached by travelling.'" 

"However, friend, I say that without having reached the end 
of the world there is no making an end to suffering. It is, friend, 
in just this <145> fathom-high carcass endowed with perception 
and mind that I make known the world, the origin of the world, 
the cessation of the world, and the way leading to the cessation 
of the world. 182 

357 "The world's end can never be reached 

By means of travelling [through the world], 

Yet without reaching the world's end 
There is no release from suffering. 

358 "Therefore, truly, the world-knower, the wise one. 

Gone to the world's end, fulfiller of the holy life. 

Having known the world's end, at peace, 

Longs not for this world or another." 

27 (7) Nanda 

Standing to one side, the young deva Nanda recited this verse in 
the presence of the Blessed One: 

359 "Time flies by, the nights swiftly pass; 

The stages of life successively desert us. 




2. Devaputtasamyutta 159 



Seeing clearly this danger in death. 

One should do deeds of merit that bring happiness." 

360 "Time flies by, the nights swiftly pass; 

The stages of life successively desert us. [63] 

Seeing clearly this danger in death, 

A seeker of peace should drop the world's bait." <146> 

28(8) Nandivisala 

Standing to one side, the young deva Nandivisala addressed the 
Blessed One in verse: 

361 "Having four wheels and nine doors. 

Filled up and bound with greed. 

Bom from a bog, O great hero! 

How does one escape from it?" 

362 "Having cut the thong and the strap. 

Having cut off evil desire and greed. 

Having drawn out craving with its root: 

Thus one escapes from it." 

29 (9) Susima 

<147> At Savatthi. Then the Venerable Ananda approached the 
Blessed One, paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The 
Blessed One then said to him: "Do you too, Ananda, approve of 
Sariputta?" 183 

"Indeed, venerable sir, who would not approve of the Vener- 
able Sariputta, unless he were foolish, full of hatred, deluded, or 
mentally deranged? The Venerable Sariputta, venerable sir, is 
wise, one of great wisdom, of wide wisdom, of joyous wisdom, 
of swift wisdom, of sharp wisdom, of penetrative wisdom. 184 
The Venerable Sariputta, venerable sir, has few wishes; he is 
content, secluded, aloof, energetic. The Venerable Sariputta, 
venerable sir, is one who gives advice, one who accepts advice, a 
reprover, one who censures evil. Indeed, venerable sir, who 
would not approve of the Venerable Sariputta, unless he were 
foolish, full of hatred, deluded, or mentally deranged?" [64] 




160 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



"So it is, Ananda, so it is! Indeed, Ananda, who would not 
approve of Sariputta, unless he were foolish, full of hatred, 
deluded, or mentally deranged? Sariputta, Ananda, is wise . . . 
(as above) <148>... unless he were mentally deranged?" 

Then, while this praise of the Venerable Sariputta was being 
spoken, the young deva Susima, accompanied by a great assem- 
bly of young devas, approached the Blessed One. 185 Having 
approached, he paid homage to the Blessed One, stood to one 
side, and said to him: "So it is. Blessed One! So it is. Fortunate 
One! Indeed, venerable sir, who would not approve of the 
Venerable Sariputta ... ( all as above) <149>... unless he were 
mentally deranged? In my case too, venerable sir, no matter 
what assembly of young devas I have approached, I have often 
heard this same report: The Venerable Sariputta is wise ... one 
who censures evil. Indeed, who would not approve of the 
Venerable Sariputta, unless he were foolish, full of hatred, 
deluded, or mentally deranged?"' 

Then, while this praise of the Venerable Sariputta was being 
spoken, the young devas in Susima's assembly — elated, glad- 
dened, full of rapture and joy — displayed diverse lustrous 
colours. 186 Just as a beryl gem — beautiful, of fine quality, eight- 
faceted, of excellent workmanship — when placed on a brocade 
cloth, shines and beams and radiates, <150> so too the young 
devas in Susima's assembly [65] ... displayed diverse lustrous 
colours. 

And just as an ornament of finest gold — very skilfully bur- 
nished in a furnace by an adroit goldsmith — when placed on a 
brocade cloth, shines and beams and radiates, so too the young 
devas in Susima's assembly ... displayed diverse lustrous 
colours. 

And just as, when the night is fading, the morning star shines 
and beams and radiates, so too the young devas in Susima's 
assembly ... displayed diverse lustrous colours. 187 

And just as in the autumn, when the sky is clear and cloud- 
less, the sun, ascending in the sky, <151> dispels all darkness 
from space as it shines and beams and radiates, 188 so too the 
young devas in Susima's assembly — elated, gladdened, full of 
rapture and joy — displayed diverse lustrous colours. 

Then, with reference to the Venerable Sariputta, the young deva 
Susima recited this verse in the presence of the Blessed One: 




2. Devaputtasamyutta 161 



363 "He is widely known to be a wise man, 

Sariputta, who is free of anger; 

Of few wishes, gentle, tamed. 

The seer adorned by the Teacher's praise." 

Then the Blessed One, with reference to the Venerable Sari- 
putta, replied to the young deva Susima in verse: 

364 "He is widely known to be a wise man, 

Sariputta, who is free of anger; 

Of few wishes, gentle, tamed. 

Developed, well tamed, he awaits the time." 189 



30 (10) Various Sectarians 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrel 
Sanctuary. Then, when the night had advanced, a number <152> 
of young devas, disciples of various sectarian teachers — Asama 
and Sahali and Ninka and Akotaka and Vetambari and Manava- 
gamiya — of stunning beauty, [66] illuminating the entire 
Bamboo Grove, approached the Blessed One. Having 
approached, they paid homage to the Blessed One and stood to 
one side. 190 

Then, standing to one side, the young deva Asama spoke this 
verse referring to Purana Kassapa in the presence of the Blessed 
One: 

365 "In injuring and killing here. 

In beating and extortion, 

Kassapa did not recognize evil 
Nor see any merit for oneself. 

He indeed taught what is worthy of trust: 

That teacher deserves esteem.'' 191 

Then the young deva Sahali spoke this verse referring to 
Makkhali Gosala in the presence of the Blessed One: 192 

366 "By austerity and scrupulousness <153> 

He attained complete self-restraint. 




162 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



He abandoned contentious talk with people. 

Refrained from falsehood, a speaker of truth. 

Surely such a one does no evil." 193 

Then the young deva Ninka spoke this verse referring to 
Nigantha Nataputta in the presence of the Blessed One: 

367 "A scrupulous discerning bhikkhu. 

Well restrained by the four controls. 

Explaining what is seen and heard: 

Surely, he could not be a sinner." 194 

Then the young deva Akotaka spoke this verse referring to 
various sectarian teachers in the presence of the Blessed One: 

368 "Pakudhaka Katiyana and the Nigantha, 

Along with Makkhali and Purana: 

Teachers of companies, attained to ascetic stature: 

They were surely not far from superior men." 195 <154> 

Then the young deva Vetambari replied to the young deva 
Akotaka in verse: 

369 "Even by howling along the wretched jackal 
Remains a vile beast, never the lion's peer. 

So though he be the teacher of a group. 

The naked ascetic, speaker of falsehood. 

Arousing suspicion by his conduct. 

Bears no resemblance to superior men." 196 [67] 

Then Mara the Evil One took possession of the young deva 
Vetambari and recited this verse in the presence of the Blessed 
One: 197 



370 "Those engaged in austerity and scrupulousness. 
Those protecting their solitude. 

And those who have settled on form. 

Delighting in the world of devas: <155> 

Indeed, these mortals instruct rightly 
In regard to the other world." 




2. Devaputtasamyutta 163 



Then the Blessed One, having understood, "This is Mara the 
Evil One," replied to Mara the Evil One in verse: 

371 "Whatever forms exist here or beyond. 

And those of luminous beauty in the sky. 

All these, indeed, you praise, Namuci, 

Like bait thrown out for catching fish." 198 

Then, in the Blessed One's presence, the young deva Manava- 
gamiya recited these verses referring to the Blessed One: 

372 "Vipula is called the best of mountains 
Among the hills of Rajagaha, 

Seta, the best of snow-clad mountains. 

The sun, the best of travellers in the sky. 

373 "The ocean is the best body of water. 

The moon, the best of nocturnal lights, <156> 

But in this world together with its devas 
The Buddha is declared supreme." 




[68] <157> Chapter III 

3 Kosalasamyutta 

Connected Discourses with the Kosalan 



I. The First Subchapter 
(Bondage) 



1 (1) Young 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Then 
King Pasenadi of Kosala approached the Blessed One and 
exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their 
greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side and said to 
the Blessed One: "Does Master Gotama too claim, 'I have awak- 
ened to the unsurpassed perfect enlightenment?" 199 

"If, great king, one speaking rightly could say of anyone, 'He 
has awakened to the unsurpassed perfect enlightenment/ it is of 
me that one might rightly say this. For I, great king, have awak- 
ened to the unsurpassed perfect enlightenment." 

"Master Gotama, even those ascetics and brahmins who are 
the heads of orders and companies, the teachers of companies, 
well known and famous founders of sects considered by the 
multitude to be holy men — that is, Purana Kassapa, Makkhali 
Gosala, <158> Nigantha Nataputta, Sanjaya Belatthiputta, 
Pakudha Kaccayana, Ajita Kesakambali — even these, when 1 
asked them whether they had awakened to the unsurpassed 
perfect enlightenment, did not claim to have done so. 200 So why 
then should Master Gotama [make such a claim] when he is sc 
young in years and has newly gone forth?" [69] 

"There are four things, great king, that should not be despisec 
and disparaged as 'young.' 201 What four? A khattiya, great king 
should not be despised and disparaged as 'young'; a snaki 



164 




3. Kosalasamyutta 165 



should not be despised and disparaged as 'young'; a fire should 
not be despised and disparaged as 'young'; and a bhikkhu 
should not be despised and disparaged as 'young.' These are the 
four." <159> 

This is what the Blessed One said. Having said this, the 
Fortunate One, the Teacher, further said this: 

374 "One should not despise as 'young' 

A khattiya of noble birth, 

A high-born prince of glorious fame: 

A man should not disparage him. 

375 For it may happen that this lord of men. 

This khattiya, shall gain the throne. 

And in his anger thrash one harshly 
With a royal punishment. 

Therefore guarding one's own life. 

One should avoid him. 

376 "One should not despise as 'young' 

A serpent one may see by chance 
In the village or a forest: 

A man should not disparage it. 

377 For as that fierce snake glides along. 

Manifesting in diverse shapes, 202 

It may attack and bite the fool, <160> 

Whether a man or a woman. 

Therefore guarding one's own life. 

One should avoid it. 

378 "One should not despise as 'young' 

A blazing fire that devours much, 

A conflagration with blackened trail: 

A man should not disparage it. 

379 For if it gains a stock of fuel, 

Having become a conflagration. 

It may attack and bum the fool, 

Whether a man or a woman. 

Therefore guarding one's own life. 

One should avoid it. 




166 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathava%%a ) 



380 "When a fire bums down a forest — 

That conflagration with blackened trail — 

The shoots there spring to life once more 
As the days and nights pass by. 

381 But if a bhikkhu of perfect virtue <161> 

Bums one with [his virtue's] fire. 

One does not gain sons and cattle. 

Nor do one's heirs acquire wealth. 

Childless and heirless they become. 

Like stumps of palmyra trees. 203 [70] 

382 "Therefore a person who is wise. 

Out of regard for his own good. 

Should always treat these properly: 

A fierce serpent and a blazing fire, 

A famous khattiya. 

And a bhikkhu of perfect virtue." 

When this was said. King Pasenadi of Kosala said to the 
Blessed One: "Magnificent, venerable sir! Magnificent, vener- 
able sir! The Dhamma has been made clear in many ways by the 
Blessed One, as though he were turning upright what had been 
turned upside down, revealing what was hidden, showing the 
way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for 
those with eyesight to see forms. I go for refuge to the Blessed 
One, and to the Dhamma, and to the Bhikkhu Sangha. From 
today let the Blessed One remember me as a lay follower who 
has gone for refuge for life." <162> 

2(2) A Person 

At Savatthi. Then King Pasenadi of Kosala approached the 
Blessed One, paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and 
said to him: 

"Venerable sir, how many things are there which, when they 
arise within a person, arise for his harm, suffering, and discom- 
fort?" 

"There are, great king, three things which, when they arise 
within a person, arise for his harm, suffering, and discomfort. 
What are the three? Greed, hatred, and delusion. These are the 



3. Kosalasamyutta 167 



three things which, when they arise within a person, arise for his 
harm, suffering, and discomfort. 

383 “Greed, hatred, and delusion. 

Arisen from within oneself. 

Injure the person of evil mind <163> 

As its own fruit destroys the reed." 204 [71] 

3 (3) Aging and Death 

At Savatthi. Sitting to one side. King Pasenadi of Kosala said to 
the Blessed One: "Venerable sir, for one who has taken birth, is 
there anything other [to expect] than aging and death?" 205 

"For one who has taken birth, great king, there is nothing 
other [to expect] than aging and death. Even in the case of those 
affluent khattiyas — rich, with great wealth and property, with 
abundant gold and silver, abundant treasures and commodities, 
abundant wealth and grain — because they have taken birth, 
there is nothing other [to expect] than aging and death. Even in 
the case of those affluent brahmins ... affluent householders — 
rich ... with abundant wealth and grain — because they have 
taken birth, there is nothing other [to expect] than aging and 
death. Even in the case of those bhikkhus who are arahants, 
whose taints are destroyed, who have lived the holy life, done 
what had to be done, laid down the burden, <164> reached their 
own goal, utterly destroyed the fetters of existence, and are com- 
pletely liberated through final knowledge: even for them this 
body is subject to breaking up, subject to being laid down. 206 

384 "The beautiful chariots of kings wear out. 

This body too undergoes decay. 

But the Dhamma of the good does not decay: 

So the good proclaim along with the good." 207 

4(4) Dear 

At Savatthi. Sitting to one side. King Pasenadi of Kosala said to 
the Blessed One: "Here, venerable sir, while I was alone in 
seclusion, a reflection arose in my mind thus: 'Who now treat 
themselves as dear, and who treat themselves as a foe?' Then, 




168 L The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 

venerable sir, it occurred to me: Those who engage in miscon- 
duct of body, speech, and mind treat themselves as a foe. Even 
though they may say, "We regard ourselves as dear," still they 
treat themselves as a foe. For what reason? [72] Because of their 
own accord they act towards themselves in the same way that a 
foe might act towards a foe; therefore they treat themselves as a 
foe. <165> But those who engage in good conduct of body, 
speech, and mind treat themselves as dear. Even though they 
may say, "We regard ourselves as a foe," still they treat them- 
selves as dear. For what reason? Because of their own accord 
they act towards themselves in the same way that a dear person 
might act towards one who is dear; therefore they treat them- 
selves as dear."' 

"So it is, great king! So it is, great king!" 

(The Buddha then repeats the entire statement of King Pasenadi and 
adds the following verses :) 

385 "If one regards oneself as dear 
One should not yoke oneself to evil. 

For happiness is not easily gained 

By one who does a wrongful deed. <166> 

386 "When one is seized by the End-maker 
As one discards the human state. 

What can one call truly one's own? 

What does one take when one goes? 

What follows one along 

Like a shadow that never departs? 208 

387 "Both the merits and the evil 
That a mortal does right here: 

This is what is truly one's own. 

This one takes when one goes; 

This is what follows one along 
Like a shadow that never departs. 

388 "Therefore one should do what is good 
As a collection for the future life. 

Merits are the support for living beings 
[When they arise] in the other world." 




3. Kosalasamyutta 169 



5 (5) Self-Protected 

<16 7> At Savatthi. Sitting to one side. King Pasenadi of Kosala 
said to the Blessed One: "Here, venerable sir, while I was alone 
in seclusion, a reflection arose in my mind thus: 'Who now pro- 
tect themselves and who leave themselves unprotected?' Then, 
venerable sir, it occurred to me: 'Those who engage in miscon- 
duct of body, speech, and mind leave themselves unprotected. 
Even though a company of elephant troops may protect them, 
or a company of cavalry, or a company of chariot troops, [73] or 
a company of infantry, still they leave themselves unprotected. 
For what reason? Because that protection is external, not inter- 
nal; therefore they leave themselves unprotected. But those who 
engage in good conduct of body, speech, and mind protect 
themselves. Even though no company of elephant troops pro- 
tects them, nor a company of cavalry, nor a company of chario- 
teers, nor a company of infantry, still they protect themselves. 
For what reason? Because that protection is internal, not exter- 
nal; therefore they protect themselves.'" 

"So it is, great king! So it is, great king!" 

(The Buddha then repeats the entire statement of King Pasenadi and 
adds the following verse:) <168> 

389 "Good is restraint with the body. 

Restraint by speech is also good; 

Good is restraint with the mind. 

Restraint everywhere is good. 

Conscientious, everywhere restrained. 

One is said to be protected." 

6(6) Fezo 

At Savatthi. Sitting to one side. King Pasenadi of Kosala said to 
the Blessed One: "Here, venerable sir, while I was alone in 
seclusion, a reflection arose in my mind thus: 'Few are those 
people in the world who, <169> when they obtain superior pos- 
sessions, do not become intoxicated and negligent, yield to 
greed for sensual pleasures, and mistreat other beings. Far more 
numerous are those people in the world who, when they obtain 
superior possessions, become intoxicated and negligent, [74] 
yield to greed for sensual pleasures, and mistreat other beings.'" 




170 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



"So it is, great king! So it is, great king!" 

(The Buddha then repeats the entire statement of King Pasenadi and 
adds the follozving verse-) 

390 "Enamoured with their pleasures and wealth. 

Greedy, dazed by sensual pleasures. 

They do not realize they have gone too far 
Like deer that enter the trap laid out. 

Afterwards the bitter fruit is theirs. 

For bad indeed is the result." 209 <170> 

7 (7) The Judgement Hall 

At Savatthi. Sitting to one side. King Pasenadi of Kosala said to 
the Blessed One: "Here, venerable sir, when I am sitting in the 
judgement hall, 210 I see even affluent khattiyas, affluent brahmins, 
and affluent householders — rich, with great wealth and proper- 
ty, with abundant gold and silver, abundant treasures and com- 
modities, abundant wealth and grain — speaking deliberate lies 
for the sake of sensual pleasures, with sensual pleasures as the 
cause, on account of sensual pleasures. Then, venerable sir, it 
occurs to me: 'I've had enough now with the judgement hall! 
Now it is Good Face who will be known by his judgements.'" 211 

"So it is, great king! So it is, great king! Even affluent khat- 
tiyas, affluent brahmins, and affluent householders ... speak 
deliberate lies for the sake of sensual pleasures, with sensual 
pleasures as the cause, on account of sensual pleasures. That 
will lead to their harm and suffering for a long time to come. 

391 "Enamoured with their pleasures and wealth. 

Greedy, dazed by sensual pleasures. 

They do not realize they have gone too far 
Like fish that enter the net spread out. 

Afterwards the bitter fruit is theirs, <171> 

Forbad indeed is the result." [75] 

8 (8) Mallika 

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion King Pasenadi of Kosala had 
gone together with Queen Mallika to the upper terrace of the 




3. Kosalasamyutta 171 



palace. Then King Pasenadi of Kosala said to Queen Mallika: "Is 
there, Mallika, anyone more dear to you than yourself?" 212 

"There is no one, great king, more dear to me than myself. Bui 
is there anyone, great king, more dear to you than yourself?" 

"For me too, Mallika, there is no one more dear than myself." 

Then King Pasenadi of Kosala descended from the palace anc 
approached the Blessed One. Having approached, he paid horn 
age to the Blessed One, sat down to one side, and related to tht 
Blessed One his conversation with Queen Mallika. Then the 
Blessed One, having understood the meaning of this, on that 
occasion recited this verse: <172> 

392 "Having traversed all quarters with the mind. 

One finds none anywhere dearer than oneself. 

Likewise, each person holds himself most dear; 

Hence one who loves himself should not harm others." 



9(9) Sacrifice 

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion a great sacrifice had been set 
up for King Pasenadi of Kosala. Five hundred bulls, five hun- 
dred bullocks, five hundred heifers, [76] five hundred goats, and 
five hundred rams had been led to the pillar for the sacrifice. 
And his slaves, servants, and workers, spurred on by punish- 
ment and fear, were busy making the preparations, wailing with 
tearful faces. 213 

Then, in the morning, a number of bhikkhus dressed and, tak- 
ing their bowls and robes, entered Savatthi for alms. When they 
had walked for alms in Savatthi and had returned from their 
alms round, after the meal they approached the Blessed One, 
<173> paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said: 
"Here, venerable sir, a great sacrifice has been set up for King 
Pasenadi of Kosala. Five hundred bulls ... have been led to the 
pillar for the sacrifice. And his slaves ... are busy making prepa- 
rations, wailing with tearful faces." 

Then the Blessed One, having understood the meaning of this, 
on that occasion recited these verses: 

393 "The horse sacrifice, human sacrifice, 

Sammapasa, vajapeyya, niraggala : 




172 I. The Book with Verses (Sagdthavagga) 



These great sacrifices, fraught with violence. 

Do not bring great fruit. 214 

394 "The great seers of right conduct 
Do not attend that sacrifice 
Where goats, sheep, and cattle 
Of various kinds are slain. <174> 

395 "But when sacrifices free from violence 
Are always offered by family custom, 215 
Where no goats, sheep, or cattle 

Of various kinds are slain: 

The great seers of right conduct 
Attend a sacrifice like this. 

396 "The wise person should offer this, 

A sacrifice bringing great fruit. 

For one who makes such sacrifice 
It is indeed better, never worse. 

Such a sacrifice is truly vast 

And the devatas too are pleased." 

10 (10) Bondage 

Now on that occasion a great mass of people had been put in 
bondage by King Pasenadi of Kosala — some with ropes, some 
with clogs, some with chains. 216 [77] <175> Then, in the morn- 
ing, a number of bhikkhus dressed . . . and said to the Blessed 
One: "Here, venerable sir, a great mass of people have been put 
in bondage by King Pasenadi of Kosala, some with ropes, some 
with clogs, some with chains." 

Then the Blessed One, having understood the meaning of this, 
on that occasion recited these verses: 

397 "That bond, the wise say, is not strong 
Made of iron, wood, or rope; 

But infatuation with jewellery and earrings. 

Anxious concern for wives and children — 

398 This, the wise say, is the strong bond. 

Degrading, supple, hard to escape. 




3. Kosalasamyutta 173 



But even this they cut and wander forth, <176> 
Unconcerned, having abandoned sensual pleasures." 217 

II. The Second Subchapter 
(Childless) 



11 (1) Seven Jatilas 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Savatthi in the 
Eastern Park in the Mansion of Migara's Mother. 218 Now on that 
occasion, in the evening, the Blessed One had emerged from 
seclusion and was sitting by the outer gateway. Then King 
Pasenadi of Kosala approached the Blessed One, paid homage to 
him, and sat down to one side. [78] <177> 

Now on that occasion seven jatilas, seven niganthas, seven 
naked ascetics, seven one-robed ascetics, and seven wander- 
ers — with hairy armpits, long fingernails and long body hairs, 
carrying their bundles of requisites — passed by not far from the 
Blessed One. 219 Then King Pasenadi of Kosala rose from his seat, 
arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, knelt down with his 
right knee on the ground, and, raising his joined hands in rever- 
ential salutation towards the seven jatilas, seven niganthas, 
seven naked ascetics, seven one-robed ascetics, and seven wan- 
derers, he announced his name three times: "I am the king, 
venerable sirs, Pasenadi of Kosala!... I am the king, venerable 
sirs, Pasenadi of Kosala!" 

Then, not long after those seven jatilas ... <178> ... and seven 
wanderers had departed. King Pasenadi of Kosala approached 
the Blessed One, paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and 
said to the Blessed One: "Those, venerable sir, are to be included 
among the men in the world who are arahants or who have 
entered upon the path to arahantship." 220 

"Great king, being a layman who enjoys sensual pleasures, 
dwelling in a home crowded with children, enjoying the use of 
Kasian sandalwood, wearing garlands, scents, and unguents, 
receiving gold and silver, it is difficult for you to know: 'These 
are arahants or these have entered upon the path to arahant- 
ship.' 

"It is by living together with someone, great king, that his 
virtue is to be known, and that after a long time, not after a short 




174 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



time; by one who is attentive, not by one who is inattentive; by 
one who is wise, not by a dullard. 

"It is by dealing with someone, great king, that his honesty is 
to be known, and that after a long time, not after a short time; by 
one who is attentive, not by one who is inattentive; by one who 
is wise, not by a dullard. <179> 

"It is in adversities, great king, that a person's fortitude is to 
be known, and that after a long time, not after a short time; by 
one who is attentive, not by one who is inattentive; by one who 
is wise, not by a dullard. [79] 

"It is by discussion with someone, great king, that his wisdom 
is to be known, and that after a long time, not after a short time; 
by one who is attentive, not by one who is inattentive; by one 
who is wise, not by a dullard." 221 

"It is wonderful, venerable sir! It is amazing, venerable sir! 
How well this has been stated by the Blessed One: 'Great king, 
being a layman ... it is difficult for you to know ... (as above) 
<180> ... by one who is wise, not by a dullard.' 

"These, venerable sir, are my spies, undercover agents, com- 
ing back after spying out the country. 222 First information is 
gathered by them and afterwards I will make them disclose it. 223 
Now, venerable sir, when they have washed off the dust and 
dirt and are freshly bathed and groomed, with their hair and 
beards trimmed, clad in white garments, they will enjoy them- 
selves supplied and endowed with the five cords of sensual 
pleasure." 

Then the Blessed One, having understood the meaning of this, 
on that occasion recited these verses: <181> 

399 "A man is not easily known by outward form 
Nor should one trust a quick appraisal. 

For in the guise of the well controlled 
Uncontrolled men move in this world. 

400 "Like a counterfeit earring made of clay. 

Like a bronze half-pence coated with gold. 

Some move about in disguise: 

Inwardly impure, outwardly beautiful." 




3. Kosalasamyutta 175 



12 (2) Five Kings 

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion five kings headed by King 
Pasenadi were enjoying themselves supplied and endowed with 
the five cords of sensual pleasure when this conversation arose 
among them: "What is the chief of sensual pleasures?" 224 

Some among them said: "Forms are the chief of sensual pleas- 
ures." Some said: "Sounds are the chief." Some: "Odours are the 
chief." Some: "Tastes are the chief." Some: [80] "Tactile objects 
are the chief." 225 <182> 

Since those kings were unable to convince one another, King 
Pasenadi of Kosala said to them: "Come, dear sirs, let us 
approach the Blessed One and question him about this matter. 
As the Blessed One answers us, so we should remember it." 

"All right, dear sir," those kings replied. Then those five kings, 
headed by King Pasenadi, approached the Blessed One, paid 
homage to him, and sat down to one side. King Pasenadi then 
reported their entire discussion to the Blessed One, asking: 
"What now, venerable sir, is the chief of sensual pleasures?" 
<183> 

"Great king, I say that what is chief among the five cords of 
sensual pleasure is determined by whatever is most agree- 
able. 226 Those same forms that are agreeable to one person, great 
king, are disagreeable to another. When one is pleased and com- 
pletely satisfied with certain forms, then one does not yearn for 
any other form higher or more sublime that those forms. For 
him those forms are then supreme; for him those forms are- 
unsurpassed. 

"Those same sounds ... Those same odours ... Those same 
tastes ... <184> ... Those same tactile objects that are agreeable 
to one person, great king, are disagreeable to another. [81] Wher 
one is pleased and completely satisfied with certain tactile- 
objects, then one does not yearn for any other tactile object high- 
er or more sublime that those tactile objects. For him those tac- 
tile objects are then supreme; for him those tactile objects are 
unsurpassed." 

Now on that occasion the lay follower Candanangalika was 
sitting in that assembly. Then the lay follower Candanangalika 
rose from his seat, arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, 
and, raising his joined hands in reverential salutation towards 





the Blessed One, said to him: "An inspiration has come to me, 
Blessed One! An inspiration has come to me. Fortunate One!" 

"Then express your inspiration, Candanaiigalika," the Blessed 
One said. 227 

Then the lay follower Candanaiigalika, in the presence of the 
Blessed One, extolled him with an appropriate verse: 

401 "As the fragrant red lotus Kokanada 
Blooms in the morning, its fragrance unspent. 

Behold Aiigirasa, the Radiant One, 

Like the sun beaming in the sky." 228 

Then those five kings bestowed five upper robes upon the lay 
follower Candanaiigalika. But the lay follower Candanaiigalika 
<185> bestowed those five upper robes upon the Blessed One. 

13 (3) A Bucket Measure of Food 

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion King Pasenadi of Kosala had 
eaten a bucket measure of rice and curries 229 Then, while still 
full, huffing and puffing, the king approached the Blessed One, 
paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. 

Then the Blessed One, having understood that King Pasenadi 
was full and was huffing and puffing, on that occasion recited 
this verse: 

402 "When a man is always mindful. 

Knowing moderation in the food he eats. 

His ailments then diminish: 

He ages slowly, guarding his life." [82] <186> 

Now on that occasion the brahmin youth Sudassana was 
standing behind King Pasenadi of Kosala. The king then 
addressed him thus: "Come now, dear Sudassana, learn this 
verse from the Blessed One and recite it to me whenever I am 
taking my meal. I will then present you daily with a hundred 
kahapanas as a perpetual grant." 230 

"Yes, sire," the brahmin youth Sudassana replied. Having 
learned this verse from the Blessed One, whenever King Pasenadi 
was taking his meal the brahmin youth Sudassana recited: 




3. Kosalasamyutta 177 



403 "When a man is always mindful ... <187> 

He ages slowly, guarding his life." 

Then King Pasenadi of Kosala gradually reduced his intake of 
food to at most a pint-pot measure of boiled rice. 231 At a later 
time, when his body had become quite slim. King Pasenadi of 
Kosala stroked his limbs with his hand and on that occasion 
uttered this inspired utterance: "The Blessed One showed com- 
passion towards me in regard to both kinds of good — the good 
pertaining to the present life and that pertaining to the future 
life." 232 



14 (4) Battle (1) 

At Savatthi. Then King Ajatasattu of Magadha, the Videhan son, 
mobilized a four-division army and marched in the direction of 
Kasi against King Pasenadi of Kosala. 233 King Pasenadi heard 
this report, mobilized a four-division army, and launched a 
counter-march in the direction of Kasi against King Ajatasattu. 
[83] Then King Ajatasattu of Magadha and King Pasenadi of 
Kosala fought a battle. In that <188> battle King Ajatasattu 
defeated King Pasenadi, and King Pasenadi, defeated, retreated 
to his own capital of Savatthi. 

Then, in the morning, a number of bhikkhus dressed and, tak- 
ing their bowls and robes, entered Savatthi for alms. When they 
had walked for alms in Savatthi and had returned from their 
alms round, after the meal they approached the Blessed One, 
paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and reported what 
had happened. <189> [The Blessed One said:] 

"Bhikkhus, King Ajatasattu of Magadha has evil friends, evil 
companions, evil comrades. King Pasenadi of Kosala has good 
friends, good companions, good comrades. Yet for this day, 
bhikkhus, King Pasenadi, having been defeated, will sleep badly 
tonight. 234 

404 "V ictory breeds enmity. 

The defeated one sleeps badly. 

The peaceful one sleeps at ease. 

Having abandoned victory and defeat." 235 <190> 




178 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



15 (5) Battle (2) 

[84] ( Opening as in §14:) 

In that battle King Pasenadi defeated King Ajatasattu and cap- 
tured him alive. Then it occurred to King Pasenadi: "Although 
this King Ajatasattu of Magadha has transgressed against me 
while I have not transgressed against him, still, he is my 
nephew. Let me now confiscate all his elephant troops, all his 
cavalry, all his chariot troops, <191> and all his infantry, and let 
him go with nothing but his life." 

Then King Pasenadi confiscated all King Ajatasattu's elephant 
troops, all his cavalry, all his chariot troops, and all his infantry, 
and let him go with nothing but his life. 

Then, in the morning, a number of bhikkhus dressed and, tak- 
ing their bowls and robes, entered Savatthi for alms. When they 
had walked for alms in Savatthi and had returned from their 
alms round, after the meal they approached the Blessed One, 
paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and reported what 
had happened. [85] <192> 

Then the Blessed One, having understood the meaning of this, 
on that occasion recited these verses: 

405 "A man will go on plundering 

So long as it serves his ends, <193> 

But when others plunder him. 

The plunderer is plundered. 236 

406 "The fool thinks fortune is on his side 
So long as his evil does not ripen. 

But when the evil ripens 

The fool incurs suffering. 

407 "The killer begets a killer. 

One who conquers, a conqueror. 

The abuser begets abuse. 

The reviler, one who reviles. 

Thus by the unfolding of kamma 
The plunderer is plundered." 237 [86] 




3. Kosalasamyutta 179 



26 ( 6) Daughter 

At Savatthi. Then King Pasenadi of Kosala approached the 
Blessed One, paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. 
Then a certain man approached King Pasenadi <194> and 
informed him in a whisper: "Sire, Queen Mallika has given birth 
to a daughter." When this was said, King Pasenadi was dis- 
pleased. 238 Then the Blessed One, having understood that King 
Pasenadi was displeased, on that occasion recited these verses: 

408 "A woman, O lord of the people, 

May turn out better than a man: 

She may be wise and virtuous, 

A devoted wife, revering her mother-in-law. 239 

409 "The son to whom she gives birth 
May become a hero, O lord of the land. 

The son of such a blessed woman 
May even rule the realm." 240 <195> 

17 (7) Diligence (1) 

At Savatthi. Sitting to one side. King Pasenadi of Kosala said to 
the Blessed One: "Is there, venerable sir, one thing which 
secures both kinds of good, the good pertaining to the present 
life and that pertaining to the future life?" 

"There is one thing, great king, which secures both kinds of 
good, the good pertaining to the present life and that pertaining 
to the future life." 

"But what, venerable sir, is that one thing?" 

"Diligence, great king. Just as the footprints of all living 
beings that walk fit into the footprint of the elephant, and the 
elephant's footprint is declared to be their chief by reason of its 
size, so diligence is the one <196> thing which secures both 
kinds of good, [87] the good pertaining to the present life and 
that pertaining to the future life. 241 

410 "For one who desires long life and health. 

Beauty, heaven, and noble birth, 

[A variety of] lofty delights 




180 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



Following in succession. 

The wise praise diligence 
In doing deeds of merit. 

411 "The wise person who is diligent 
Secures both kinds of good: 

The good visible in this very life 
And the good of the future life. 

The steadfast one, by attaining the good. 

Is called a person of wisdom." 242 

18 (8) Diligence (2) 

At Savatthi. Sitting to one side. King Pasenadi of Kosala said to 
the Blessed One: <19 7> "Here, venerable sir, while I was alone 
in seclusion, the following reflection arose in my mind: 'The 
Dhamma has been well expounded by the Blessed One, and that 
is for one with good friends, good companions, good comrades, 
not for one with bad friends, bad companions, bad comrades.'" 243 

"So it is, great king! So it is, great king! The Dhamma has been 
well expounded by me, and that is for one with good friends, 
good companions, good comrades, not for one with bad friends, 
bad companions, bad comrades. 

"On one occasion, great king, I was living among the Sakyans, 
where there is a town of the Sakyans named Nagaraka. 244 Then 
the bhikkhu Ananda approached me, paid homage to me, sat 
down to one side, and said: 'Venerable sir, this is half of the holy 
life, that is, good friendship, good companionship, good com- 
radeship.' 

"When this was said, great king, I told the bhikkhu Ananda: 
'Not so, Ananda! Not so, Ananda! <198> This is the entire holy 
life, Ananda, that is, good friendship, [88] good companionship, 
good comradeship. When a bhikkhu has a good friend, a good 
companion, a good comrade, it is to be expected that he will 
develop and cultivate the Noble Eightfold Path. And how, 
Ananda, does a bhikkhu who has a good friend, a good com- 
panion, a good comrade, develop and cultivate the Noble 
Eightfold Path? Here, Ananda, a bhikkhu develops right view, 
which is based upon seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, 
maturing in release. He develops right intention ... right speech 




3. Kosalasamyutta 181 



. . . right action . . . right livelihood . . . right effort . . . right mind- 
fulness ... right concentration, which is based upon seclusion, 
dispassion, and cessation, maturing in release. It is in this way, 
Ananda, that a bhikkhu who has a good friend, a good compan- 
ion, a good comrade, develops and cultivates the Noble Eight- 
fold Path. 

'"By the following method too, Ananda, it may be understood 
how the entire holy life is good friendship, good companion- 
ship, good comradeship: <199> by relying upon me as a good 
friend, Ananda, beings subject to birth are freed from birth; 
beings subject to aging are freed from aging; beings subject to 
illness are freed from illness; beings subject to death are freed 
from death; beings subject to sorrow, lamentation, pain, dis- 
pleasure, and despair are freed from sorrow, lamentation, pain, 
displeasure, and despair. By this method, Ananda, it may be 
understood how the entire holy life is good friendship, good 
companionship, good comradeship.' 

"Therefore, great king, you should train yourself thus: 'I will 
be one who has good friends, good companions, good com- 
rades.' It is in such a way that you should train yourself. 

"When, great king, you have good friends, good companions, 
good comrades, [89] you should dwell with one thing for sup- 
port: diligence in wholesome states. 

"When, great king, you are dwelling diligently, with diligence 
for support, your retinue of harem women will think thus: 'The 
king dwells diligently, with diligence for support. Come now, 
let us also dwell diligently, with diligence for support.' <200> 

"When, great king, you are dwelling diligently, with diligence 
for support, your retinue of khattiya vassals will think thus ... 
your troops will think thus ... your subjects in town and 
countryside will think thus: 'The king dwells diligently, with 
diligence for support. Come now, let us also dwell diligently, 
with diligence for support.' 

"When, great king, you are dwelling diligently, with diligence 
for support, you yourself will be guarded and protected, your 
retinue of harem women will be guarded and protected, your 
treasury and storehouse will be guarded and protected. 

412 "For one who desires lofty riches 
Following in succession. 




182 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



The wise praise diligence 
In doing deeds of merit. 

413 "The wise person who is diligent <201> 

Secures both kinds of good: 

The good visible in this very life 
And the good of the future life. 

The steadfast one, by attaining the good. 

Is called a person of wisdom." 

19 (9) Childless (1) 

At Savatthi. Then King Pasenadi of Kosala approached the 
Blessed One, paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The 
Blessed One then said to him: "Where are you coming from, 
great king, in the middle of the day?" 

"Here, venerable sir, a financier householder in Savatthi has 
died. I have come after conveying his heirless fortune to the 
palace, as he died intestate. 245 There were eighty lakhs of gold, 
[90] not to speak of silver, and yet, venerable sir, that financier 
householder's meals were like this: he ate red rice along with 
sour gruel. His clothes were like this: he wore a three-piece 
hempen garment. His vehicle was like this: <202> he went about 
in a dilapidated little cart with a leaf awning." 246 

"So it is, great king! So it is, great king! When an inferior man 
gains abundant wealth, he does not make himself happy and 
pleased, nor does he make his mother and father happy and 
pleased, nor his wife and children, nor his slaves, workers, and 
servants, nor his friends and colleagues; nor does he establish an 
offering for ascetics and brahmins, one leading upwards, of 
heavenly fruit, resulting in happiness, conducive to heaven. 
Because his wealth is not being used properly, kings take it away, 
or thieves take it away, or fire bums it, or water carries it away, 
or unloved heirs take it. Such being the case, great king, that 
wealth, not being used properly, goes to waste, not to utilization. 

"Suppose, great king, in a place uninhabited by human 
beings, there was a lotus pond with clear, cool, sweet, clean 
water, with good fords, <203> delightful; but no people would 
take that water, or drink it, or bathe in it, or use it for any purpose 
In such a case, great king, that water, not being used properly 




3. Kosalasamyutta 183 



would go to waste, not to utilization. So too, great king, when an 
inferior man gains abundant wealth ... that wealth, not being 
used properly, goes to waste, not to utilization. 

"But, great king, when a superior man gains abundant wealth, 
he makes himself happy and pleased, and he makes his mother 
and father happy and pleased, and his wife and children, and 
his slaves, workers, and servants, and his friends and colleagues; 
<204> and he establishes an offering for ascetics and brahmins, 
one leading upwards, of heavenly fruit, resulting in happiness, 
conducive to heaven. Because his wealth is being used properly, 
[91] kings do not take it away, thieves do not take it away, fire 
does not burn it, water does not carry it away, and unloved 
heirs do not take it. Such being the case, great king, that wealth, 
being used properly, goes to utilization, not to waste. 

"Suppose, great king, not far from a village or a town, there 
was a lotus pond with clear, cool, sweet, clean water, with good 
fords, delightful; and people would take that water, and drink 
it, and bathe in it, and use it for their purposes. In such a case, 
great king, that water, being used properly, would go to utiliza- 
tion, not to waste. So too, great king, when a superior man gains 
abundant wealth ... <205> that wealth, being used properly, 
goes to utilization, not to waste. 

414 "As cool water in a desolate place 
Evaporates without being drunk. 

So when a scoundrel acquires wealth 
He neither enjoys himself nor gives. 

415 "But when the wise man obtains wealth 
He enjoys himself and does his duty. 

Having supported his kin, free from blame. 

That noble man goes to a heavenly state." 

20 (10) Childless (2) 

(As above, except that the amount is a hundred lakhs of gold, a lakh 
being equal to a hundred thousand:) [92] <206> 

"So it is, great king! So it is, great king! Once in the past, great 
king, that financier householder provided a paccekabuddha 
named Tagarasikhi with almsfood. Having said, 'Give alms to 




184 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathdvagga ) 



the ascetic/ he rose from his seat and departed. But after giving, 
he later felt regret and thought: 'It would have been better if the 
slaves or workers had eaten that almsfood!' Moreover, he mur- 
dered his brother's only son for the sake of his fortune. 247 

"Because that financier householder provided the paccek- 
abuddha Tagarasikhi with almsfood, <207> as a result of that 
kamma he was reborn seven times in a good destination, in the 
heavenly world. As a residual result of that same kamma, he 
obtained the position of financier seven times in this same city 
of Savatthi. But because that financier householder later felt 
regret about giving, as a result of that kamma his mind did not 
incline to the enjoyment of excellent food, excellent clothing, 
and excellent vehicles, nor to the enjoyment of excellent items 
among the five cords of sensual pleasure. And because that fin- 
ancier householder murdered his brother's only son for the sake 
of his fortune, as a result of that kamma he was tormented in 
hell for many years, for many hundreds of years, for many thou- 
sands of years, for many hundreds of thousands of years. As a 
residual result of that same kamma, he has furnished the royal 
treasury with this seventh heirless fortune. 

"The old merit of that financier householder has been utterly 
exhausted, <208> and he had not accumulated any fresh merit. 
But today, great king, the financier householder is being roasted 
in the Great Roruva Hell." 248 

"So, venerable sir, that financier householder has been reborn 
in the Great Roruva Hell?" [93] 

"Yes, great king, that financier householder has been reborn in 
the Great Roruva Hell. 

416 "Grain, wealth, silver, gold. 

Or whatever other possessions there are, 

Slaves, workers, messengers, 

And those who live as one's dependants: 

Without taking anything one must go, 

Everything must be left behind. 

417 "But what one has done by body, 

Or by speech or mind: 

This is what is truly one's own, 

This one takes when one goes; 




3. Kosalasamyutta 185 



This is what follows one along 
Like a shadow that never departs. 

418 "Therefore one should do what is good <209> 
As a collection for the future life. 

Merits are the support for living beings 
[When they arise] in the other world." 

III. The Third Subchapter 
(The Kosalan Pentad) 



21 (1) Persons 

At Savatthi. Then King Pasenadi of Kosala approached the 
Blessed One, paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The 
Blessed One then said to him: <210> 

"Great king, there are these four kinds of persons found exist- 
ing in the world. What four? The one heading from darkness to 
darkness, the one heading from darkness to light, the one head- 
ing from light to darkness, the one heading from light to light. 249 

"And how, great king, is a person one heading from darkness 
to darkness? Here some person has been reborn in a low fami- 
ly — a family of candalas, bamboo workers, hunters, Cartwrights, 
or flower-scavengers — a poor family in which there is little food 
and drink and which subsists with difficulty, [94] one where 
food and clothing are obtained with difficulty; and he is ugly, 
unsightly, deformed, chronically ill — purblind or cripple-hand- 
ed or lame or paralyzed. 250 He is not one who gains food, drink, 
clothing, and vehicles; garlands, scents, and unguents; bedding, 
housing, and lighting. He engages in misconduct of body, 
speech, and mind. Having done so, with the breakup of the 
body, <21 1> after death, he is reborn in the plane of misery, in a 
bad destination, in the nether world, in hell. 

"Suppose, great king, a man would go from darkness to dark- 
ness, or from gloom to gloom, or from stain to stain: this person, 
I say, is exactly similar. It is in this way, great king, that a person 
is one heading from darkness to darkness. 

"And how, great king, is a person one heading from darkness 
to light? Here some person has been reborn in a low family ... 
one where food and clothing are obtained with difficulty; and he 




186 I. The Book with Vers es ( Sagathavagga ) 



is ugly ... or paralyzed. He is not one who gains food ... and 
lighting. He engages in good conduct of body, speech, and 
mind. Having done so, with the breakup of the body, after 
death, he is reborn in a good destination, in a heavenly world. 

"Suppose, great king, a man would climb from the ground on 
to a palanquin, or from a palanquin on to horseback, <212> or 
from horseback to an elephant mount, or from an elephant 
mount to a mansion: this person, I say, is exactly similar. It is in 
this way, great king, that a person is one heading from darkness 
to light. 

"And how, great king, is a person one heading from light to 
darkness? Here some person has been reborn in a high family — 
an affluent khattiya family, an affluent brahmin family, or an 
affluent householder family — one which is rich, with great 
wealth and property, [95] with abundant gold and silver, abun- 
dant treasures and commodities, abundant wealth and grain; 
and he is handsome, attractive, graceful, possessing supreme 
beauty of complexion. He is one who gains food, drink, cloth- 
ing, and vehicles; garlands, scents, and unguents; bedding, 
housing, and lighting. He engages in misconduct of body, 
speech, and mind. Having done so, with the breakup of the 
body, after death, he is reborn in the plane of misery, in a bad 
destination, in the nether world, in hell. 

"Suppose, great king, a man would descend from a mansion 
to an elephant mount, or from an elephant mount to horseback, 
or from horseback to a palanquin, or from a palanquin to the 
ground, or from the ground to underground darkness: this per- 
son, I say, is exactly similar. It is in this way, great king, that a 
person is one heading from light to darkness. <213> 

"And how, great king, is a person one heading from light to 
light? Here some person has been reborn in a high family ... 
with abundant wealth and grain; and he is handsome, attractive, 
graceful, possessing supreme beauty of complexion. He is one 
who gains food . . . and lighting. He engages in good conduct of 
body, speech, and mind. Having done so, with the breakup of 
the body, after death, he is reborn in a good destination, in a 
heavenly world. 

"Suppose, great king, a man would cross over from palanquin 
to palanquin, or from horseback to horseback, or from elephant 
mount to elephant mount, or from mansion to mansion: this 




3. Kosalasamyutta 187 



person, I say, is exactly similar. It is in this way, great king, that 
a person is one heading from light to light. [96] 

"These, great king, are the four kinds of persons found exist- 
ing in the world. 



(i) 

419 "The person, O king, who is poor. 
Lacking in faith, stingy. 

Niggardly, with bad intentions. 

Wrong in views, disrespectful, <214> 

420 Who abuses and reviles ascetics. 
Brahmins, and other mendicants; 

A nihilist, a scoffer, who hinders 
Another giving food to beggars: 

421 When such a person dies, O king. 

He goes, lord of the people. 

To the terrible hell. 

Heading from darkness to darkness. 

(ii) 

422 "The person, O king, who is poor. 
Endowed with faith, generous. 

One who gives, with best intentions, 

A person with unscattered mind 

423 Who rises up and venerates ascetics. 
Brahmins, and other mendicants; 

One who trains in righteous conduct. 

Who hinders none giving food to beggars: 

424 When such a person dies, O king, <215> 
He goes, lord of the people. 

To the triple heaven. 

Heading from darkness to light. 

(iii) 

425 "The person, O king, who is rich. 

Lacking in faith, stingy. 

Niggardly, with bad intentions. 

Wrong in views, disrespectful, 

426 Who abuses and reviles ascetics. 
Brahmins, and other mendicants; 




188 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



A nihilist, a scoffer, who hinders 
Another giving food to beggars: 

427 When such a person dies, O king. 

He goes, lord of the people. 

To the terrible hell. 

Heading from light to darkness. 

(iv) 

428 "The person, O king, who is rich. 

Endowed with faith, generous. 

One who gives, with best intentions, <216> 
A person with unscattered mind 

429 Who rises up and venerates ascetics. 
Brahmins, and other mendicants; 

One who trains in righteous conduct, 

Who hinders none giving food to beggars: 

430 When such a person dies, O king. 

He goes, lord of the people. 

To the triple heaven, 

Heading from light to light." 



22 (2) Grandmother 

At Savatthi. Then, in the middle of the day. King Pasenadi of 
Kosala approached the Blessed One.... The Blessed One said to 
him as he was sitting to one side: [97] "Where are you coming 
from, great king, in the middle of the day?" <217> 

"Venerable sir, my grandmother has died. She was old, aged, 
burdened with years, advanced in life, come to the last stage, 
120 years from birth. Venerable sir, my grandmother was dear 
and beloved to me. If, venerable sir, by means of the elephant- 
gem I could have redeemed her from death, I would have given 
away even the elephant-gem so that she would not have died. 251 
If by means of the horse-gem I could have redeemed her from 
death ... If by a prize village I could have redeemed her from 
death ... If by means of the country I could have redeemed her 
from death, I would have given away even the country so that 
she would not have died." 

"All beings, great king, are subject to death, terminate in 
death, and cannot escape death." 




3. Kosalasamyutta 189 



"It is wonderful, venerable sir! It is amazing, venerable sir! 
How well this has been stated by the Blessed One: 'All beings, 
great king, are subject to death, terminate in death, and cannot 
escape death/" 

"So it is, great king! So it is, great king! All beings, great king, 
are subject to death, terminate in death, and cannot escape 
death. <218> Just as all the potter's vessels, whether unbaked or 
baked, are subject to a breakup, terminate in their breakup, and 
cannot escape their breakup, so all beings are subject to death, 
terminate in death, and cannot escape death. 

431 "All beings will die. 

For life ends in death. 

They will fare according to their deeds, 

Reaping the fruits of their merit and evil: 

The doers of evil go to hell, 

The doers of merit to a happy realm. 

432 "Therefore one should do what is good 
As a collection for the future life. 

Merits are the support for living beings 
[When they arise] in the other world." [98] 

23 (3) World 

At Savatthi. Sitting to one side. King Pasenadi of Kosala said to 
the Blessed One: "Venerable sir, how many things are there in 
the world which, when they arise, arise for one's harm, suffer- 
ing, and discomfort?" 252 <219> 

"There are, great king, three things in the world which, when 
they arise, arise for one's harm, suffering, and discomfort. What 
are the three? Greed, hatred, and delusion. These are the three 
things in the world which, when they arise, arise for one's harm, 
suffering, and discomfort. 

433 "Greed, hatred, and delusion. 

Arisen from within oneself. 

Injure the person of evil mind 

As its own fruit destroys the reed." 




190 I- The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



24 (4) Archery 

At Savatthi. Sitting to one side. King Pasenadi of Kosala said to 
the Blessed One: 

“Venerable sir, where should a gift be given?" 253 

"Wherever one's mind has confidence, great king." 254 

"But, venerable sir, where does what is given become of great 
fruit?" <220> 

"This is one question, great king, 'Where should a gift be 
given?' and this another, 'Where does what is given become of 
great fruit?' What is given to one who is virtuous, great king, is 
of great fruit, not so what is given to an immoral person. Now 
then, great king, I will question you about this same point. 
Answer as you see fit. What do you think, great king? Suppose 
you are at war and a battle is about to take place. Then a khat- 
tiya youth would arrive, one who is untrained, unskilful, 
unpractised, [99] inexperienced, timid, petrified, frightened, 
quick to flee. Would you employ that man, and would you have 
any use for such a man?" 

"Surely not, venerable sir." <221> 

"Then a brahmin youth would arrive ... a vessa youth ... a 
sudda youth ... who is untrained ... quick to flee. Would you 
employ that man, and would you have any use for such a man?" 

"Surely not, venerable sir." 

"What do you think, great king? Suppose you are at war and a 
battle is about to take place. Then a khattiya youth would arrive, 
one who is trained, skilful, practised, experienced, brave, coura- 
geous, bold, ready to stand his place. Would you employ that 
man, and would you have any use for such a man?" 

"Surely I would, venerable sir." 

"Then a brahmin youth would arrive ... a vessa youth ... a 
sudda youth ... who is trained ... ready to stand his place. 
Would you employ that man, and would you have any use for 
such a man?" <222> 

"Surely I would, venerable sir." 

"So too, great king, when a person has gone forth from the 
household life into homelessness, no matter from what clan, if 
he has abandoned five factors and possesses five factors, then 
what is given to him is of great fruit. What five factors have 
been abandoned? Sensual desire has been abandoned; ill will 




3. Kosalasamyutta 191 



has been abandoned; sloth and torpor have been abandoned; 
restlessness and remorse have been abandoned; doubt has been 
abandoned. What five factors does he possess? He possesses the 
aggregate of virtue of one beyond training, the aggregate of con- 
centration of one beyond training, the aggregate of wisdom of 
one beyond training, [100] the aggregate of liberation of one 
beyond training, the aggregate of the knowledge and vision of 
liberation of one beyond training. He possesses these five fac- 
tors. Thus what is given to one who has abandoned five factors 
and who possesses five factors is of great fruit. 255 <223> 

434 "As a king intent on waging war 

Would employ a youth skilled with the bow. 

One endowed with strength and vigour, 

But not the coward on account of his birth — 

435 So even though he be of low birth, 

One should honour the person of noble conduct, 

The sagely man in whom are established 
The virtues of patience and gentleness. 256 

436 "One should build delightful hermitages 
And invite the learned to dwell in them; 

One should build water tanks in the forest 
And causeways over rough terrain. 

437 "With a confident heart one should give 
To those of upright character: 

Give food and drink and things to eat, 

Clothing to wear and beds and seats. 

438 "For as the rain-cloud, thundering, <224> 

Wreathed in lightning, with a hundred crests. 

Pours down its rain upon the earth, 

Flooding both the plain and valley — 

439 So the wise man, faithful, learned, 

Having had a meal prepared. 

Satisfies with food and drink 
The mendicants who live on alms. 

Rejoicing, he distributes gifts. 

And proclaims, 'Give, give.' 




192 I. The B ook with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



440 "For that is his thundering 
Like the sky when it rains. 
That shower of merit, so vast. 
Will pour down on the giver." 



25 (5) The Simile of the Mountain 

At Savatthi. Then, in the middle of the day. King Pasenadi of 
Kosala approached the Blessed One.... <225> The Blessed One 
said to him as he was sitting to one side: "Now where are you 
coming from, great king, in the middle of the day?" 

"Just now, venerable sir, I have been engaged in those affairs 
of kingship typical for head-anointed khattiya kings, who are 
intoxicated with the intoxication of sovereignty, who are 
obsessed by greed for sensual pleasures, who have attained stable 
control in their country, and who rule having conquered a great 
sphere of territory on earth." 257 

"What do you think, great king? [101] Here, a man would 
come to you from the east, one who is trustworthy and reliable; 
having approached, he would tell you: 'For sure, great king, you 
should know this: I am coming from the east, and there I saw a 
great mountain high as the clouds coming this way, crushing all 
living beings. Do whatever you think should be done, great 
king.' Then a second man would come to you from the west . . . 
Then a third man would come to you from the north ... <226> 
... Then a fourth man would come to you from the south, one 
who is trustworthy and reliable; having approached, he would 
tell you: 'For sure, great king, you should know this: I am com- 
ing from the south, and there I saw a great mountain high as the 
clouds coming this way, crushing all living beings. Do whatever 
you think should be done, great king/ If, great king, such a great 
peril should arise, such a terrible destruction of human life, the 
human state being so difficult to obtain, what should be done?" 

"If, venerable sir, such a great peril should arise, such a terrible 
destruction of human life, the human state being so difficult to 
obtain, what else should be done but to live by the Dhamma, to 
live righteously, and to do wholesome and meritorious deeds?" 258 

"I inform you, great king, I announce to you, great king: aging 
and death are rolling in on you. When aging and death are 
rolling in on you, great king, what should be done?" 




3. Kosalasamyutta 193 



"As aging and death are rolling in on me, venerable sir, what 
else should be done but to live by the Dhamma, to live right- 
eously, and to do wholesome and meritorious deeds? <227> 
"There are, venerable sir, elephant battles [fought by] head- 
anointed khattiya kings, who are intoxicated with the intoxica- 
tion of sovereignty, who are obsessed by greed for sensual 
pleasures, who have attained stable control in their country, and 
who rule having conquered a great sphere of territory on earth; 
but there is no place for those elephant battles, no scope for 
them, when aging and death are rolling in. 259 There are, vener- 
able sir, cavalry battles [fought by] head-anointed khattiya kings 
... There are chariot battles ... infantry battles ... [102] but there 
is no place for those infantry battles, no scope for them, when 
aging and death are rolling in. In this royal court, venerable sir, 
there are counsellors who, when the enemies arrive, are capable 
of dividing them by subterfuge; but there is no place for those 
battles of subterfuge, no scope for them, when aging and death 
are rolling in. In this royal court, venerable sir, there exists abun- 
dant bullion and gold stored in vaults and depositories, and 
with such wealth we are capable of mollifying the enemies 
when they come; but there is no place for those battles of wealth, 
no scope for them, when aging and death are rolling in. As 
aging and death are rolling in on me, venerable sir, what else 
should be done but to live by the Dhamma, to live righteously, 
and to do wholesome and meritorious deeds?" <228> 

"So it is, great king! So it is, great king! As aging and death are 
rolling in on you, what else should be done but to live by the 
Dhamma, to live righteously, and to do wholesome and merito- 
rious deeds?" 

This is what the Blessed One said. Having said this, the 
Fortunate One, the Teacher, further said this: 

441 "Just as mountains of solid rock. 

Massive, reaching to the sky. 

Might draw together from all sides. 

Crushing all in the four quarters — 

So aging and death come 
Rolling over living beings — 

442 Khattiyas, brahmins, vessas, suddas, 

Candalas and scavengers: 




194 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



They spare none along the way 
But come crushing everything. 

443 "There's no ground there for elephant troops. 
For chariot troops and infantry. 

One can't defeat them by subterfuge. 

Or buy them off by means of wealth. <229> 

444 "Therefore a person of wisdom here. 

Out of regard for his own good. 

Steadfast, should settle faith 

In the Buddha, Dhamma, and Sangha. 

445 "When one conducts oneself by Dhamma 
With body, speech, and mind. 

They praise one here in the present life. 

And after death one rejoices in heaven." <230> 




[103] <23 1> 



Chapter IV 

4 Marasamyutta 
Connected Discourses with Mara 



I. The First Subchapter 
(Life Span) 



1 (1) Austere Practice 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Uruvela on the bank of the river Neranjara at the 
foot of the Goatherd's Banyan Tree just after he had become 
fully enlightened. 260 Then, while the Blessed One was alone in 
seclusion, a reflection arose in his mind thus: "I am indeed freed 
from that gruelling asceticism! It is good indeed that I am freed 
from that useless gruelling asceticism! It is good that, steady and 
mindful, I have attained enlightenment!" 261 

Then Mara the Evil One, having known with his own mind 
the reflection in the Blessed One's mind, approached the Blessed 
One and addressed him in verse: 

446 "Having deviated from the austere practice 
By which men purify themselves. 

Being impure, you think you're pure: <232> 

You have missed the path to purity." 262 

Then the Blessed One, having understood, "This is Mara the 
Evil One," replied to him in verses: 

447 "Having known as useless any austerity 
Aimed at the immortal state, 263 

That all such penances are futile 
Like oars and rudder on dry land, 264 



195 




196 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



448 By developing the path to enlightenment — 

Virtue, concentration, and wisdom — 

I have attained supreme purity: 

You're defeated. End-maker!" 265 

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The Blessed One knows 
me, the Fortunate One knows me," sad and disappointed, disap- 
peared right there. 



2 (2) The King Elephant 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Uruvela on the bank of the river Neranjara at the 
foot of the Goatherd's Banyan Tree just after he had become 
fully enlightened. [104] <233> Now on that occasion the Blessed 
One was sitting out in the open air in the thick darkness of the 
night while it was drizzling. 266 

Then Mara the Evil One, wishing to arouse fear, trepidation, 
and terror in the Blessed One, manifested himself in the form of 
a giant king elephant and approached the Blessed One. His head 
was like a huge block of steatite; his tusks were like pure silver; 
his trunk was like a huge plough pole. 

Then the Blessed One, having understood, "This is Mara the 
Evil One," addressed him in verse: 

449 "You've wandered through the long course 
Creating beautiful and hideous shapes. 

Enough, Evil One, with that trick of yours: 

You're defeated. End-maker!" 267 

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The Blessed One knows 
me, the Fortunate One knows me," sad and disappointed, disap- 
peared right there. 

3 (3) Beautiful 

<234> While dwelling at Uruvela. Now on that occasion the 
Blessed One was sitting out in the open air in the thick darkness 
of the night while it was drizzling. Then Mara the Evil One, 
wishing to arouse fear, trepidation, and terror in the Blessed 




4. Marasamyutta 197 



One, approached the Blessed One and, not far from him, dis- 
played diverse lustrous shapes, both beautiful and hideous. 
Then the Blessed One, having understood, "This is Mara the 
Evil One," addressed him in verses: 

450 "You've wandered on through the long course 
Creating beautiful and hideous shapes. 

Enough, Evil One, with that trick of yours: 

You're defeated. End-maker! 

451 "Those who are well restrained 
In body, speech, and mind. 

Do not come under Mara's control 
Nor become Mara's henchmen." 268 

Then Mara the Evil One . . . disappeared right there. [105] 



4(4) Mara's Snare (1) 

<235> Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Baranasi in the Deer Park at Isipatana. There the 
Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus!" 269 

"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said 
this: 

"Bhikkhus, by careful attention, by careful right striving, I 
have arrived at unsurpassed liberation, I have realized unsur- 
passed liberation. You too, bhikkhus, by careful attention, by 
careful right striving, must arrive at unsurpassed liberation, 
must realize unsurpassed liberation." 270 

Then Mara the Evil One approached the Blessed One and 
addressed him in verse: 271 

452 "You are bound by Mara's snare 
Both celestial and human; 

You are bound by Mara's bondage: 

You won't escape me, ascetic!" 272 

[The Blessed One:] 

453 "I am freed from Mara's snare 
Both celestial and human; 




198 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



I am freed from Mara's bondage: <236> 

You're defeated. End-maker!" 

Then Mara the Evil One . . . disappeared right there. 



5 (5) Mara's Snare (2) 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was dwell- 
ing at Baranasi in the Deer Park at Isipatana. There the Blessed 
One addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus!" 

"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said 
this: 

"Bhikkhus, I am freed from all snares, both celestial and 
human. You too, bhikkhus, are freed from all snares, both celes- 
tial and human. Wander forth, O bhikkhus, for the welfare of 
the multitude, for the happiness of the multitude, out of com- 
passion for the world, for the good, welfare, and happiness of 
devas and humans. Let not two go the same way. Teach, O 
bhikkhus, the Dhamma that is good in the beginning, good in 
the middle, good in the end, with the right meaning and phras- 
ing. Reveal the perfectly complete and purified holy life. There 
are beings with little dust in their eyes who are falling away 
because they do not hear the Dhamma. [106] There will be those 
who will understand the Dhamma. I too, bhikkhus, will go to 
Senanigama in Uruvela in order to teach the Dhamma." 273 
<237> 

Then Mara the Evil One approached the Blessed One and 
addressed him in verse: 274 

454 "You are bound by all the snares 
Both celestial and human; 

You are bound by the great bondage: 

You won't escape me, ascetic!" 

[The Blessed One:] 

455 "I am freed from all the snares 
Both celestial and human; 

I am freed from the great bondage: 

You're defeated. End-maker!" 




4. Marasamyutta 199 



6 (6) Serpent 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was dwell- 
ing at Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrel Sanctuary. 
Now on that occasion the Blessed One was sitting out in the 
open in the thick darkness of the night while it was drizzling. 
Then Mara the Evil One . . . manifested himself in the form of a 
giant king serpent and approached the Blessed One. <238> Its 
body was like a huge boat made from a single tree trunk; its 
hood, like a large brewer's sieve; its eyes, like the large bronze 
dishes of Kosala; its tongue darting out from its mouth, like 
flashes of lightning emitted when the sky thunders; the sound of 
its breathing in and out, like the sound of a smith's bellows fill- 
ing with air. 

Then the Blessed One, having understood, “This is Mara the 
Evil One," addressed Mara the Evil One in verses: 

456 "He who resorts to empty huts for lodging — 

He is the sage, self-controlled. 

He should live there, having relinquished all: 

That is proper for one like him. 275 

457 "Though many creatures crawl about, 

Many terrors, flies, serpents, [107] <239> 

The great sage gone to his empty hut 
Stirs not a hair because of them. 

458 "Though the sky might split, the earth quake. 

And all creatures be stricken with terror. 

Though men brandish a dart at their breast, 

The enlightened take no shelter in acquisitions." 276 

Then Mara the Evil One . . . disappeared right there. 



7 (7) Sleep 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Rajagaha in 
the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrel Sanctuary. Then, when the night 
was fading, the Blessed One, having spent much of the night 
walking back and forth in the open, washed his feet, entered his 




200 I. The Book with Verses (Sagdthavagga) 



dwelling, and lay down on his right side in the lion's posture, 
with one leg overlapping the other, mindful and clearly compre- 
hending, having attended to the idea of rising. 

Then Mara the Evil One approached the Blessed One and 
addressed him in verse: <240> 

459 "What, you sleep? Why do you sleep? 

What's this, you sleep like a wretch? 277 
Thinking 'The hut's empty' you sleep: 

What's this, you sleep when the sun has risen?" 

[The Blessed One:] 

460 "Within him craving no longer lurks. 

Entangling and binding, to lead him anywhere; 

With the destruction of all acquisitions 

The Awakened One sleeps: 

Why should this concern you, Mara?" 278 

Then Mara the Evil One . . . disappeared right there. 

8 (8) He Delights 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. 

Then Mara the Evil One approached the Blessed One and 
recited this verse in the presence of the Blessed One: 

461 "One who has sons delights in sons. 

One with cattle delights in cattle. [108] <241> 

Acquisitions truly are a man's delight; 

Without acquisitions one does not delight." 

[The Blessed One:] 

462 "One who has sons sorrows over sons, 

One with cattle sorrows over cattle. 

Acquisitions truly are a man's sorrow; 

Without acquisitions one does not sorrow." 

Then Mara the Evil One . . . disappeared right there. 




4. Marasamyutta 2 01 



9 (9) Life Span (1) 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling 
at Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrel Sanctuary. There 
the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus!" 

"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said 
this: 

"Bhikkhus, this life span of human beings is short. One has to 
go on to the future life. One should do what is wholesome and 
lead the holy life; for one who has taken birth there is no avoid- 
ing death. One who lives long, bhikkhus, lives a hundred years 
or a little longer." 

Then Mara the Evil One approached the Blessed One and 
addressed him in verse: 

463 "Long is the life span of human beings, 

The good man should not disdain it. 

One should live like a milk-sucking baby: 

Death has not made its arrival." 279 <242> 

[The Blessed One:] 

464 "Short is the life span of human beings, 

The good man should disdain it. 

One should live like one with head aflame: 

There is no avoiding Death's arrival." 

Then Mara the Evil One . . . disappeared right there. 

10 (10) Life Span (2) 

(Opening as in preceding sutta:) 

Then Mara the Evil One approached the Blessed One and 
addressed him in verse: [109] 

465 "The days and nights do not fly by. 

Life does not come to a stop. 

The life span of mortals rolls along 

Like the chariot's felly round the hub." 280 <243> 




202 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



[The Blessed One:] 

466 "The days and nights go flying by, 

Life comes to a stop. 

The life span of mortals is depleted 
Like the water in rivulets." 

Then Mara the Evil One . . . disappeared right there. 

II. The Second Subchapter 
(Rulershtp) 



11 (1) The Boulder 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Rajagaha on 
Mount Vulture Peak. Now on that occasion the Blessed One was 
sitting out in the open in the thick darkness of the night while it 
was drizzling. <244> Then Mara the Evil One, wishing to arouse 
fear, trepidation, and terror in the Blessed One, shattered a num- 
ber of huge boulders not far away from him. 

Then the Blessed One, having understood, "This is Mara the 
Evil One," addressed Mara the Evil One in verse: 

467 "Even if you make this Vulture Peak 
Quake all over in its entirety. 

The enlightened are not perturbed, 

For they are are fully liberated." 

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The Blessed One knows 
me, the Fortunate One knows me," sad and disappointed, disap- 
peared right there. 

12 (2) Lion 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Savatthi in 
Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Now on that occasion the 
Blessed One was teaching the Dhamma while surrounded by a 
large assembly. [110] 

Then it occurred to Mara the Evil One: "This ascetic Gotama is 
teaching the Dhamma while surrounded by a large assembly. <245> 
Let me approach the ascetic Gotama in order to confound them." 281 




4. Marasamyutta 203 



Then Mara the Evil One approached the Blessed One and 
addressed him in verse: 

468 "Why now do you roar like a lion. 

Confident in the assembly? 

For there is one who's a match for you. 

So why think yourself the victor?" 

[The Blessed One:] 

469 "The great heroes roar their lion's roar 

Confident in the assemblies — 

The Tathagatas endowed with the powers 

Have crossed over attachment to the world." 282 

Then Mara the Evil One . . . disappeared right there. 

13 (3) The Splinter 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was dwel- 
ling at Rajagaha in the Maddakucchi Deer Park. Now on that 
occasion the Blessed One's foot had been cut by a stone splinter. 
Severe pains assailed the Blessed One — bodily feelings that were 
painful, racking, <246> sharp, piercing, harrowing, disagree- 
able. But the Blessed One endured them, mindful and clearly 
comprehending, without becoming distressed. Then the Blessed 
One had his outer robe folded in four, and he lay down on his 
right side in the lion posture with one leg overlapping the other, 
mindful and clearly comprehending. 283 

Then Mara the Evil One approached the Blessed One and 
addressed him in verse: 

470 "Do you lie down in a daze or drunk on poetry? 

Don't you have sufficient goals to meet? 

Alone in a secluded lodging 

Why do you sleep with a drowsy face?" 284 

[The Blessed One:] 

471 "I do not lie in a daze or drunk on poetry; 

Having reached the goal, I am rid of sorrow. 

Alone in a secluded lodging 

I lie down full of compassion for all beings. 




204 I. The Book with Vers es (Sagathavagga) 



472 "Even those with a dart stuck in the breast <24 7> 
Piercing their heart moment by moment — 

Even these here, stricken, get to sleep; [111] 

So why should I not get to sleep 
When my dart has been drawn out? 285 

473 "I do not lie awake in dread. 

Nor am I afraid to sleep. 

The nights and days do not afflict me, 

I see for myself no decline in the world. 

Therefore I can sleep in peace. 

Full of compassion for all beings." 

Then Mara the Evil One ... disappeared right there. 



14 (4) Suitable 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling among the 
Kosalans at the brahmin village of Ekasala. Now on that occa- 
sion the Blessed One was teaching the Dhamma surrounded by 
a large assembly of laypeople. 

Then it occurred to Mara the Evil One: "This ascetic Gotama is 
teaching the Dhamma while surrounded by a large assembly of 
laypeople. <248> Let me approach the ascetic Gotama in order 
to confound them." 

Then Mara the Evil One approached the Blessed One and 
addressed him in verse: 

474 "This is not suitable for you, 

That you instruct others. 

When so engaged don't get caught 
In attraction and repulsion." 286 

[The Blessed One:] 

475 "Compassionate for their welfare. 

The Buddha instructs others. 

The Tathagata is fully released 
From attraction and repulsion." 



Then Mara the Evil One . . . disappeared right there. 




4. Marasamyutta 205 



15 (5) Mental 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Then 
Mara the Evil One approached the Blessed One and addressed 
him in verse: 287 



476 “There is a snare moving in the sky, <249> 
Something mental which moves about 288 
By means of which I'll catch you yet: 

You won't escape me, ascetic!" 

[The Blessed One:] 

477 "Forms, sounds, tastes, odours. 

And delightful tactile objects — 

Desire for these has vanished in me: 

You're defeated. End-maker!" 

Then Mara the Evil One ... disappeared right there. [112] 



16 (6) Almsbozvls 

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion the Blessed One was instruct- 
ing, exhorting, inspiring, and gladdening the bhikkhus with a 
Dhamma talk concerning the five aggregates subject to clinging. 
And those bhikkhus were listening to the Dhamma with eager 
ears, attending to it as a matter of vital concern, applying their 
whole minds to it. 

Then it occurred to Mara the Evil One: "This ascetic Gotama is 
instructing, exhorting, inspiring, and gladdening the bhikkhus 
... <250> who are applying their whole minds to it. Let me 
approach the ascetic Gotama in order to confound them." 

Now on that occasion a number of almsbowls had been put 
out in the open. Then Mara the Evil One manifested himself in 
the form of an ox and approached those almsbowls. Then one 
bhikkhu said to another: "Bhikkhu, bhikkhu! That ox may break 
the almsbowls." When this was said, the Blessed One said to 
that bhikkhu: "That is not an ox, bhikkhu. That is Mara the Evil 
One, who has come here in order to confound you." 




206 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



Then the Blessed One, having understood, “This is Mara the 
Evil One," addressed Mara the Evil One in verses: 

478 "Form, feeling, and perception. 

Consciousness, and formations — 

1 am not this, this isn't mine,' 

Thus one is detached from it. 289 

479 "Though they seek him everywhere, 

Mara and his army do not find him: 

The one thus detached, secure. 

Who has gone beyond all fetters." 290 <251> 

Then Mara the Evil One . . . disappeared right there. 



17 (7) Six Bases for Contact 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Vesali in the 
Great Wood in the Hall with the Peaked Roof. [113] Now on that 
occasion the Blessed One was instructing, exhorting, inspiring, 
and gladdening the bhikkhus with a Dhamma talk concerning 
the six bases for contact. And those bhikkhus were listening to 
the Dhamma with eager ears, attending to it as a matter of vital 
concern, applying their whole minds to it. 

Then it occurred to Mara the Evil One: "This ascetic Gotama is 
instructing, exhorting, inspiring, and gladdening the bhikkhus 
... who are applying their whole minds to it. Let me approach 
the ascetic Gotama in order to confound them." 

Then Mara the Evil One approached the Blessed One and, not 
far from him, made a loud noise, frightful and terrifying, as 
though the earth were splitting open. 291 Then one bhikkhu said 
to another: "Bhikkhu, bhikkhu! It seems as though the earth is 
splitting open." When this was said, the Blessed One said to that 
bhikkhu: <252> "The earth is not splitting open, bhikkhu. That 
is Mara the Evil One, who has come here in order to confound 
you." 

Then the Blessed One, having understood, "This is Mara the 
Evil One," addressed Mara the Evil One in verses: 




4. Marasamyutta 20 7 



480 "Forms, sounds, tastes, odours, 

Tactiles, and all mental objects: 

This is the terrible bait of the world 
With which the world is infatuated. 

481 "But when he has transcended this. 

The mindful disciple of the Buddha 
Shines radiantly like the sun. 

Having surmounted Mara's realm." 292 

Then Mara the Evil One . . . disappeared right there. 

18 (8) Alms 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling among the 
Magadhans at the brahmin village of Pancasala. [114] Now on 
that occasion the gift-festival of the young people was being 
held at the brahmin village of Pancasala. 293 <253> Then, in the 
morning, the Blessed One dressed and, taking bowl and robe, 
entered Pancasala for alms. Now on that occasion Mara the Evil 
One had taken possession of the brahmin householders of 
Pancasala, [inciting in them the thought,] "Don't let the ascetic 
Gotama get alms." 

Then the Blessed One left Pancasala with his bowl just as 
cleanly washed as it was when he entered it for alms. Then Mara 
the Evil One approached the Blessed One and said to him: 
"Maybe you got alms, ascetic?" 

"Was it you. Evil One, who saw to it that I didn't get alms?" 

"Then, venerable sir, let the Blessed One enter Pancasala a sec- 
ond time for alms. I will see to it that the Blessed One gets 
alms." 294 



[The Blessed One:] 

482 "You have produced demerit, Mara, 
Having assailed the Tathagata. 

Do you really think, O Evil One, <254> 
'My evil does not ripen'? 

483 "Happily indeed we live, 

We who own nothing at all. 




208 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



We shall dwell feeding on rapture 
Like the devas of Streaming Radiance." 295 

Then Mara the Evil One . . . disappeared right there. 



19 (9) The Farmer 

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion the Blessed One was instruct- 
ing, exhorting, inspiring, and gladdening the bhikkhus with a 
Dhamma talk concerning Nibbana. And those bhikkhus were 
listening to the Dhamma with eager ears, attending to it as a 
matter of vital concern, applying their whole minds to it. [115] 

Then it occurred to Mara the Evil One: "This ascetic Gotama is 
instructing, exhorting, inspiring, and gladdening the bhikkhus 
... who are applying their whole minds to it. Let me approach 
the ascetic Gotama in order to confound them." Then Mara the 
Evil One manifested himself in the form of a farmer, carrying a 
large plough on his shoulder, <255> holding a long goad stick, 
his hair dishevelled, wearing hempen garments, his feet 
smeared with mud. He approached the Blessed One and said to 
him: "Maybe you've seen oxen, ascetic?" 

"What are oxen to you. Evil One?" 

"The eye is mine, ascetic, forms are mine, eye-contact and its 
base of consciousness are mine. 296 Where can you go, ascetic, to 
escape from me? The ear is mine, ascetic, sounds are mine ... 
The nose is mine, ascetic, odours are mine ... The tongue is 
mine, ascetic, tastes are mine . . . The body is mine, ascetic, tactile 
objects are mine . . . The mind is mine, ascetic, mental phenome- 
na are mine, mind-contact and its base of consciousness are 
mine. Where can you go, ascetic, to escape from me?" 

"The eye is yours. Evil One, forms are yours, eye-contact and 
its base of consciousness are yours; but. Evil One, where there is 
no eye, no forms, no eye-contact <256> and its base of con- 
sciousness — there is no place for you there. Evil One. 297 The ear 
is yours. Evil One, sounds are yours, ear-contact and its base of 
consciousness are yours; but. Evil One, where there is no ear, no 
sounds, no ear-contact and its base of consciousness — there is no 
place for you there. Evil One. The nose is yours, Evil One, 
odours are yours, nose-contact and its base of consciousness are 
yours; but. Evil One, where there is no nose, no odours, no nose- 




4. Marasamyutta 209 



contact and its base of consciousness — there is no place for you 
there, Evil One. [116] The tongue is yours. Evil One, tastes are 
yours, tongue-contact and its base of consciousness are yours; 
but. Evil One, where there is no tongue, no tastes, no tongue- 
contact and its base of consciousness — there is no place for you 
there, Evil One. The body is yours. Evil One, tactile objects are 
yours, body-contact and its base of consciousness are yours; but, 
Evil One, where there is no body, no tactile objects, no body- 
contact and its base of consciousness — there is no place for you 
there, Evil One. The mind is yours, Evil One, mental phenomena 
are yours, mind-contact and its base of consciousness are yours; 
but. Evil One, where there is no mind, no mental phenomena, 
no mind-contact and its base of consciousness — there is no place 
for you there. Evil One." 

[Mara:] 

484 "That of which they say 'It's mine,' 

And those who speak in terms of 'mine' — 

If your mind exists among these, 

You won't escape me, ascetic." 

[The Blessed One:] 

485 "That which they speak of is not mine. 

I'm not one of those who speak [of mine]. 

You should know thus, O Evil One: 

Even my path you will not see." 

Then Mara the Evil One ... disappeared right there. <25 7> 



20 (10) Rulership 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling among the 
Kosalans in a small forest hut in the Himalayan region. Then, 
when the Blessed One was alone in seclusion, a reflection arose 
in his mind thus "Is it possible to exercise rulership righteously: 
without killing and without instigating others to kill, without 
confiscating and without instigating others to confiscate, without 
sorrowing and without causing sorrow?" 298 

Then Mara the Evil One, having known with his own mind 
the reflection in the Blessed One's mind, approached the Blessed 




210 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



One and said to him: “Venerable sir, let the Blessed One exercise 
rulership righteously: without killing and without instigating 
others to kill, without confiscating and without instigating others 
to confiscate, without sorrowing and without instigating others 
to cause sorrow." 

"But what do you see. Evil One, that you speak thus to me?" 
<258> 

"Venerable sir, the Blessed One has developed and cultivated 
the four bases for spiritual power, made them a vehicle, made 
them a basis, stabilized them, exercised himself in them, and 
fully perfected them. And, venerable sir, if the Blessed One 
wishes, he need only resolve that the Himalayas, the king of 
mountains, should become gold, and it would turn to gold." 299 
[117] 

[The Blessed One:] 

486 "If there were a mountain made of gold. 

Made entirely of solid gold. 

Not double this would suffice for one: 

Having known this, fare evenly. 300 

487 "How could a person incline to sensual pleasures 
Who has seen the source whence suffering springs? 

Having known acquisition as a tie in the world, 

A person should train for its removal." 301 

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The Blessed One knows 
me, the Fortunate One knows me," sad and disappointed, disap- 
peared right there. 

<259> III. The Third Subchapter 

(The Mara Pentad) 



21 (1) A Number ' 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling among the Sakyans at Silavati. Now on that occasion a 
number of bhikkhus were dwelling not far from the Blessed 
One — diligent, ardent, and resolute. Then Mara the Evil One 
manifested himself in the form of a brahmin, with a large mat- 




4. Mdrasamyutta 211 



ted topknot, clad in an antelope hide, old, crooked like a roof 
bracket, wheezing, holding a staff of udumbara wood. 302 He 
approached those bhikkhus <260> and said to them: "You, sirs, 
have gone forth while young, lads with black hair, endowed 
with the blessing of youth, in the prime of life, without having 
dallied with sensual pleasures. Enjoy human sensual pleasures, 
sirs; do not abandon what is directly visible in order to pursue 
what takes time." 303 

"We have not abandoned what is directly visible, brahmin, in 
order to pursue what takes time. We have abandoned what 
takes time in order to pursue what is directly visible. For the 
Blessed One, brahmin, has stated that sensual pleasures are 
time-consuming, full of suffering, full of despair, and the danger 
in them is still greater, while this Dhamma is directly visible, 
immediate, inviting one to come and see, applicable, to be per- 
sonally experienced by the wise." [118] 

When this was said, Mara the Evil One shook his head, lolled 
his tongue, knit his brow into three furrows, and departed lean- 
ing on his staff. 304 

Then those bhikkhus approached the Blessed One, paid hom- 
age to him, sat down to one side, and reported everything in 
full. <261> [The Blessed One said:] "That was not a brahmin, 
bhikkhus. That was Mara the Evil One, who had come in order 
to confound you." 

Then the Blessed One, having understood the meaning of this, 
on that occasion recited this verse: <262> 

488 "How could a person incline to sensual pleasures 
Who has seen the source whence suffering springs? 

Having known acquisition as a tie in the world, 

A person should train for its removal." [119] 

22 (2) Samiddhi _ 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling among the 
Sakyans at Silavati. Now on that occasion the Venerable 
Samiddhi was dwelling not far from the Blessed One — diligent, 
ardent, and resolute. 305 Then, while the Venerable Samiddhi was 
alone in seclusion, a reflection arose in his mind thus: "It is 
indeed a gain for me, it is well gained by me, that my teacher is 




212 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 

the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One! It is indeed a gain 
for me, it is well gained by me, that I have gone forth in this 
well-expounded Dhamma and Discipline! It is indeed a gain for 
me, it is well gained by me, that my companions in the holy life 
are virtuous, of good character!" 

Then Mara the Evil One, having known with his own mind 
the reflection in the mind of the Venerable Samiddhi, 
approached him and, not far from him, made a loud noise, 
frightful and terrifying, <263> as though the earth were splitting 
open. 306 

Then the Venerable Samiddhi approached the Blessed One, 
paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and reported what 
had happened. [The Blessed One said:] "That was not the earth 
splitting open, Samiddhi. That was Mara the Evil One, who had 
come in order to confound you. Go back, Samiddhi, and dwell 
diligent, ardent, and resolute." 

"Yes, venerable sir," the Venerable Samiddhi replied. [120] 
Then he rose from his seat, paid homage to the Blessed One, and 
departed, keeping him on the right. 

A second time, while the Venerable Samiddhi was alone in 
seclusion, a reflection arose in his mind . . . And a second time 
Mara the Evil One ... <264> ... made a loud noise, frightful and 
terrifying, as though the earth were splitting open. 

Then the Venerable Samiddhi, having understood, "This is 
Mara the Evil One," addressed him in verse: 

489 "I have gone forth out of faith 

From the home to the homeless life. 

My mindfulness and wisdom are mature. 

And my mind well concentrated. 

Conjure up whatever forms you wish. 

But you will never make me tremble." 307 

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The bhikkhu Samiddhi 
knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there. 

23 (3) Godhika 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was dwel- 
ling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrel Sanctuary. 




4. Marasamyutta 213 



Now on that occasion the Venerable Godhika was dwelling on 
the Black Rock on the Isigili Slope. Then, while the Venerable 
Godhika was dwelling diligent, ardent, and resolute, <265> he 
reached temporary liberation of mind, but he fell away from 
that temporary liberation of mind. 308 A second time, while the 
Venerable Godhika was dwelling diligent, ardent, and resolute, 
he reached temporary liberation of mind, but he fell away from 
that temporary liberation of mind. A third time ... A fourth time 
... [121] A fifth time ... A sixth time, while the Venerable 
Godhika was dwelling diligent, ardent, and resolute, he reached 
temporary liberation of mind, but he fell away from that tempo- 
rary liberation of mind. A seventh time, while the Venerable 
Godhika was dwelling diligent, ardent, and resolute, he reached 
temporary liberation of mind. 

Then it occurred to the Venerable Godhika: "Six times already 
I have fallen away from temporary liberation of mind. Let me 
use the knife." 309 <266> 

Then Mara the Evil One, having known with his own mind 
the reflection in the Venerable Godhika's mind, approached the 
Blessed One and addressed him with these verses: 310 

490 "O great hero, great in wisdom. 

Blazing forth with power and glory! 

I worship your feet. One with Vision, 

Who has overcome all enmity and fear. 

491 "O great hero who has vanquished death. 

Your disciple is longing for death. 

He intends [to take his own life]: 

Restrain him from this, O luminous one! 

492 "How, O Blessed One, can your disciple — 

One delighting in the Teaching, 

A trainee seeking his mind's ideal — 

Take his own life, O widely famed?" 311 

Now on that occasion the Venerable Godhika had just used 
the knife. 312 Then the Blessed One, having understood, "This is 
Mara the Evil One," addressed him in verse: 




214 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavaxga ) 



493 "Such indeed is how the steadfast act: 

They are not attached to life. <26 7> 

Having drawn out craving with its root, 

Godhika has attained final Nibbana." 

Then the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Come, 
bhikkhus, let us go to the Black Rock on the Isigili Slope, where 
the clansman Godhika has used the knife." 

"Yes, venerable sir," those bhikkhus replied. Then the Blessed 
One, together with a number of bhikkhus, went to the Black 
Rock on the Isigili Slope. The Blessed One saw in the distance 
the Venerable Godhika lying on the bed with his shoulder 
turned. 313 [122] 

Now on that occasion a cloud of smoke, a swirl of darkness, 
was moving to the east, then to the west, to the north, to the 
south, upwards, downwards, and to the intermediate quarters. 
The Blessed One then addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Do you 
see, bhikkhus, that cloud of smoke, that swirl of darkness, mov- 
ing to the east, then to the west, to the north, to the south, 
upwards, downwards, and to the intermediate quarters?" 

"Yes, venerable sir." 

"That, bhikkhus, is Mara the Evil One searching for the con- 
sciousness of the clansman Godhika, wondering: 'Where now 
<268> has the consciousness of the clansman Godhika been 
established?' However, bhikkhus, with consciousness unestab- 
lished, the clansman Godhika has attained final Nibbana." 314 

Then Mara the Evil One, taking a lute of yellow vilva- wood, 
approached the Blessed One and addressed him in verse: 

494 "Above, below, and across. 

In the four quarters and in between, 

I have been searching but do not find 
Where Godhika has gone." 

[The Blessed One:] 

495 "That steadfast man was resolute, 

A meditator always rejoicing in meditation. 

Applying himself day and night 
Without attachment even to life. 




4. Marasamyutta 215 



496 "Having conquered the army of Death, 

Not returning to renewed existence. 

Having drawn out craving with its root, 
Godhika has attained final Nibbana." <269> 

497 So much was he stricken with sorrow 
That his lute dropped from his armpit. 
Thereupon that disappointed spirit 
Disappeared right on the spot. 315 



24 (4) Seven Years of Pursuit 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was dwel- 
ling at Uruvela on the bank of the river Neranjara at the foot of 
the Goatherd's Banyan Tree. Now on that occasion Mara the Evil 
One had been following the Blessed One for seven years, seeking to 
gain access to him but without success. 316 Then Mara the Evil One 
approached the Blessed One and addressed him in verse: [123] 

498 "Is it because you are sunk in sorrow 
That you meditate in the woods? 

Because you've lost wealth or pine for it. 

Or committed some crime in the village? 

Why don't you make friends with people? <270> 

Why don't you form any intimate ties?" 

[The Blessed One:] 

499 "Having dug up entirely the root of sorrow. 

Guiltless, I meditate free from sorrow. 

Having cut off all greedy urge for existence, 317 

I meditate taintless, O kinsman of the negligent!" 

[Mara:] 

500 "That of which they say 'It's mine,' 

And those who speak in terms of 'mine' — 

If your mind exists among these. 

You won't escape me, ascetic." 



[The Blessed One:] 

501 "That which they speak of is not mine. 




216 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



I'm not one of those who speak [of mine]. 

You should know thus, O Evil One: 

Even my path you will not see." 

[Mara:] 

502 "If you have discovered the path. 

The secure way leading to the Deathless, <271 > 

Be off and walk that path alone; 

What's the point of instructing others?" 

[The Blessed One:] 

503 "Those people going to the far shore 
Ask what lies beyond Death's realm. 

When asked, I explain to them 

The truth without acquisitions." 318 

[Mara:] "Suppose, venerable sir, not far from a village or a 
town there was a lotus pond in which a crab was living. 319 Then 
a group of boys and girls would leave the village or town and 
go to the pond. They would pull the crab out from the water 
and set it down on high ground. Then, whenever that crab 
would extend one of its claws, those boys and girls would cut it 
off, break it, and smash it to bits with sticks and stones. Thus, 
when all its claws have been cut off, broken, and smashed to 
bits, that crab would be unable to return to that pond. <272> So 
too, venerable sir, all those distortions, manoeuvres, and contor- 
tions of mine have been cut off, [124] broken, and smashed to 
bits by the Blessed One. Now, venerable sir, I am unable to 
approach the Blessed One again seeking to gainaccess to him." 

Then Mara the Evil One, in the presence of the Blessed One, 
recited these verses of disappointment 320 

504 "There was a crow that walked around 
A stone that looked like a lump of fat. 

'Let's find something tender here,' [he thought,] 

'Perhaps there's something nice and tasty.' 

505 But because he found nothing tasty there. 

The crow departed from that spot. 




4. Marasamyutta 217 



Just like the crow that attacked the stone. 

We leave Gotama disappointed." <273> 

25 (5) Mara's Daughters 

Then Mara the Evil One, having spoken these verses of disap- 
pointment in the presence of the Blessed One, went away from 
that spot and sat down cross-legged on the ground not far from 
the Blessed One, silent, dismayed, with his shoulders drooping, 
downcast, brooding, unable to speak, scratching the ground 
with a stick. 321 

Then Mara's daughters — Tanha, Arati, and Raga — approached 
Mara the Evil One and addressed him in verse: 322 

506 "Why are you despondent, father? 

Who's the man for whom you grieve? 

We'll catch him with the snare of lust 
As they catch the forest elephant. 

We'll bind him tightly and bring him back. 

And he'll be under your control." 323 

[Mara:] 

507 "The Arahant, the Fortunate One in the world. 

Is not easily drawn by means of lust. 

He has gone beyond Mara's realm: 

Therefore I sorrow so bitterly." <274> 

Then Mara's daughters — Tanha, Arati, and Raga — approached 
the Blessed One and said to him: "We serve at your feet, asce- 
tic." But the Blessed One paid no attention, as he was liberated 
in the unsurpassed extinction of acquisitions. 324 

Then Mara's daughters — Tanha, Arati, and Raga — went off to 
the side and took counsel: "Men's tastes are diverse. Suppose 
we each manifest ourselves in the form of a hundred maidens." 
[125] Then Mara's three daughters, each manifesting herself in 
the form of a hundred maidens, approached the Blessed One 
and said to him: "We serve at your feet, ascetic." But the Blessed 
One paid no attention, as he was liberated in the unsurpassed 
extinction of acquisitions. 

Then Mara's daughters went off to the side and again took 




218 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



counsel: "Men's tastes are diverse. Suppose we each manifest 
ourselves in the form of a hundred women who have never 
given birth." Then Mara's three daughters, each manifesting 
herself in the form of a hundred women who have never given 
birth ... in the form of a hundred women who have given birth 
once ... <275> ... in the form of a hundred women who have 
given birth twice ... in the form of a hundred women of middle 
age ... in the form of a hundred old women, approached the 
Blessed One and said to him: "We serve at your feet, ascetic." 
But the Blessed One paid no attention, as he was liberated in the 
unsurpassed extinction of acquisitions. 

Then Mara's daughters — Tanha, Arati, and Raga — went off to 
the side and said: "What our father told us is true: 

508 "'The Arahant, the Fortunate One in the world ... 

Therefore I sorrow so bitterly.' 

"If we had assailed with such tactics any ascetic or brahmin 
who was not devoid of lust, either his heart would have burst, 
or he would have vomited hot blood from his mouth, [126] or he 
would have gone mad or become mentally deranged; or else he 
would have dried up and withered away and become shriv- 
elled, just as a green reed that has been mowed down would dry 
up and wither away and become shrivelled." 

Then Mara's daughters — Tanha, Arati, and Raga — approached 
the Blessed One and stood to one side. <276> Standing to one 
side, Mara's daughter Tanha addressed the Blessed One in 
verse: 

509 "Is it because you are sunk in sorrow 
That you meditate in the woods? 

Because you have lost wealth or pine for it. 

Or committed some crime in the village? 

Why don't you make friends with people? 

Why don't you form any intimate ties?" 

[The Blessed One:] 

510 "Having conquered the army of the pleasant and agreeable. 
Meditating alone, I discovered bliss. 

The attainment of the goal, the peace of the heart. 325 




4. Marasamyutta 21S 

Therefore I don't make friends with people. 

Nor will I form any intimate ties." 

Then Mara's daughter Arati addressed the Blessed One ir 
verse: <277 > 

511 "How does a bhikkhu here often dwell 

That, five floods crossed, he here has crossed the sixth? 
How does he meditate so sensual perceptions 
Are kept at bay and fail to grip him?" 326 

[The Blessed One:] 

512 "Tranquil in body, in mind well liberated. 

Not generating, mindful, homeless, 

Knowing Dhamma, meditating thought-free. 

He does not erupt, or drift, or stiffen. 327 

513 "When a bhikkhu here often dwells thus. 

With five floods crossed, he here has crossed the sixth. 
When he meditates thus, sensual perceptions 
Are kept at bay and fail to grip him." [127] 

Then Mara's daughter Raga addressed the Blessed One in 
verse: <278> 

514 "He has cut off craving, faring with his group and order; 
Surely many other beings will cross. 

Alas, this homeless one will snatch many people 
And lead them away beyond the King of Death." 328 

[The Blessed One:] 

515 "Truly the Tathagatas, the great heroes. 

Lead by means of the true Dhamma. 

When they are leading by means of the Dhamma, 

What envy can there be in those who understand?" 329 

Then Mara's daughters — Tanha, Arati, and Raga — approached 
Mara the Evil One. Mara saw them coming in the distance and 
addressed them in verses: 330 




220 I. The Book with Verses ( Sa^athavagga ) 



516 "Fools! You tried to batter a mountain 
With the stalks of lotus flowers. 

To dig up a mountain with your nails. 

To chew iron with your teeth. <279> 

517 "As if, having lifted a rock with your head. 

You sought a foothold in the abyss; 

As if you struck a stump with your breast. 

You part from Gotama disappointed." 

518 They had come to him glittering with beauty — 
Tanha, Arati, and Raga — 

But the Teacher swept them away right there 
As the wind, a fallen cotton tuft. <280> 




[128] <281> Chapter V 

5 Bhikkhunisamyutta 
Connected Discourses with Bhikkhunis 



1 Alavika 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. 

Then, in the morning, the bhikkhuni Alavika dressed and, tak- 
ing bowl and robe, entered Savatthi for alms. 331 When she had 
walked for alms in Savatthi and had returned from her alms 
round, after her meal she went to the Blind Men's Grove seeking 
seclusion. 332 

Then Mara the Evil One, desiring to arouse fear, trepidation, 
and terror in the bhikkhuni Alavika, desiring to make her fall 
away from seclusion, approached her and addressed her in 
verse: 

519 “There is no escape in the world. 

So what will you do with seclusion? 

Enjoy the delights of sensual pleasure: 

Don't be remorseful later!" 

Then it occurred to the bhikkhuni Alavika: "Now who is it 
that recited the verse — a human being or a nonhuman being?" 
Then <282> it occurred to her: "This is Mara the Evil One, who 
has recited the verse desiring to arouse fear, trepidation, and ter- 
ror in me, desiring to make me fall away from seclusion." 

Then the bhikkhuni Alavika, having understood, "This is 
Mara the Evil One," replied to him in verses: 

520 "There is an escape in the world 

Which I have closely touched with wisdom. 



221 




222 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



O Evil One, kinsman of the negligent. 

You do not know that state. 333 

521 "Sensual pleasures are like swords and stakes; 

The aggregates like their chopping block. 

What you call sensual delight 

Has become for me nondelight." 334 [129] 

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The bhikkhuni Alavika 
knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there. 
<283> 



2 Soma 

At Savatthi. Then, in the morning, the bhikkhuni Soma dressed 
and, taking bowl and robe, entered Savatthi for alms. 335 When 
she had walked for alms in Savatthi and had returned from her 
alms round, after her meal she went to the Blind Men's Grove 
for the day's abiding. Having plunged into the Blind Men's 
Grove, she sat down at the foot of a tree for the day's abiding. 

Then Mara the Evil One, desiring to arouse fear, trepidation, 
and terror in the bhikkhuni Soma, desiring to make her fall 
away from concentration, approached her and addressed her in 
verse: 

522 "That state so hard to achieve 
Which is to be attained by the seers. 

Can't be attained by a woman 
With her two-fingered wisdom." 336 

Then it occurred to the bhikkhuni Soma: "Now who is this 
that recited the verse — a human being or a nonhuman being?" 
Then it occurred to her: "This is Mara the Evil One, who has 
recited the verse desiring to arouse fear, trepidation, and terror 
in me, desiring to make me fall away from concentration." 

Then the bhikkhuni Soma, having understood, "This is Mara 
the Evil One," replied to him in verses: <284> 

523 "What does womanhood matter at all 
When the mind is concentrated well. 




5. Bhikkhunlsamyutta 223 



When knowledge flows on steadily 
As one sees correctly into Dhamma. 337 

524 "One to whom it might occur, 

'I'm a woman' or 'I'm a man' 

Or 'I'm anything at all' — 

Is fit for Mara to address." 338 

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The bhikkhuni Soma 
knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there. 



3 Gotaml 

At Savatthi. Then, in the morning, the bhikkhuni Kisagotami 
dressed and, taking bowl and robe, entered Savatthi for alms. 339 
When she had walked for alms in Savatthi and had returned 
from her alms round, [130] after her meal she went to the Blind 
Men's Grove for the day's abiding. Having plunged into the 
Blind Men's Grove, she sat down at the foot of a tree for the 
day's abiding. <285> 

Then Mara the Evil One, desiring to arouse fear, trepidation, 
and terror in the bhikkhuni Kisagotami, desiring to make her 
fall away from concentration, approached her and addressed 
her in verse: 

525 "Why now, when your son is dead. 

Do you sit alone with tearful face? 

Having entered the woods all alone. 

Are you on the lookout for a man?" 

Then it occurred to the bhikkhuni Kisagotami: "Now who is 
this that recited the verse — a human being or a nonhuman 
being?" Then it occurred to her: "This is Mara the Evil One, who 
has recited the verse desiring to arouse fear, trepidation, and ter- 
ror in me, desiring to make me fall away from concentration." 

Then the bhikkhuni Kisagotami, having understood, "This is 
Mara the Evil One," replied to him in verses: 

526 "I've gotten past the death of sons; 

With this, the search for men has ended. 




224 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 

I do not sorrow, I do not weep. 

Nor do I fear you, friend. 340 

527 "Delight everywhere has been destroyed. 

The mass of darkness has been sundered. <286> 

Having conquered the army of Death, 

I dwell without defiling taints." 341 

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The bhikkhuni Kisagotami 
knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there. 

4 Vijaya 

At Savatthi. Then, in the morning, the bhikkhuni Vijaya dressed 
. . . she sat down at the foot of a tree for the day's abiding. 342 

Then Mara the Evil One, desiring to arouse fear, trepidation, 
and terror in the bhikkhuni Vijaya, desiring to make her fall 
away from concentration, approached her and addressed her in 
verse: [131] 

528 "You are so young and beautiful. 

And I too am a youth in my prime. 

Come, noble lady, let us rejoice 

With the music of a fivefold ensemble." 343 

Then it occurred to the bhikkhuni Vijaya: "Now who is this...? 
This is Mara the Evil One ... desiring to make me fall away from 
concentration." <28 7> 

Then the bhikkhuni Vijaya, having understood, "This is Mara 
the Evil One," replied to him in verses: 

529 "Forms, sounds, tastes, odours. 

And delightful tactile objects — 

I offer them right back to you. 

For I, O Mara, do not need them. 

530 "I am repelled and humiliated 
By this foul, putrid body. 

Subject to break up, fragile: 

I've uprooted sensual craving. 344 




5. Bhikkhunlsamyutta 225 



531 "As to those beings who fare amidst form. 

And those who abide in the formless. 

And those peaceful attainments too: 

Everywhere darkness has been destroyed." 345 

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing "The bhikkhuni Vijaya 
knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there. 



5 Uppalavanna 

<288> At Savatthi. Then, in the morning, the bhikkhuni Uppala- 
vanna dressed ... she stood at the foot of a sal tree in full 
flower. 346 

Then Mara the Evil One, desiring to arouse fear, trepidation, 
and terror in the bhikkhuni Uppalavanna, desiring to make her 
fall away from concentration, approached her and addressed 
her in verse: 

532 "Having gone to a sal tree with flowering top. 

You stand at its foot all alone, bhikkhuni. 

There is none whose beauty rivals yours: 

Foolish girl, aren't you afraid of rogues?" 347 

Then it occurred to the bhikkhuni Uppalavanna: [132] "Now 
who is this...? This is Mara the Evil One ... desiring to make me 
fall away from concentration." <289> 

Then the bhikkhuni Uppalavanna, having understood, "This 
is Mara the Evil One," replied to him in verses: 

533 "Though a hundred thousand rogues 
Just like you might come here, 

I stir not a hair, I feel no terror; 

Even alone, Mara, I don't fear you. 348 

534 "I can make myself disappear 
Or I can enter inside your belly. 

I can stand between your eyebrows 
Yet you won't catch a glimpse of me. 




226 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



535 "I am the master of my mind. 

The bases of power are well developed; 

I am freed from all bondage. 

Therefore I don't fear you, friend." 349 <290> 

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The bhikkhuni Uppala- 
vanna knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right 
there. 



6 Cala 

At Savatthi. Then, in the morning, the bhikkhuni Cala dressed 
. . . she sat down at the foot of a tree for the day's abiding. 350 

Then Mara the Evil One approached the bhikkhuni Cala and 
said to her: "What don't you approve of, bhikkhuni?" 

"I don't approve of birth, friend." 

536 "Why don't you approve of birth? 

Once born, one enjoys sensual pleasures. 

Who now has persuaded you of this: 

'Bhikkhuni, don't approve of birth'?" 

[The bhikkhuni Cala:] 

537 "For one who is bom there is death; 

Once bom, one encounters sufferings — 

Bondage, murder, affliction — 

Hence one shouldn't approve of birth. 351 

538 "The Buddha has taught the Dhamma, <291> 

The transcendence of birth; 

For the abandoning of all suffering 
He has settled me in the truth. [133] 

539 "As to those beings who fare amidst form. 

And those who abide in the formless— 

Not having understood cessation. 

They come again to renewed existence." 352 

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The bhikkhuni Cala 
knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there. 




5. Bhikkhunisamyutta 227 



7 Upacala 

At Savatthi. Then, in the morning, the bhikkhuni Upacala 
dressed . . . she sat down at the foot of a tree for the day's abiding. 

Then Mara the Evil One approached the bhikkhuni Upacala 
and said to her: "Where do you wish to be reborn, bhikkhuni?'' 
"I do not wish to be reborn anywhere, friend." 

540 "There are Tavatimsa and Yama devas. 

And devatas of the Tusita realm, 

Devas who take delight in creating, <292> 

And devas who exercise control. 

Direct your mind there [to those realms] 

And you'll experience delight." 353 

[The bhikkhuni Upacala:] 

541 "There are Tavatimsa and Yama devas. 

And devatas of the Tusita realm, 

Devas who take delight in creating. 

And devas who exercise control. 

They are still bound by sensual bondage. 

They come again under Mara's control. 

542 "All the world is on fire. 

All the world is burning. 

All the world is ablaze. 

All the world is quaking. 

543 "That which does not quake or blaze. 

That to which worldlings do not resort. 

Where there is no place for Mara: 

That is where my mind delights." 354 

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The bhikkhuni Upacala 
knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there. 

8 Slsupacala 

<293> At Savatthi Then, in the morning, the bhikkhuni Sisupacala 
dressed ... she sat down at the foot of a tree for the day's abiding. 




228 L The B ook with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



Then Mara the Evil One approached the bhikkhuni Sisupacala 
and said to her: "Whose creed do you approve of, bhikkhuni?" 

"I don't approve of anyone's creed, friend." 

544 "Under whom have you shaved your head? 

You do appear to be an ascetic. 

Yet you don't approve of any creed. 

So why wander as if bewildered?" 355 

[The bhikkhuni Sisupacala:] 

545 "Outside here the followers of creeds 
Place their confidence in views. 

I don't approve of their teachings; 

They are not skilled in the Dhamma. [134] 

546 "But there's one bom in the Sakyan clan. 

The Enlightened One, without an equal, <294> 

Conqueror of all, Mara's subduer. 

Who everywhere is undefeated. 

Everywhere freed and unattached. 

The One with Vision who sees all. 

547 "Attained to the end of all kamma. 

Liberated in the extinction of acquisitions. 

That Blessed One is my Teacher: 

His is the teaching I approve." 356 

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The bhikkhuni Sisupacala 
knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there. 

9 Sela 

At Savatthi. Then, in the morning, the bhikkhuni Sela dressed . . . 
she sat down at the foot of a tree for the day's abiding. 357 

Then Mara the Evil One, desiring to arouse fear, trepidation, 
and terror in the bhikkhuni Sela, desiring to make her fall away 
from concentration, approached her and addressed her in verse: 

548 "By whom has this puppet been created? 

Where is the maker of the puppet? 




5. Bhikkhunisamyutta 229 



Where has the puppet arisen? 

Where does the puppet cease?" 358 <295> 

Then it occurred to the bhikkhuni Sela: "Now who is this...? 
This is Mara the Evil One .. . desiring to make me fall away from 
concentration." 

Then the bhikkhuni Sela, having understood, "This is Mara 
the Evil One," replied to him in verses: 

549 "This puppet is not made by itself. 

Nor is this misery made by another. 

It has come to be dependent on a cause; 

With the cause's breakup it will cease. 

550 "As when a seed is sown in a field 

It grows depending on a pair of factors: 

It requires both the soil's nutrients 
And a steady supply of moisture: 

551 "Just so the aggregates and elements. 

And these six bases of sensory contact. 

Have come to be dependent on a cause; 

With the cause's breakup they will cease." 359 

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The bhikkhuni Sela knows 
me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there. 



10 Vajira 

<296> At Savatthi. Then, in the morning, the bhikkhuni Vajira 
dressed and, taking bowl and robe, entered Savatthi for alms. 360 
When she had walked for alms in Savatthi [135] and had 
returned from her alms round, after her meal she went to the 
Blind Men's Grove for the day's abiding. Having plunged into 
the Blind Men's Grove, she sat down at the foot of a tree for the 
day's abiding. 

Then Mara the Evil One, desiring to arouse fear, trepidation, 
and terror in the bhikkhuni Vajira, desiring to make her fall 
away from concentration, approached her and addressed her in 



verse: 




230 I. The Book with Verses ( Sag athavagga ) 



552 "By whom has this being been created? 

Where is the maker of the being? 

Where has the being arisen? 

Where does the being cease?" 

Then it occurred to the bhikkhuni Vajira: "Now who is this 
that recited the verse — a human being or a nonhuman being?" 
Then it occurred to her: "This is Mara the Evil One, who has 
recited the verse desiring to arouse fear, trepidation, and terror 
in me, desiring to make me fall away from concentration." 

Then the bhikkhuni Vajira, having understood, "This is Mara 
the Evil One," replied to him in verses: 

553 "Why now do you assume 'a being'? 

Mara, is that your speculative view? <297> 

This is a heap of sheer formations: 

Here no being is found. 

554 "Just as, with an assemblage of parts. 

The word 'chariot' is used. 

So, when the aggregates exist. 

There is the convention 'a being.' 

555 "It's only suffering that comes to be. 

Suffering that stands and falls away. 

Nothing but suffering comes to be. 

Nothing but suffering ceases." 361 

Then Mara the Evil One, realizing, "The bhikkhuni Vajira 
knows me," sad and disappointed, disappeared right there. 




[136] <298> Chapter VI 

6 Brahmasamyutta 

Connected Discourses with Brahmas 



I. The First Subchapter 
(The Request) 



1(1) Brahma's Request 

Thus have I heard. 362 On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Uruvela on the bank of the river Neranjara at the 
foot of the Goatherd's Banyan Tree just after he had become 
fully enlightened. Then, while the Blessed One was alone in 
seclusion, a reflection arose in his mind thus: "This Dhamma 
that I have discovered is deep, hard to see, hard to understand, 
peaceful and sublime, not within the sphere of reasoning, subtle, 
to be experienced by the wise. But this generation delights in 
adhesion, takes delight in adhesion, rejoices in adhesion. 363 For 
such a generation this state is hard to see, that is, specific condi- 
tionality, dependent origination. And this state too is hard to 
see, that is, the stilling of all formations, <299> the relinquish- 
ment of all acquisitions, the destruction of craving, dispassion, 
cessation, Nibbana. 364 If I were to teach the Dhamma and if 
others would not understand me, that would be wearisome for 
me, that would be troublesome." 

Thereupon these astounding verses, not heard before in the 
past, occurred to the Blessed One: 365 

556 "Enough now with trying to teach 
What I found with so much hardship; 

This Dhamma is not easily understood 
By those oppressed by lust and hate. 



231 




232 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 

557 "Those fired by lust, obscured by darkness. 

Will never see this abstruse Dhamma, 

Deep, hard to see, subtle. 

Going against the stream." [137] 

As the Blessed One reflected thus, his mind inclined to living at 
ease, not to teaching the Dhamma. 366 <300> 

Then Brahma Sahampati, having known with his own mind 
the reflection in the Blessed One's mind, thought: "Alas, the 
world is lost! Alas, the world is to perish, in that the mind of the 
Tathagata, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One, inclines 
to living at ease, not to teaching the Dhamma." 367 Then, just as 
quickly as a strong man might extend his drawn-in arm or draw 
in his extended arm, Brahma Sahampati disappeared from the 
brahma world and reappeared before the Blessed One. He 
arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, knelt down with his 
right knee on the ground, raised his joined hands in reverential 
salutation towards the Blessed One, and said to him: "Venerable 
sir, let the Blessed One teach the Dhamma; let the Fortunate One 
teach the Dhamma. There are beings with little dust in their eyes 
who are falling away because they do not hear the Dhamma. 
There will be those who will understand the Dhamma." 

This is what Brahma Sahampati said. Having said this, he fur- 
ther said this: 

558 "In the past there appeared among the Magadhans 
An impure Dhamma devised by those still stained. 

Throw open this door to the Deathless! Let them hear 
<301 > 

The Dhamma that the Stainless One discovered. 368 

559 "Just as one standing on a mountain peak 
Might see below the people all around. 

So, O wise one, universal eye. 

Ascend the palace made of the Dhamma. 

Being yourself free from sorrow, behold the people 
Submerged in sorrow, oppressed by birth and decay. 

560 "Rise up, O hero, victor in battle! 

O caravan leader, debt-free one, wander in the world. 




6. Brahmasamyutta 233 



Teach the Dhamma, O Blessed One: 

There will be those who will understand." 369 [138] 

Then the Blessed One, having understood Brahma's request, 
out of compassion for beings surveyed the world with the eye of 
a Buddha. 370 As he did so, the Blessed One saw beings with little 
dust in their eyes and with much dust in their eyes, with keen 
faculties and with dull faculties, with good qualities and with 
bad qualities, easy to teach and difficult to teach, <302> and a 
few who dwelt seeing blame and fear in the other world. 371 Just 
as in a pond of blue or red or white lotuses, some lotuses might 
be bom in the water, grow up in the water, and thrive while 
submerged in the water, without rising up from the water; some 
lotuses might be bom in the water, grow up in the water, and 
stand at an even level with the water; some lotuses might be 
bom in the water and grow up in the water, but would rise up 
from the water and stand without being soiled by the water — so 
too, surveying the world with the eye of a Buddha, the Blessed 
One saw beings with little dust in their eyes and with much dust 
in their eyes, with keen faculties and with dull faculties, with 
good qualities and with bad qualities, easy to teach and hard to 
teach, and a few who dwelt seeing blame and fear in the other 
world. 

Having seen this, he answered Brahma Sahampati in verse: 
<303> 

561 "Open to them are the doors to the Deathless: 

Let those who have ears release faith. 

Foreseeing trouble, O Brahma, I did not speak 

The refined, sublime Dhamma among human beings." 

Then Brahma Sahampati, thinking, "The Blessed One has 
given his consent [to my request] regarding the teaching of the 
Dhamma," paid homage to the Blessed One and disappeared 
right there. 372 

2(2) Reverence 

Thus have I heard. 373 On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Uruvela on the bank of the river Neranjara at the 




234 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



foot of the Goatherd's Banyan Tree just after he had become 
fully enlightened. [139] Then, while the Blessed One was alone 
in seclusion, a reflection arose in his mind thus: "One dwells in 
suffering if one is without reverence and deference. Now what 
ascetic or brahmin can I honour and respect and dwell in 
dependence on?" 

Then it occurred to the Blessed One: "It would be for the sake 
of fulfilling an unfulfilled aggregate of virtue that I would hon- 
our, respect, and dwell in dependence on another ascetic or 
brahmin. However, in this world with its devas, Mara, and 
Brahma, <304> in this generation with its ascetics and brahmins, 
its devas and humans, I do not see another ascetic or brahmin 
more perfect in virtue than myself, whom I could honour and 
respect and dwell in dependence on. 

"It would be for the sake of fulfilling an unfulfilled aggregate 
of concentration that I would honour, respect, and dwell in 
dependence on another ascetic or brahmin. However ... I do not 
see another ascetic or brahmin more perfect in concentration 
than myself. . . . 

"It would be for the sake of fulfilling an unfulfilled aggregate 
of wisdom that I would honour, respect, and dwell in dependence 
on another ascetic or brahmin. However ... I do not see another 
ascetic or brahmin more perfect in wisdom than myself.... 

"It would be for the sake of fulfilling an unfulfilled aggregate 
of liberation that I would honour, respect, and dwell in depend- 
ence on another ascetic or brahmin. However ... I do not see 
another ascetic or brahmin more perfect in liberation than 
myself.... 

"It would be for the sake of fulfilling an unfulfilled aggregate 
of the knowledge and vision of liberation that I would honour, 
respect, and dwell in dependence on another ascetic or brahmin. 
However ... I do not see another ascetic or brahmin more perfect 
in the knowledge and vision of liberation than myself, whom I 
could honour and respect, and on whom I could dwell in 
dependence. 374 <305> 

"Let me then honour, respect, and dwell in dependence on 
this very Dhamma to which I have fully awakened." 

Then, having known with his own mind the reflection in the 
Blessed One's mind, just as quickly as a strong man might 
extend his drawn-in arm or draw in his extended arm, Brahma 




6. Brahmasarnyutta 235 



Sahampati disappeared from the brahma world and reappeared 
before the Blessed One. He arranged his upper robe over one 
shoulder, raised his joined hands in reverential salutation 
towards the Blessed One, and said to him: [140] "So it is. Blessed 
One! So it is. Fortunate One! Venerable sir, those who were the 
Arahants, the Perfectly Enlightened Ones in the past — those 
Blessed Ones too honoured, respected, and dwelt in dependence 
just on the Dhamma itself. Those who will be the Arahants, the 
Perfectly Enlightened Ones in the future — those Blessed Ones 
too will honour, respect, and dwell in dependence just on the 
Dhamma itself. Let the Blessed One too, who is at present the 
Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One, honour, respect, and 
dwell in dependence just on the Dhamma itself." 

This is what Brahma Sahampati said. Having said this, he fur- 
ther said this: <306> 

562 "The Buddhas of the past. 

The future Buddhas, 

And he who is the Buddha now. 

Removing the sorrow of many — 

563 "All have dwelt, will dwell, and dwell. 

Deeply revering the true Dhamma: 

For the Buddhas 

This is.a natural law. 

564 "Therefore one desiring his own good. 

Aspiring for spiritual greatness. 

Should deeply revere the true Dhamma, 

Recollecting the Buddhas' Teaching." 375 

3 (3) Brahmadeva 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Now 
on that occasion a certain brahmin lady had a son named 
Brahmadeva <307> who had gone forth from the household life 
into homelessness under the Blessed One. 

Then, dwelling alone, withdrawn, diligent, ardent, and res- 
olute, the Venerable Brahmadeva, by realizing it for himself 




236 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



with direct knowledge, in this very life entered and dwelt in that 
unsurpassed goal of the holy life for the sake of which clansmen 
rightly go forth from the household life into homelessness. He 
directly knew: "Destroyed is birth, the holy life has been lived, 
what had to be done has been done, there is no more for this 
state of being." And the Venerable Brahmadeva became one of 
the arahants. 376 

Then, in the morning, the Venerable Brahmadeva dressed and, 
taking bowl and robe, entered Savatthi for alms. Walking on 
continuous alms round in Savatthi, he came to his own mother's 
residence. 377 [141] Now on that occasion the brahmin lady, the 
Venerable Brahmadeva's mother, had been offering a constant 
oblation to Brahma 378 Then it occurred to Brahma Sahampati: 
"This brahmin lady, the Venerable Brahmadeva's mother, has 
been offering a constant oblation to Brahma. Let me approach 
her and stir up a sense of urgency in her." 

Then, <308> just as quickly as a strong man might extend his 
drawn-in arm or draw in his extended arm, Brahma Sahampati 
disappeared from the brahma world and reappeared in the resi- 
dence of the Venerable Brahmadeva's mother. Then, standing in 
the air, Brahma Sahampati addressed the brahmin lady in verse: 

565 "Far from here, madam, is the brahma world 
To which you offer a constant oblation. 

Brahma does not eat such food, lady: 

So why mumble, not knowing the path to Brahma? 379 

566 "This Brahmadeva, madam. 

Without acquisitions, has surpassed the devas. 

Owning nothing, nourishing no other. 

The bhikkhu has entered your house for alms. 380 

567 "Gift-worthy, knowledge-master, inwardly developed, 
<309> 

He deserves offerings from humans and devas. 

Having expelled all evil, unsullied. 

Cooled at heart, he comes seeking alms. 

568 "For him there is nothing behind or in front — 

Peaceful, smokeless, untroubled, wishless; 




6. Brahmasamyutta 237 



He has laid down the rod towards frail and firm: 

Let him eat your oblation, the choicest alms. 381 

569 "Aloof from the crowd, with peaceful mind. 

Like a naga he fares, tamed, unstirred. 

A bhikkhu of pure virtue, well liberated in mind: 

Let him eat your oblation, the choicest alms. 382 

570 "With confidence in him, free from wavering, [142] 
Present your offering to one who deserves it. 

Having seen a sage who has crossed the flood, 

O madam, make merit leading to future bliss." 383 <310> 

571 With confidence in him, free from wavering. 

She presented her offering to one who deserved it. 
Having seen a sage who has crossed the floods 
The lady made merit leading to future bliss. 384 



4 (4) Brahma Baka 

Thus have I heard. 385 On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Now 
on that occasion the following evil speculative view had arisen 
in Brahma Baka: "This is permanent, this is stable, this is eternal, 
this is complete, this is imperishable. Indeed, this is where one is 
not bom, does not age, does not die, does not pass away, and is 
not reborn; and there is no other escape superior to this." 386 

Then, having known with his own mind the reflection in 
Brahma Baka's mind, just as quickly as a strong man might 
extend his drawn-in arm or draw in his extended arm, the 
Blessed One disappeared from Jeta's Grove and reappeared in 
that brahma world. <31 1> Brahma Baka saw the Blessed One 
coming in the distance and said to him: "Come, dear sir! 
Welcome, dear sir! It has been a long time, dear sir, since you 
took the opportunity of coming here. Indeed, dear sir, this is 
permanent, this is stable, this is eternal, this is complete, this is 
imperishable. Indeed, this is where one is not born, does not 
age, does not die, does not pass away, and is not reborn; and 
there is no other escape superior to this." 

When this was said, the Blessed One said to Brahma Baka: 




238 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



"Alas, sir, Brahma Baka is immersed in ignorance! Alas, sir, 
Brahma Baka is immersed in ignorance, in so far as he will say 
of what is actually impermanent that it is permanent; and will 
say of what is actually unstable that it is stable; and will say of 
what is actually nonetemal that it is eternal; [143] and will say of 
what is actually incomplete that it is complete; and will say of 
what is actually perishable that it is imperishable; and with ref- 
erence to [a realm] where one is bom, ages, dies, passes away, 
and is reborn, will say thus: 'Indeed, this is where one is not 
bom, does not age, does not die, does not pass away, and is not 
reborn'; and when there is another escape superior to this, will 
say, 'There is no other escape superior to this.'" 

[Brahma Baka:] 

572 "We seventy-two, Gotama, were merit-makers; <312> 
Now.we wield power, beyond birth and aging. 

This, knowledge-master, is our final attainment of Brahma. 
Many are the people who yearn for us." 387 

[The Blessed One:] 

573 "The life span here is short, not long. 

Though you, Baka, imagine it is long. 

I know, O Brahma, your life span to be 
A hundred thousand nirabbudas." 388 

[Brahma Baka:] 

574 "O Blessed One, [you say]: 

'I am the one of infinite vision 

Who has overcome birth, aging, and sorrow/ 

What was my ancient practice of vow and virtue? 

Tell me this so I might understand." 389 

[The Blessed One:] 

575 "You gave drink to many people 
Who were thirsty, afflicted by heat: 

That was your ancient practice of vow and virtue, <313> 
Which I recollect as if just waking up. 390 

576 "When people were abducted at Antelope Bank, 

You released the captives being led away. 




6. Brahmasamyutta 239 



That was your ancient practice of vow and virtue. 

Which I recollect as if just waking up. 

577 "When a ship was seized on the river Ganges 
By a fierce naga longing for human flesh. 

You freed it forcefully by a valiant act: 

That was your ancient practice of vow and virtue, 

Which I recollect as if just waking up. [144] 

578 "I was your apprentice named Kappa; 

You thought him intelligent and devout: 

That was your ancient practice of vow and virtue, 

Which I recollect as if just waking up." 391 

[Brahma Baka:] <314> 

579 "Surely you know this life span of mine; 

The others too you know, thus you're the Buddha. 

Thus this blazing majesty of yours 
Illumines even the brahma world." 

5 (5) A Certain Brahma (Another View) 

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion the following evil speculative 
view had arisen in a certain brahma: "There is no ascetic or 
brahmin who can come here." Then, having known with his 
own mind the reflection in that brahma's mind, just as quickly 
as a strong man might extend his drawn-in arm or draw in his 
extended arm, the Blessed One disappeared from Jeta's Grove 
and reappeared in that brahma world. The Blessed One sat 
cross-legged in the air above that brahma, having entered into 
meditation on the fire element. 392 

Then it occurred to the Venerable Mahamoggallana: "Where 
now is the Blessed One dwelling at present?" With the divine 
eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, the Venerable 
Mahamoggallana saw the Blessed One sitting cross-legged in 
the air above that brahma, having entered into meditation on 
the fire element. Having seen this, <315> just as quickly as a 
strong man might extend his drawn-in arm or draw in his 
extended arm, the Venerable Mahamoggallana disappeared 
from Jeta's Grove and reappeared in that brahma world. Then 




240 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



the Venerable Mahamoggallana stationed himself in the eastern 
quarter and sat cross-legged in the air above that brahma — 
though lower than the Blessed One — having entered into medi- 
tation on the fire element. 

Then it occurred to the Venerable Mahakassapa: "Where now 
is the Blessed One dwelling at present?" With the divine eye ... 
the Venerable Mahakassapa saw the Blessed One sitting cross- 
legged in the air above that brahma.... Having seen this, ... [145] 
the Venerable Mahakassapa disappeared from Jeta's Grove and 
reappeared in that brahma world. Then the Venerable Mahakas- 
sapa stationed himself in the southern quarter and sat cross- 
legged in the air above that brahma — though lower than the 
Blessed One — having entered into meditation on the fire ele- 
ment. 

Then it occurred to the Venerable Mahakappina: "Where now 
is the Blessed One dwelling at present?" With the divine eye ... 
the Venerable Mahakappina saw the Blessed One sitting cross- 
legged in the air above that brahma.... Having seen this, ... the 
Venerable Mahakappina disappeared from Jeta's Grove and 
reappeared in that brahma world. Then the Venerable 
Mahakappina stationed himself in the western quarter <316> 
and sat cross-legged in the air above that brahma — though 
lower than the Blessed One — having entered into meditation on 
the fire element. 

Then it occurred to the Venerable Anuruddha: "Where now is 
the Blessed One dwelling at present?" With the divine eye ... the 
Venerable Anuruddha saw the Blessed One sitting cross-legged 
in the air above that brahma.... Having seen this, ... the 
Venerable Anuruddha disappeared from Jeta's Grove and reap- 
peared in that brahma world. Then the Venerable Anuruddha 
stationed himself in the northern quarter and sat cross-legged in 
the air above that brahma — though lower than the Blessed 
One — having entered into meditation on the fire element. 

Then the Venerable Mahamoggallana addressed that brahma 
in verse: 

580 "Today, friend, do you still hold that view, 

The view that you formerly held? 

Do you see the radiance 

Surpassing that in the brahma world?" 393 <317> 




6. Brahmasamyutta 241 



581 "I no longer hold that view, dear sir, 

The view that I formerly held. 

Indeed I see the radiance 
Surpassing that in the brahma world. 

Today how could I maintain, 

'I am permanent and eternal'?" 394 

Then, having stirred up a sense of urgency in that brahma, just 
as quickly as a strong man might extend his drawn-in arm or 
draw in his extended arm, the Blessed One disappeared from 
that brahma world and reappeared in Jeta's Grove. 

Then that brahma addressed one member of his assembly 
thus: "Come now, dear sir, approach the Venerable Mahamog- 
gallana and say to him: 'Sir Moggallana, are there any other dis- 
ciples of the Blessed One that are as powerful [146] and mighty 
as Masters Moggallana, Kassapa, Kappina, and Anuruddha?"' 

"Yes, dear sir," that member of Brahma's assembly replied. 
Then he approached the Venerable Mahamoggallana and asked 
him: "Sir Moggallana, are there any other disciples of the 
Blessed One that are as powerful and mighty as Masters 
Moggallana, Kassapa, Kappina, and Anuruddha?" 

Then the Venerable Mahamoggallana addressed that member 
of Brahma's assembly in verse: 

582 "Many are the disciples of the Buddha 
Who are arahants with taints destroyed, 

Triple-knowledge bearers with spiritual powers. 

Skilled in the course of others' minds." 395 <318> 

Then that member of Brahma's assembly, having delighted 
and rejoiced in the Venerable Mahamoggallana's statement, 
approached that brahma and told him: "Dear sir, the Venerable 
Mahamoggallana speaks thus: 

583 "'Many are the disciples of the Buddha . . . 

Skilled in the course of others' minds.'" 

This is what that member of Brahma's assembly said. Elated, 
that brahma delighted in his statement. 




242 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



6 (6) A Brahma World (Negligence) 

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion the Blessed One had gone for 
his day's abiding and was in seclusion. Then the independent 
brahmas Subrahma and Suddhavasa approached the Blessed 
One and stood one at each doorpost. 396 Then the independent 
brahma Subrahma said to the independent brahma Suddhavasa: 
<319> "It is not the right time, dear sir, to visit the Blessed One. 
The Blessed One has gone for his day's abiding and is in seclu- 
sion. Such and such a brahma world is rich and prosperous, and 
the brahma there is dwelling in negligence. Come, dear sir, let 
us go to that brahma world and stir up a sense of urgency in 
that brahma." [147] 

"Yes, dear sir," the independent brahma Suddhavasa replied. 

Then, just as quickly as a strong man might extend his drawn- 
in arm or draw in his extended arm, the independent brahmas 
Subrahma and Suddhavasa disappeared in front of the Blessed 
One and reappeared in that brahma world. That brahma saw 
those brahmas coming in the distance and said to them: "Now 
where are you coming from, dear sirs?" <320> 

"We have come, dear sir, from the presence of the Blessed 
One, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One. Dear sir, you 
should go to attend upon that Blessed One, the Arahant, the 
Perfectly Enlightened One." 

When this was said, that brahma refused to accept their 
advice. Having created a thousand transformations of himself, 
he said to the independent brahma Subrahma: <321 > "Do you 
see, dear sir, how much power and might I have?" 

"I see, dear sir, that you have so much power and might." 

"But, dear sir, when I am so powerful and mighty, what other 
ascetic or brahmin should I go to attend upon?" 

Then the independent brahma Subrahma, having created two 
thousand transformations of himself, said to that brahma: "Do 
you see, dear sir, how much power and might I have?" 

"I see, dear sir, that you have so much power and might." 

"That Blessed One, dear sir, is still more powerful and mighty 
than both you and I. You should go, dear sir, to attend upon that 
Blessed One, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One." 

Then that brahma addressed the independent brahma 
Subrahma in verse: [148] 




6. Brahmasarnyutta 243 



584 "Three [hundred] supannas, four [hundred] geese, 

And five hundred falcons: 

This palace, O Brahma, of the meditator shines 
Illuminating the northern quarter." 397 

[The independent brahma Subrahma:] 

585 "Even though that palace of yours shines 
Illuminating the northern quarter, <322> 

Having seen form's flaw, its chronic trembling. 

The wise one takes no delight in form." 398 

Then the independent brahmas Subrahma and Suddhavasa, 
having stirred up a sense of urgency in that brahma, disap- 
peared right there. And on a later occasion that brahma went to 
attend upon the Blessed One, the Arahant, the Perfectly 
Enlightened One. 

7 (7) Kokalika (1) 

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion the Blessed One had gone for 
his day's abiding and was in seclusion. Then the independent 
brahmas Subrahma and Suddhavasa approached the Blessed 
One and stood one at each doorpost. Then, referring to the 
bhikkhu Kokalika, the independent brahma Subrahma recited 
this verse in the presence of the Blessed One: 399 

586 "What wise man here would seek to define 

An immeasurable one by taking his measure? <323> 

He who would measure an immeasurable one 
Must be, I think, an obstructed worldling." 400 



8 (8) Tissaka 

At Savatthi.... (as above) ... Then, referring to the bhikkhu 
Katamorakatissaka, the independent brahma Suddhavasa recit- 
ed this verse in the presence of the Blessed One: 401 [149] 



587 "What wise man here would seek to define 
An immeasurable one by taking his measure? 




244 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



He who would measure an immeasurable one 
Must be, I think, an obstructed moron." 

9 (9) Brahma Tudu 

<324> At Savatthi. Now on that occasion the bhikkhu Kokalika 
was sick, afflicted, gravely ill. Then, when the night had 
advanced, the independent brahma Tudu, of stunning beauty, 
illuminating the entire Jeta's Grove, approached the bhikkhu 
Kokalika. 402 Having approached, he stood in the air and said to 
the bhikkhu Kokalika: "Place confidence in Sariputta and 
Moggallana, Kokalika. Sariputta and Moggallana are well 
behaved." 

"Who are you, friend?" 

"I am the independent brahma Tudu." 

"Didn't the Blessed One declare you to be a nonreturner, 
friend? Then why have you come back here? See how far you 
have transgressed." 403 

[Brahma Tudu:] 

588 "When a person has taken birth 
An axe is bom inside his mouth 
With which the fool cuts himself 
Uttering defamatory speech. <325> 

589 "He who praises one deserving blame. 

Or blames one deserving praise. 

Casts with his mouth an unlucky throw 
By which he finds no happiness 404 

590 "Trifling is the unlucky throw 

That brings the loss of wealth at dice, 

[The loss] of all, oneself included; 

Worse by far — this unlucky throw 
Of harbouring hate against the fortunate ones 405 

591 "For a hundred thousand nirabbudas 
And thirty-six more, and five abbudas, 

-•» The maligner of noble ones goes to hell. 

Having set evil speech and mind against them." 406 




6. Brahmasamyutta 245 



10 (10) Kokalika (2) 

At Savatthi. 407 Then the bhikkhu Kokalika approached the 
Blessed One, [150] <326> paid homage to him, sat down to one 
side, and said: "Venerable sir, Sariputta and Moggallana have 
evil wishes; they have come under the control of evil wishes." 

When this was said, the Blessed One said to the bhikkhu 
Kokalika: "Do not speak thus, Kokalika! Do not speak thus, 
Kokalika! Place confidence in Sariputta and Moggallana, 
Kokalika. Sariputta and Moggallana are well behaved." 

A second time the bhikkhu Kokalika said to the Blessed One: 
"Venerable sir, although the Blessed One has my faith and trust, 
all the same I say that Sariputta and Moggallana have evil wishes; 
they have come under the control of evil wishes." And a second 
time the Blessed One said to the bhikkhu Kokalika: "Do not 
speak thus, Kokalika!... Sariputta and Moggallana are well 
behaved." 

A third time the bhikkhu Kokalika said to the Blessed One: 
"Venerable sir, although the Blessed One has my faith and trust, 
all the same I say that Sariputta and Moggallana have evil wishes; 
they have come under the control of evil wishes." And a third 
time the Blessed One said to the bhikkhu Kokalika: "Do not 
speak thus, Kokalika!... Sariputta and Moggallana are well 
behaved." 

Then the bhikkhu Kokalika rose from his seat, paid homage to 
the Blessed One, and departed, keeping him on his right. Not 
long after the bhikkhu Kokalika had left, his entire body became 
covered with boils the size of mustard seeds. <32 7> These then 
grew to the size of mung beans; then to the size of chickpeas; 
then to the size of jujube stones; then to the size of jujube fruits; 
then to the size of myrobalans; then to the size of unripe beluva 
fruits; then to the size of ripe beluva fruits. When they had 
grown to the size of ripe beluva fruits, they burst open, exuding 
pus and blood. Then, on account of that illness, the bhikkhu 
Kokalika died, [151] and because he had harboured animosity 
towards Sariputta and Moggallana, after his death he was 
reborn in the Paduma hell. 408 

Then, when the night had advanced, Brahma Sahampati, of 
stunning beauty, illuminating the entire Jeta's Grove, approached 
the Blessed One, paid homage to him, stood to one side, <328; 




246 I- The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



and said to him: "Venerable sir, the bhikkhu Kokalika has died, 
and because he harboured animosity towards Sariputta and 
Moggallana, after his death he has been reborn in the Paduma 
hell." This is what Brahma Sahampati said. Having said this, he 
paid homage to the Blessed One and, keeping him on his right, 
he disappeared right there. 

Then, when the night had passed, the Blessed One addressed 
the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus, last night, when the night had 
advanced, Brahma Sahampati approached me and said to me:... 
(as above ) ... Having said this, he paid homage to me and, keep- 
ing me on his right, he disappeared right there." 

When this was said, a certain bhikkhu said to the Blessed One: 
"Venerable sir, how long is the life span in the Paduma hell?" 

"The life span in the Paduma hell is long, bhikkhu. It is not 
easy to count it and say it is so many years, or so many hun- 
dreds of years, or so many thousands of years, or so many hun- 
dreds of thousands of years." <329> 

"Then is it possible to give a simile, venerable sir?" [152] 

"It is possible, bhikkhu. Suppose, bhikkhu, there was a 
Kosalan cartload of twenty measures of sesamum seed. At the 
end of every hundred years a man would remove one seed from 
there. That Kosalan cartload of twenty measures of sesamum 
seed might by this effort be depleted and eliminated more 
quickly than a single Abbuda hell would go by. Twenty Abbuda 
hells are the equivalent of one Nirabbuda hell; twenty Nirab- 
buda hells are the equivalent of one Ababa hell; twenty Ababa 
hells are the equivalent of one Atata hell; twenty Atata hells are 
the equivalent of one Ahaha hell; twenty Ahaha hells are the 
equivalent of one Kumuda hell; twenty Kumuda hells are the 
equivalent of one Sogandhika hell; twenty Sogandhika hells are 
the equivalent of one Uppala hell; twenty Uppala hells are the 
equivalent of one Pundarika hell; and twenty Pundarika hells are 
the equivalent of one Paduma hell. Now, bhikkhu, the bhikkhu 
Kokalika has been reborn in the Paduma hell because he har- 
boured animosity towards Sariputta and Moggallana." 409 <330> 
This is what the Blessed One said. Having said this, the 
Fortunate One, the Teacher, further said this: 

592-95 "When a person has taken birth 

... ( verses = 588-91) ... [153] <331> * 

Having set evil speech and mind against them." 




6. Brahmasamyutta 24 7 



II. The Second SuBCHAFrER 
(Brahma Pentad) 



11(1) Sanankumara 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Rajagaha on the bank of the river Sappini. Then, 
when the night had advanced, Braluna Sanankumara, of stun- 
ning beauty, illuminating the entire bank of the river Sappini, 
approached the Blessed One, paid homage to him, and stood to 
one side. 410 Standing to one side, he recited this verse in the 
presence of the Blessed One: <332> 

596 "The khattiya is the best among people 
For those whose standard is the clan. 

But one accomplished in knowledge and conduct 
Is best among devas and humans." 

This is what Brahma Sanankumara said. The Teacher 
approved. Then Braluna Sanankumara, thinking, "The Teacher 
has approved of me," paid homage to the Blessed One and, 
keeping him on his right, he disappeared right there. 

12 (2) Devadatta 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Rajagaha on Mount Vulture Peak not long after 
Devadatta had left. 411 Then, when the night had advanced, 
Braluna Sahampati, of stunning beauty, illuminating the entire 
Mount Vulture Peak, approached the Blessed One, paid homage 
to him, and stood to one side. [154] Standing to one side, refer- 
ring to Devadatta, he recited this verse in the presence of the 
Blessed One: 

597 "As its own fruit brings destruction 
To the plantain, bamboo, and reed. 

As its embryo destroys the mule, <333> 

So do honours destroy the scoundrel." 412 




248 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



13 ( 3) Andhakavinda 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling among the 
Magadhans at Andhakavinda. Now on that occasion the Blessed 
One was sitting out in the open in the thick darkness of the 
night while it was drizzling. Then, when the night had 
advanced, Brahma Sahampati ... approached the Blessed One, 
paid homage to him, and stood to one side. Standing to one 
side, he recited these verses in the presence of the Blessed One: 

598 "One should resort to remote lodgings. 

Practise for release from the fetters. 

But if one does not find delight there. 

Guarded and mindful, dwell in the Saiigha. 413 <334> 

599 "Walking for alms from family to family. 

Faculties guarded, discreet, mindful. 

One should resort to remote lodgings. 

Freed from fear, liberated in the fearless. 414 

600 "Where terrible serpents glide. 

Where lightning flashes and the sky thunders. 

In the thick darkness of the night 
There sits a bhikkhu devoid of terror. 415 

601 "For this has actually been seen by me. 

It is not merely hearsay: 

Within a single holy life 
A thousand have left Death behind. 416 

602 "There are five hundred more trainees. 

And ten times a tenfold ten: 

All have entered the stream. 

Never returning to the animal realm. 

603 "As for the other people who remain — <335> 

Who, to my mind, partake of merit — 

I cannot even number them 

From dread of speaking falsely." 417 [155] 




6. Brahmasamyutta 249 



14 (4) Arunavati 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was dwel- 
ling at Savatthi.... There the Blessed One addressed the 
bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus!" 

"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said 
this: 

"Bhikkhus, once in the past there was a king name Arunava 
whose capital was named Arunavati. The Blessed One Sikhi, the 
Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One, dwelt in dependence on 
the capital Arunavati. 418 The chief pair of disciples of the Blessed 
One Sikhi were named Abhibhu and Sambhava, an excellent 
pair. Then the Blessed One Sikhi addressed the bhikkhu 
Abhibhu: 'Come, <336> brahmin, let us go to a certain brahma 
world until it is time for our meal.' - 'Yes, venerable sir,' the 
bhikkhu Abhibhu replied. 

"Then, bhikkhus, just as quickly as a strong man might extend 
his drawn-in arm or draw in his extended arm, so the Blessed 
One Sikhi, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One, and the 
bhikkhu Abhibhu disappeared from the capital Arunavati and 
reappeared in that brahma world. Then the Blessed One Sikhi 
addressed the bhikkhu Abhibhu thus: 'Give a Dhamma talk, 
brahmin, to Brahma and to Brahma's retinue and to Brahma's 
assembly.' - 'Yes, venerable sir,' the bhikkhu Abhibhu replied. 
Then, by means of a Dhamma talk, he instructed, exhorted, 
inspired, and gladdened Brahma and Brahma's retinue and 
Brahma's assembly. Thereupon Brahma and Brahma's retinue 
and [156] Brahma's assembly found fault with this, grumbled, 
and complained about it, saying: 'It is wonderful indeed, sir! It 
is amazing indeed, sir! How <337> can a disciple teach the 
Dhamma in the very presence of the Teacher?' 

"Then, bhikkhus, the Blessed One Sikhi addressed the 
bhikkhu Abhibhu thus: 'Brahmin, Brahma and Brahma's retinue 
and Brahma's assembly deplore this, saying, "It is wonderful 
indeed, sir! It is amazing indeed, sir! How can a disciple teach 
the Dhamma in the very presence of the Teacher?" Well then, 
brahmin, stir up an even greater sense of urgency in Brahma 
and in Brahma's retinue and in Brahma's assembly.' - 'Yes, 
venerable sir,' the bhikkhu Abhibhu replied. Then he taught the 
Dhamma with his body visible, and with his body invisible, and 




250 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



with the lower half of his body visible and the upper half invisi- 
ble, and with the upper half of his body visible and the lower 
half invisible. 419 Thereupon, bhikkhus, Brahma and Brahma's 
retinue and Brahma's assembly were struck with wonder and 
amazement, saying: 'It is wonderful indeed, sir! It is amazing 
indeed, sir! How the ascetic has such great power and might!' 

"Then, bhikkhus, the bhikkhu Abhibhu said to the Blessed 
One Sikhi, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One: 'I recall, 
venerable sir, having made such a statement as this in the midst 
of the Bhikkhu Sangha: <338> "Friends, while standing in the 
brahma world I can make my voice heard throughout the thou- 
sandfold world system."' - 'Now is the time for that, brahmin! 
Now is the time for that, brahmin! While standing in the brahma 
world you should make your voice heard throughout the thou- 
sandfold world system.' - 'Yes, venerable sir,' the bhikkhu 
Abhibhu replied. Then, while standing in the brahma world, he 
recited these verses: 420 

604 "'Arouse your energy, strive on! 

Exert yourself in the Buddha's Teaching. 

Sweep away the army of Death 

As an elephant does a hut of reeds. [157] 

605 "'One who dwells diligently 

In this Dhamma and Discipline, 

Having abandoned the wandering on in birth. 

Will make an end to suffering.' 

"Then, bhikkhus, having stirred up a sense of urgency in 
Brahma and in Brahma's retinue and in Brahma's assembly, just 
as quickly as a strong man might extend his drawn-in arm or 
draw in his extended arm, the Blessed One Sikhi, the Arahant, 
the Perfectly Enlightened One, and the bhikkhu Abhibhu disap- 
peared from that brahma world and reappeared in the capital 
Arunavati. <339> Then the Blessed One Sikhi addressed the 
bhikkhus thus: 'Bhikkhus, did you hear the verses that the 
bhikkhu Abhibhu recited while he was standing in the brahma 
world?' - 'We did, venerable sir.' - 'What were the verses that 
you heard, bhikkhus?' - 'We heard the verses of the bhikkhu 
Abhibhu thus: 




6. Brahmasamyutta 251 



606-7 "Arouse your energy, strive on! . . . 

Will make an end to suffering." 

Such were the verses that we heard the bhikkhu Abhibhu 
recite while he was standing in the brahma world.' - 'Good, 
good, bhikkhus! It is good that you heard the verses that the 
bhikkhu Abhibhu recited while he was standing in the brahma 
world.'" <340> 

This is what the Blessed One said. Elated, those bhikkhus 
delighted in the Blessed One's statement. 

15 (5) Final Nibbana 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Kusinara in 
Upavattana, the sal tree grove of the Malians, between the twin 
sal trees, on the occasion of his final Nibbana. 421 Then the 
Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Now [158] I address 
you, bhikkhus: Formations are bound to vanish. Strive to attain 
the goal by diligence." This was the last utterance of the 
Tathagata. 

Then the Blessed One attained the first jhana. Having emerged 
from the first jhana, he attained the second jhana. Having 
emerged from the second jhana, he attained the third jhana. 
Having emerged from the third jhana, he attained the fourth 
jhana. Having emerged from the fourth jhana, he attained the 
base of the infinity of space. Having emerged from the base of 
the infinity of space, he attained the base of the infinity of con- 
sciousness. Having emerged from the base of the infinity of con- 
sciousness, he attained the base of nothingness. Having 
emerged from the base of nothingness, he attained the base of 
neither-perception-nor-nonperception. Having emerged from 
the base of neither-perception-nor-nonperception, he attained 
the cessation of perception and feeling. <341> 

Having emerged from the cessation of perception and feeling, 
he attained the base of neither-perception-nor-nonperception. 
Having emerged from the base of neither-perception-nor-non- 
perception, he attained the base of nothingness. Having 
emerged from the base of nothingness, he attained the base of 
the infinity of consciousness. Having emerged from the base of 
the infinity of consciousness, he attained the base of the infinity 




252 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



of space. Having emerged from the base of the infinity of space, 
he attained the fourth jhana. Having emerged from the fourth 
jhana, he attained the third jhana. Having emerged from the 
third jhana, he attained the second jhana. Having emerged from 
the second jhana, he attained the first jhana. 

Having emerged from the first jhana, he attained the second 
jhana. Having emerged from the second jhana, he attained the 
third jhana. Having emerged from the third jhana, he attained 
the fourth jhana. Having emerged from the fourth jhana, imme- 
diately after this the Blessed One attained final Nibbana. 422 

When the Blessed One attained finaf Nibbana, simultaneously 
with his final Nibbana Brahma Sahampati recited this verse: 

608 "All beings in the world 

Will finally lay the body down. 

Since such a one as the Teacher, 

The peerless person in the world. 

The Tathagata endowed with the powers. 

The Buddha, has attained final Nibbana." 423 <342> 

When the Blessed One attained final Nibbana, simultaneously 
with his final Nibbana Sakka, lord of the devas, recited this verse: 

609 "Impermanent indeed are formations; 

Their nature is to arise and vanish. 

Having arisen, they cease: 

Their appeasement is blissful." 424 

When the Blessed One attained final Nibbana, simultaneously 
with his final Nibbana the Venerable Ananda recited this 
verse: 425 

610 "Then there was terror. 

Then there was trepidation. 

When the one perfect in all excellent qualities. 

The Buddha, attained final Nibbana." [159] 

When the Blessed One attained final Nibbana, simultaneously 
with his final Nibbana the Venerable Anuruddha recited these 



verses: 




6. Brahmasarnyutta 253 



611 "There was no more in-and-out breathing 
In the Stable One of steady mind 

When unstirred, bent on peace. 

The One with Vision attained final Nibbana. 426 

612 "With unshrinking mind 
He endured the pain; 

Like the quenching of a lamp 

Was the deliverance of the mind." 427 <343> 




[160] <344> Chapter VII 

7 Brahmanasamyutta 
Connected Discourses with Brahmins 



I. The Arahants 



1 (1) Dhananjani 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrel 
Sanctuary. Now on that occasion the wife of a certain brahmin 
of the Bharadvaja clan, a brahmin lady named Dhananjani, had 
full confidence in the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Saiigha. 428 
Once, while the brahmin lady Dhananjani was bringing the 
brahmin his meal, she stumbled, whereupon she uttered three 
times this inspired utterance: "Homage to the Blessed One, the 
Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One! Homage to the Blessed 
One, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One! Homage to the 
Blessed One, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One!" 429 

When this was said, the brahmin of the Bharadvaja clan said 
to her: "For the slightest thing this wretched woman <345> spouts 
out praise of that shaveling ascetic! Now, wretched woman, I 
am going to refute the doctrine of that teacher of yours." 430 

"I do not see anyone, brahmin, in this world with its devas, 
Mara, and Brahma, in this generation with its ascetics and brah- 
mins, its devas and humans, who could refute the doctrine of 
the Blessed One, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One. 
But go, brahmin. When you have gone, you will understand." 

Then the brahmin of the Bharadvaja clan, angry and dis- 
pleased, approached the Blessed One and exchanged greetings 
with him. When they had concluded their greetings and cordial 
talk, he sat down to one side [161] and addressed the Blessed 
One in verse: 431 



254 




7, Brahmanasamyutta 255 



613 "Having slain what does one sleep soundly? 

Having slain what does one not sorrow? <346> 

What is the one thing, O Gotama, 

Whose killing you approve?" 

[The Blessed One:] 

614 "Having slain anger, one sleeps soundly; 

Having slain anger, one does not sorrow; 

The killing of anger, O brahmin. 

With its poisoned root and honeyed tip: 

This is the killing the {joble ones praise. 

For having slain that, one does not sorrow." 

When this was said, the brahmin of the Bharadvaja clan said 
to the Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, 
Master Gotama! The Dhamma has been made clear in many 
ways by Master Gotama, as though he were turning upright 
what had been turned upside down, revealing what was hid- 
den, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a 
lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms. I go for 
refuge to Master Gotama, and to the Dhamma, and to the 
Bhikkhu Sangha. May I receive the going forth under Master 
Gotama, may I receive the higher ordination?" 

Then the brahmin of the Bharadvaja clan received the going 
forth under the Blessed One, he received the higher ordination. 
And soon, not long after his higher ordination, dwelling alone, 
withdrawn, diligent, ardent, and resolute, the Venerable 
Bharadvaja, by realizing it for himself with direct knowledge, in 
this very life entered and dwelt in that unsurpassed goal of the 
holy life for the sake of which clansmen rightly go forth from 
the household life into homelessness. <347> He directly knew: 
"Destroyed is birth, the holy life has been lived, what had to be 
done has been done, there is no more for this state of being." 432 
And the Venerable Bharadvaja became one of the arahants. 

2 (2) Abuse 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Rajagaha in 
the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrel Sanctuary. The brahmir 




256 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



Akkosaka Bharadvaja, Bharadvaja the Abusive, heard: 433 "It is 
said that the brahmin of the Bharadvaja clan has gone forth from 
the household life into homelessness under the ascetic Gotama." 
Angry and displeased, he approached the Blessed One and [162] 
abused and reviled him with rude, harsh words. 

When he had finished speaking, the Blessed One said to him: 
"What do you think, brahmin? Do your friends and colleagues, 
kinsmen and relatives, as well as guests come to visit you?" 
"Sometimes they come to visit. Master Gotama." 

"Do you then offer them some food or a meal or a snack?" 
<348> 

"Sometimes I do. Master Gotama." 

"But if they do not accept it from you, then to whom does the 
food belong?" 

"If they do not accept it from me, then the food still belongs to 
us." 

"So too, brahmin, we — who do not abuse anyone, who do not 
scold anyone, who do not rail against anyone — refuse to accept 
from you the abuse and scolding and tirade you let loose at us. 
It still belongs to you, brahmin! It still belongs to you, brahmin! 

"Brahmin, one who abuses his own abuser, who scolds the 
one who scolds him, who rails against the one who rails at 
him — he is said to partake of the meal, to enter upon an 
exchange. But we do not partake of your meal; we do not enter 
upon an exchange. It still belongs to you, brahmin! It still 
belongs to you, brahmin!" 

"The king and his retinue understand the ascetic Gotama to be 
an arahant, yet Master Gotama still gets angry." 434 

[The Blessed One:] 

615 "How can anger arise in one who is angerless. 

In the tamed one of righteous living, <349> 

In one liberated by perfect knowledge. 

In the Stable One who abides in peace? 435 

616 "One who repays an angry man with anger 
Thereby makes things worse for himself. 

Not repaying an angry man with anger. 

One wins a battle hard to win. 




7. Brahmanasarnyutta 25 7 



617 "He practises for the welfare of both — 

His own and the other's — 

When, knowing that his foe is angry. 

He mindfully maintains his peace. 

618 "When he achieves the cure of both — 

His own and the other's — 

The people who consider him a fool 
Are unskilled in the Dhamma." 436 [163] 

When this was said, the brahmin Akkosaka Bharadvaja said to 
the Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama!... I go for refuge 
to Master Gotama, and to the Dhamma, and to the Bhikkhu 
Sangha. May I receive the going forth under Master Gotama, 
may I receive the higher ordination?" 

Then the brahmin of the Bharadvaja clan received the going 
forth under the Blessed One, he received the higher ordination. 
And soon, not long after his higher ordination, dwelling alone 
... <350> ... the Venerable Bharadvaja became one of the 
arahants. 

3 (3) Asurindaka 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Rajagaha in 
the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrel Sanctuary. The brahmin 
Asurindaka Bharadvaja heard: 437 "It is said that the brahmin of 
the Bharadvaja clan has gone forth from the household life into 
homelessness under the ascetic Gotama." Angry and displeased, 
he approached the Blessed One and abused and reviled him 
with rude, harsh words. 

When he had finished speaking, the Blessed One remained 
silent. Then the brahmin Asurindaka Bharadvaja said to the 
Blessed One: "You're beaten, ascetic! You're beaten, ascetic!" 

[The Blessed One:] 

619 "The fool thinks victory is won 
When, by speech, he bellows harshly; 

But for one who understands, 

Patient endurance is the true victory. 438 




258 I- The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



620-22 "One who repays an angry man with anger 
... {verses = 616-18) ... <351> 

Are unskilled in the Dhamma." [164] 

When this was said, the brahmin Asurindaka Bharadvaja said 
to the Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama!..." And the 
Venerable Bharadvaja became one of the arahants. 

4(4) Bilangika 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Rajagaha in 
the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrel Sanctuary. The brahmin 
Bilangika Bharadvaja heard: 439 "It is said that the brahmin of the 
Bharadvaja clan has gone forth from the household life into 
homelessness under the ascetic Gotama." Angry and displeased, 
he approached the Blessed One and silently stood to one side. 440 
<352> 

Then the Blessed One, having known with his own mind the 
reflection in the brahmin Bilangika Bharadvaja's mind, 
addressed him in verse: 

623 "If one wrongs an innocent man, 

A pure person without blemish, 

The evil falls back on the fool himself 
Like fine dust thrown against the wind." 

When this was said, the brahmin Bilangika Bharadvaja said to 
the Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama!..." And the 
Venerable Bharadvaja became one of the arahants. 



5 (5) Ahimsaka 

At Savatthi. Then the brahmin Ahimsaka Bharadvaja, 
Bharadvaja the Harmless, approached the Blessed One and 
exchanged greetings with him. 441 When they had concluded 
their greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side [165] 
and said to the Blessed One: "I am Ahimsaka the Harmless, 
Master Gotama. I am Ahimsaka the Harmless, Master Gotama." 




7. Brahmamsamyutta 259 



[The Blessed One:] <353> 

624 "If one were as one's name implies 
You would be a harmless one. 

But it is one who does no harm at all 
By body, speech, or mind. 

Who really is a harmless one 
As he does not harm others." 

When this was said, the brahmin Ahimsaka Bharadvaja said 
to the Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama!..." And the 
Venerable Ahimsaka Bharadvaja became one of the arahants. 

6 (6) Tangle 

At Savatthi. Then the brahmin Jata Bharadvaja, Bharadvaja of 
the Tangle, approached the Blessed One and exchanged greet- 
ings with him. When they had concluded their greetings and 
cordial talk, he sat down to one side and addressed the Blessed 
One in verse: 

625 "A tangle inside, a tangle outside. 

This generation is entangled in a tangle. 

I ask you this, O Gotama, 

Who can disentangle this tangle?" <354> 

[The Blessed One:] 

626 "A man established on virtue, wise. 

Developing the mind and wisdom, 

A bhikkhu ardent and discreet: 

He can disentangle this tangle. 

627 "Those for whom lust and hatred 

Along with ignorance have been expunged. 

The arahants with taints destroyed: 

For them the tangle is disentangled. 

628 "Where name-and-form ceases. 

Stops without remainder. 

And also impingement and perception of form: 

It is here this tangle is cut." 




260 I. The Book with Verses (Sagdthavagga) 



When this was said, the brahmin Jata Bharadvaja said to the 
Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama!..." And the Vener- 
able Bharadvaja became one of the arahants. 

7 (7) Suddhika 

At Savatthi. Then the brahmin Suddhika Bharadvaja approached 
the Blessed One <355> and exchanged greetings with him. 
When they had concluded their greetings and cordial talk, he sat 
down to one side [166] gnd recited this verse in the presence of 
the Blessed One: 

629 "In the world no brahmin is ever purified 
Though he be virtuous and austere in practice; 

One accomplished in knowledge and conduct is purified. 
Not the others, the common folk." 442 

[The Blessed One:] 

630 "Even though one mutters many chants. 

One does not become a brahmin by birth 
If one is rotten within and defiled, 

Supporting oneself by fraudulent means. 

631 "Whether khattiya, brahmin, vessa, sudda, 

Candala or scavenger, 

If one is energetic and resolute, 

Always firm in exertion, 

One attains the supreme purity: 

Know, O brahmin, that this is so." <356> 

When this was said, the brahmin Suddhika Bharadvaja said to 
the Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama!"... And the 
Venerable Bharadvaja became one of the arahants. 

8 (8) Aggika 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Rajagaha in 
the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrel Sanctuary. Now on that occa- 
sion milk-rice with ghee had been set out for the brahmin 
Aggika Bharadvaja, who had thought: "I will offer a fire sacri- 
fice, I will perform the fire oblation." 443 




7. Brahmanasamyutta 261 



Then, in the morning, the Blessed One dressed and, taking bowl 
and robe, entered Rajagaha for alms. Walking for alms on unin- 
terrupted alms round in Rajagaha, the Blessed One approached 
the residence of the brahmin Aggika Bharadvaja and stood to 
one side. The brahmin Aggika Bharadvaja saw the Blessed One 
standing for alms and addressed him in verse: <357> 

632 "One endowed with the triple knowledge. 

Of proper birth, of ample learning. 

Accomplished in knowledge and conduct. 

Might partake of this milk-rice meal." 444 

[The Blessed One:] 

633 "Even though one mutters many chants, 

One does not become a brahmin by birth 
If one is rotten within and defiled. 

With followers gained by fraudulent means. [167] 

634 "One who has known his past abodes. 

Who sees heaven and the plane of woe. 

Who has reached the destruction of birth, 

A sage consummate in direct knowledge: 445 

635 "By means of these three kinds of knowledge 
One is a triple-knowledge brahmin. 

This one accomplished in knowledge and conduct 
Might partake of this milk-rice meal." <358> 

[The brahmin Aggika Bharadvaja:] "Let Master Gotama eat. 
The worthy is a brahmin." 

[The Blessed One:] 

636 "Food over which verses have been sung 
Is not fit to be eaten by me. 

This, brahmin, is not the principle 
Observed by those who see. 

The Enlightened Ones reject such food 
Over which verses have been sung. 

As such a principle exists, O brahmin. 

This is their rule of conduct. 




262 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



637 "Serve with other food and drink 
The consummate one, the great seer 
With taints destroyed and remorse stilled, 

For he is the field for one seeking merit." 446 

When this was said, the brahmin Aggika Bharadvaja said to 
the Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama!"... And the 
Venerable Aggika Bharadvaja became one of the arahants. 



9 (9) Sundarika 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling among the 
Kosalans on the bank of the river Sundarika. Now on that occa- 
sion <359> the brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja was offering a 
fire sacrifice and performing the fire oblation on the bank of the 
river Sundarika. Then the brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja, hav- 
ing offered the fire sacrifice and performed the fire oblation, 
rose from his seat and surveyed the four quarters all around, 
wondering: "Who now might eat this sacrificial cake?" 447 

The brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja saw the Blessed One sit- 
ting at the foot of a tree with his head covered. Having seen him, 
he took the sacrificial cake in his left hand and the waterpot in 
his right hand and approached the Blessed One. When the 
Blessed One heard the sound of the brahmin's footsteps, he 
uncovered his head. Then the brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja, 
thinking, "This worthy is shaven-headed, [168] this worthy is a 
shaveling," wanted to turn back; <360> but it occurred to him: 
"Some brahmins here are also shaven-headed. Let me approach 
him and inquire about his birth." 

Then the brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja approached the 
Blessed One and said to him: "What is the worthy one's birth?" 

[The Blessed One:] 

638 "Ask not of birth but ask of conduct: 

Fire is indeed produced from any wood. 

A resolute sage, though from low family. 

Is a thoroughbred restrained by a sense of shame. 448 

639 "The sacrificer should invoke this one: 

One tamed by truth, perfect by taming. 




7. Brahmanasamyutta 263 



Who has reached the end of knowledge, 

A fulfiller of the holy life. 

Then he makes a timely oblation 
To one worthy of offerings." 449 <361> 

[The brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja:] 

640 "Surely my sacrifice is well performed 
As I have seen such a knowledge-master. 

Because I had not seen those like yourself 
Other people ate the sacrificial cake. 

"Let Master Gotama eat. The worthy is a brahmin." 

[The Blessed One:] 

641-42 "Food over which verses have been sung 
. . . ( verses = 636-37) . . . 

For he is the field for one seeking merit." <362> 

"Then, Master Gotama, should I give this sacrificial cake to 
someone else?" 

"I do not see anyone, brahmin, in this world with its devas, 
Mara, and Brahma, in this generation with its ascetics and brah- 
mins, its devas and humans, who could eat and properly digest 
this sacrificial cake [169] except the Tathagata or a disciple of the 
Tathagata. 450 Therefore, brahmin, throw away the sacrificial 
cake in a place where there is sparse vegetation or dispose of it 
in water where there are no living beings." 

Then the brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja disposed of that sac- 
rificial cake in water where there were no living beings. When it 
was disposed of in the water, that sacrificial cake sizzled and 
hissed and gave off steam and smoke. 451 Just as a ploughshare, 
heated all day, sizzles and hisses and gives off steam and smoke 
if placed in water, so too that sacrificial cake, <363> when disposed 
of in the water, sizzled and hissed and gave off steam and smoke. 

Then the brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja, shocked and terri- 
fied, approached the Blessed One and stood to one side. The 
Blessed One then addressed him with verses: 

643 "When kindling wood, brahmin, do not imagine 
This external deed brings purity; 




264 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



For experts say no purity is gained 
By one who seeks it outwardly. 

644 "Having given up the fire made from wood, 

I kindle, O brahmin, the inner light alone. 

Always ablaze, my mind always concentrated, 

I am an arahant living the holy life. 

645 "Conceit, O brahmin, is your shoulder-load, <364> 

Anger the smoke, false speech the ashes; 

The tongue is the ladle, the heart the altar, 

A well-tamed self is the light of a man. 452 

646 "The Dhamma is a lake with fords of virtue — 

Limpid, praised by the good to the good — 

Where the knowledge-masters go to bathe. 

And, dry-limbed, cross, to the far shore. 453 

647 "Truth, Dhamma, restraint, the holy life. 

Attainment of Brahma based on the middle: [170] 

Pay homage, O brahmin, to the upright ones; 

I call that person one impelled by Dhamma." 454 

When this was said, the brahmin Sundarika Bharadvaja said 
to the Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama!"... And the 
Venerable Sundarika Bharadvaja became one of the arahants. 
<365> 



10 (10) Many Daughters 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling among the 
Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. Now on that occasion 
fourteen oxen belonging to a certain brahmin of the Bharadvaja 
clan had gotten lost. Then the brahmin of the Bharadvaja clan, 
while searching for those oxen, went to the woodland thicket 
where the Blessed One was staying. There he saw the Blessed 
One sitting with his legs folded crosswise, holding his body 
erect, having set up mindfulness in front of him. Having seen 
him, he approached the Blessed One and recited these verses in 
the presence of the Blessed One: 




7. Brahmanasamyutta 265 



648 "Surely this ascetic does not have 
Fourteen oxen [that have gotten lost]. 

Not seen now for the past six days: 

Hence this ascetic is happy. 455 

649 "Surely this ascetic does not have 
A field of blighted sesamum plants. 

Some with one leaf, some with two: 

Hence this ascetic is happy. <366> 

650 "Surely this ascetic does not have 
Rats inside an empty bam 
Dancing around merrily: 

Hence this ascetic is happy. 

651 "Surely this ascetic does not have 
A blanket that for seven months 

Has been covered with swarms of vermin: 
Hence this ascetic is happy. 

652 "Surely this ascetic does not have 
Seven daughters left for widows. 

Some with one son, some with two: 

Hence this ascetic is happy. 456 

653 "Surely this ascetic does not have 

A tawny wife with pockmarked face 
Who wakes him up with a kick: 

Hence this ascetic is happy. 

654 "Surely this ascetic does not have 
Creditors who call at dawn. 

Chiding him, 'Pay up! Pay up!': <367> 
Hence this ascetic is happy." 

[The Blessed One:] 

655 "Surely, brahmin, I do not have 
Fourteen oxen [that have gotten lost]. 

Not seen now for the past six days: 

Hence, O brahmin, I am happy. [171] 




266 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavaxsta) 



656 "Surely, brahmin, I do not have 

A field of blighted sesamum plants. 

Some with one leaf, some with two: 

Hence, O brahmin, I am happy. 

657 "Surely, brahmin, I do not have 
Rats inside an empty bam 
Dancing around merrily: 

Hence, O brahmin, I am happy. 

658 "Surely, brahmin, I do not have 
A blanket that for seven months 

Has been covered with swarms of vermin: 

Hence, O brahmin, I am happy. 

659 "Surely, brahmin, I do not have 
Seven daughters left for widows. 

Some with one son, some with two: 

Hence, O brahmin, I am happy. <368> 

660 "Surely, brahmin, I do not have 

A tawny wife with pockmarked face 
Who wakes me up with a kick: 

Hence, O brahmin, I am happy. 

661 "Surely, brahmin, I do not have 
Creditors who call at dawn. 

Chiding me, 'Pay up! Pay up!': 

Hence, O brahmin, I am happy." 

When this was said, the brahmin of the Bharadvaja clan said 
to the Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama!"... And the 
Venerable Bharadvaja became one of the arahants. 457 <369> 

[172] n. The Lay Followers 

11 (1) Kasi Bharadvaja 

Thus have I heard. 458 On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling among the Magadhans at Dakkhinagiri near the brahmin 




7. Brahmanasamyutta 267 



village of Ekanala. Now on that occasion the brahmin Kasi 
Bharadvaja, Bharadvaja the Ploughman, had five hundred 
ploughs fastened to their yokes at the time of sowing. 459 Then, in 
the morning, the Blessed One dressed and, taking bowl and 
robe, went to the place where the brahmin Kasi Bharadvaja was 
at work. 

Now on that occasion the brahmin Kasi Bharadvaja's food dis- 
tribution was taking place. 460 Then the Blessed One approached 
the place of the food distribution <370> and stood to one side. 
The brahmin Kasi Bharadvaja saw the Blessed One standing foi 
alms and said to him: 

"Recluse, I plough and sow, and when I have ploughed and 
sown I eat. You too, ascetic, ought to plough and sow; then 
when you have ploughed and sown, you will eat." 

"I too, brahmin, plough and sow, and when I have ploughed 
and sown I eat." 

"But we do not see Master Gotama's yoke or plough or plough- 
share or goad or oxen; yet Master Gotama says, 'I too, brahmin, 
plough and sow, and when I have ploughed and sown I eat.'" 

Then the brahmin Kasi Bharadvaja addressed the Blessed Ont 
inverse: <371> 

662 "You claim to be a man who works the plough. 

But I do not see your ploughing. 

If you're a ploughman, answer me: 

How should we understand your ploughing?" 

[The Blessed One:] 

663 "Faith is the seed, austerity the rain. 

Wisdom my yoke and plough; 

Shame is the pole, mind the yoke-tie. 

Mindfulness my ploughshare and goad 461 

664 "Guarded in body, guarded in speech. 

Controlled in my appetite for food, 

I use truth as my weeding-hook. 

And gentleness as my unyoking 462 [173] 

665 "Energy is my beast of burden. 

Carrying me to security from bondage. 




268 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



It goes ahead without stopping 

To where, having gone, one does not sorrow. 463 

666 "In such a way this ploughing is done 
Which has the Deathless as its fruit. 

Having finished this work of ploughing, <372> 

One is released from all suffering." 

"Let Master Gotama eat! The worthy is a ploughman, since 
Master Gotama does ploughing that has even the Deathless as 
its fruit." 

667-68 "Food over which verses have been sung 
... ( verses = 636-37) ... 

For he is the field for one seeking merit." 

When this was said, the brahmin Kasi Bharadvaja said to the 
Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master 
Gotama! The Dhamma has been made clear in many ways by 
Master Gotama, as though he were turning upright what had 
been turned upside down, revealing what was hidden, showing 
the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark 
for those with eyesight to see forms. <373> I go for refuge to 
Master Gotama, and to the Dhamma, and to the Bhikkhu 
Saiigha. Let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who 
from today has gone for refuge for life." 

12 (2) Udaya 

At Savatthi. Then, in the morning, the Blessed One dressed and, 
taking bowl and robe, approached the residence of the brahmin 
Udaya. Then the brahmin Udaya filled the Blessed One's bowl 
with rice. A second time in the morning the Blessed One dressed 
and, taking bowl and robe, approached the residence of the 
brahmin Udaya.... A third time in the morning the Blessed One 
dressed and, taking bowl and robe, approached the residence of 
the brahmin Udaya. 464 Then a third time the brahmin Udaya 
filled the Blessed One's bowl with rice, [174] after which he said 
to the Blessed One: "This pesky ascetic Gotama keeps coming 
again and again." 465 




7. Brahmanasamyutta 269 



[The Blessed One:] 

669 "Again and again, they sow the seed; 

Again and again, the sky-god sends down rain; <374> 
Again and again, ploughmen plough the field; 

Again and again, grain comes to the realm. 

670 "Again and again, the mendicants beg; 

Again and again, the donors give; 

When donors have given again and again. 

Again and again they go to heaven. 

671 "Again and again, the dairy folk draw milk; 

Again and again, the calf goes to its mother; 

Again and again, one wearies and trembles; 

Again and again, the dolt enters the womb; 

Again and again, one is bom and dies; 

Again and again, they take one to the cemetery. 

672 "But when one has obtained the path 
That leads to no more renewed existence. 

Having become broad in wisdom. 

One is not bom again and again!" 

When this was said, the brahmin Udaya said to the Blessed 
One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master 
Gotama!... Let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower 
who from today has gone for refuge for life." <375> 

13 (3) Devahita 

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion the Blessed One was afflicted 
by winds and the Venerable Upavana was his attendant. 466 Ther 
the Blessed One addressed the Venerable Upavana thus: "Come 
now, Upavana, find some hot water for me." 

"Yes, venerable sir," the Venerable Upavana replied. Then he 
dressed and, taking bowl and robe, went to the residence of the 
brahmin Devahita, where he stood silently to one side. The 
brahmin Devahita saw the Venerable Upavana standing silently 
to one side and addressed him in verse: [175] 




270 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



673 "Silent, the worthy one stands. 

Shaven-headed, clad in a stitched robe. 

What do you want, what do you seek. 

What have you come here to beg?" 

[The Venerable Upavana:] 

674 "The Arahant, the Fortunate One in the world. 

The Sage, is afflicted with winds. <376> 

If there is any hot water, brahmin. 

Please give it for the Sage. 

675 "He is worshipped by those worthy of worship. 

Honoured by those worthy of honour. 

Respected by those worthy of respect: 

It is to him that I wish to take it." 

Then the brahmin Devahita ordered a man to bring a carrying 
pole with hot water and presented a bag of molasses to the 
Venerable Upavana. Then the Venerable Upavana approached 
the Blessed One. He had the Blessed One bathed with the hot 
water, and he mixed the molasses with hot water and offered it 
to him. Then the Blessed One's ailment subsided. 

Then the brahmin Devahita approached the Blessed One and 
exchanged greetings with him, after which he sat down to one 
side and addressed the Blessed One in verse: 

676 "Where should one give a proper gift? <3 77> 

Where does a gift bear great fruit? 

How, for one bestowing alms. 

Does an offering bring success — just how?" 467 

[The Blessed One:] 

677 "One who has known his past abodes. 

Who sees heaven and the plane of woe. 

Who has reached the destruction of birth, 

A sage consummate in direct knowledge: 

678 Here one should give a proper gift. 

Here a gift bears great fruit. 

That's how, for one bestowing alms. 

An offering brings success — just so!" 




7. BrShmanasamyutta 271 



When this was said, the brahmin Devahita said to the Blessed 
One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master 
Gotama!... Let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower 
who from today has gone for refuge for life." 

14 (4) The Affluent One 

At Savatthi. 468 Then a certain affluent brahmin, shabby, clad in a 
shabby cloak, [176] approached the Blessed One <378> and 
exchanged greetings with him. When they had concluded their 
greetings and cordial talk, he sat down to one side, and the 
Blessed One then said to him: "Why now, brahmin, are you so 
shabby, clad in a shabby cloak?" 

"Here, Master Gotama, my four sons, instigated by their 
wives, have expelled me from the house." 

"Well then, brahmin, learn these verses and recite them when 
the multitude has assembled in the meeting hall with your sons 
sitting together there: 

679 "Those at whose birth I took delight 
And whose success I much desired. 

Being instigated by their wives. 

Chase me out as dogs chase swine. 

680 "These evil fellows are indeed mean. 

Although they call me, 'Dad, dear Dad.' 

They're demons in the guise of sons <379> 

To abandon me when I've grown old. 

681 "As an old horse of no more use 
Is led away from its fodder, 

So the old father of those boys 
Begs for alms at others' homes. 

682 "Better for me is the staff I use 
Than those disobedient sons; 

For the staff drives off the wild bull 
And drives away the wild dog. 

683 "In the dark it goes before me. 




272 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



In the deep it gives me support. 

By the gracious power of the staff. 

If I stumble I still stand firm." 

Then that affluent brahmin, having learned these verses in the 
presence of the Blessed One, recited them when the multitude 
had assembled in the meeting hall with his sons sitting together 
there: 

684-88 "Those at whose birth I took delight . . . <380> 

If I stumble I still stand firm." [177] 

Then the sons led that affluent brahmin to their house, bathed 
him, and each gave him a pair of clothes. Then that affluent 
brahmin, having taken one pair of clothes, approached the 
Blessed One and exchanged greetings with him. <381> Then he 
sat down to one side and said to the Blessed One: "Master 
Gotama, we brahmins seek a teacher's fee for our teacher. Let 
Master Gotama accept a teacher's fee from me." The Blessed 
One accepted out of compassion. 

Then that affluent brahmin said to the Blessed One: "Magni- 
ficent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama!... Let 
Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who from today 
has gone for refuge for life." 



15 (5) Manatthaddha 

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion a brahmin named Manat- 
thaddha, Stiff with Conceit, was residing at Savatthi. 469 He did 
not pay homage to his mother or father, nor to his teacher or 
eldest brother. Now on that occasion the Blessed One was teach- 
ing the Dhamma surrounded by a large assembly. <382> Then it 
occurred to the brahmin Manatthaddha: "This ascetic Gotama is 
teaching the Dhamma surrounded by a large assembly. Let me 
approach him. If the ascetic Gotama addresses me, then I will 
address him in turn. But if he does not address me, neither will I 
address him." 

Then the brahmin Manatthaddha approached the Blessed One 
and stood silently to one side, but the Blessed One did not 
address him. Then the brahmin Manatthaddha, thinking, "This 




7. Brahmanasamyutta 273 



ascetic Gotama doesn't know anything/' 470 wanted to turn back, 
[178] but the Blessed One, having known with his own mind the 
reflection in the brahmin's mind, addressed the brahmin Manat- 
thaddha in verse: 

689 "The fostering of conceit is never good 
For one keen on his welfare, brahmin. 

You should instead foster that purpose 
Because of which you've come here." 471 <383> 

Then the brahmin Manatthaddha, thinking, "The ascetic 
Gotama knows my mind," prostrated himself right there with 
his head at the Blessed One's feet. He kissed the Blessed One's 
feet, stroked them with his hands, and announced his name thus: 
"I am Manatthaddha, Master Gotama! I am Manatthaddha, 
Master Gotama!" 

Then that assembly was struck with amazement and the peo- 
ple said: "It is wonderful indeed, sir! It is amazing indeed, sir! 
This brahmin Manatthaddha does not pay homage to his mother 
and father, nor to his teacher or eldest brother, yet he shows 
such supreme honour towards the ascetic Gotama." 472 

Then the Blessed One said to the brahmin Manatthaddha: 
"Enough, brahmin! Get up and sit in your own seat, as your 
mind has confidence in me." 

Then the brahmin Manatthaddha sat down in his own seat 
and addressed the Blessed One in verse: 

690 "Towards whom should one avoid conceit? 

Towards whom should one show reverence? 

To whom should one be ever respectful? <384> 

Whom is it proper to venerate deeply?" 

[The Blessed One:] 

691 "First one's own mother and father. 

Then one's eldest family brother. 

Then one's teacher as the fourth: 

Towards these one should avoid conceit; 

Towards these one should be reverential; 

These should be well respected; 

These it is good to venerate deeply. 




274 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



692 "Having struck down conceit, humble. 

One should pay homage to the arahants. 

Those cool of heart, their tasks done. 

The taintless ones, unsurpassed." 

When this was said, the brahmin Manatthaddha said to the 
Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master 
Gotama!... <385> Let Master Gotama remember me as a lay fol- 
lower who from today has gone for refuge for life." [179] 

16 ( 6) Paccanika 

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion a brahmin named Paccanika- 
sata, Relisher of Contradiction, was residing at Savatthi. Then it 
occurred to the brahmin Paccanikasata: "Let me approach the 
ascetic Gotama and contradict whatever he says." 

Now on that occasion the Blessed One was walking back and 
forth in the open. Then the brahmin Paccanikasata approached 
the Blessed One and said to him while he was walking back and 
forth: "Speak Dhamma, ascetic!" 

[The Blessed One:] 

693 "Well-spoken counsel is hard to understand 
By one who relishes contradiction. 

By one with a corrupt mind <386> 

Who is engrossed in aggression. 

694 "But if one has removed aggression 
And the distrust of one's heart. 

If one has cast away aversion. 

One can understand well-spoken counsel." 

When this was said, the brahmin Paccanikasata said to the 
Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master 
Gotama!... Let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower 
who from today has gone for refuge for life." 



17 (7) Navakammika 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling among the 




7. Brahmanasatnyutta 275 



Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. Now on that occasion 
the brahmin Navakammika Bharadvaja was getting some work 
done in that woodland thicket. 473 The brahmin Navakammika 
Bharadvaja saw the Blessed One sitting at the foot of a certain 
sal tree with his legs folded crosswise, holding his body erect, 
having set up mindfulness in front of him. Having seen him, he 
thought: <387> "I take delight in getting work done in this 
woodland thicket. What does this ascetic Gotama take delight in 
getting done?" 

Then the brahmin Navakammika Bharadvaja approached the 
Blessed One [180] and addressed him in verse: 

695 "With what kind of work are you engaged 
Here in this sal woods, bhikkhu. 

By reason of which you find delight 
Alone in the forest, Gotama?" 

[The Blessed One:] 

696 "There is nothing in the woods I need to do; 

Cut down at the root, my woods is dried up. 

Woodless and dartless, discontent cast off, 

I find delight alone in the woods." 474 <388> 

When this was said, the brahmin Navakammika Bharadvaja 
said to the Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama! 
Magnificent, Master Gotama!... Let Master Gotama remember 
me as a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for 
life." 



18 (8) The Wood Gatherers 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling among the 
Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. Now on that occasion a 
number of brahmin boys, students of a certain brahmin of the 
Bharadvaja clan, approached that woodland thicket while col- 
lecting firewood. Having approached, they saw the Blessed One 
sitting in that woodland thicket with his legs folded crosswise, 
holding his body erect, having set up mindfulness in front of 
him. Having seen him, they approached the.brahmin of the 
Bharadvaja clan and said to him: "See now, master, you should 




276 I. The Book with Vers es (Sagathcivagga) 

know that in such and such a woodland thicket an ascetic is sit- 
ting with his legs folded crosswise, holding his body erect, hav- 
ing set up mindfulness in front of him." 

Then the brahmin of the' Bharadvaja clan, together with those 
brahmin boys, went to that woodland thicket. He saw the 
Blessed One sitting there ... <389> ... having set up mindfulness 
in front of him. He then approached the Blessed One and 
addressed him in verse: 

697 "Having entered the empty, desolate forest. 

Deep in the woods where many terrors lurk, [181] 

With a motionless body, steady, lovely. 

How you meditate, bhikkhu, so beautifully! 475 

698 "In the forest where no song or music sounds, 

A solitary sage has resorted to the woods! 

This strikes me as a wonder — that you dwell 
With joyful mind alone in the woods. 

699 "I suppose you desire the supreme triple heaven, 

The company of the world's divine lord. <390> 

Therefore you resort to the desolate forest: 

You practise penance here for attaining Brahma." 476 

[The Blessed One:] 

700 "Whatever be the many desires and delights 
That are always attached to the manifold elements. 

The longings sprung from the root of unknowing: 

All I have demolished along with their root. 477 

701 "I am desireless, unattached, disengaged; 

My vision of all things has been purified. 

Having attained the auspicious — supreme enlightenment — 
Self-confident, brahmin, I meditate alone." 478 

When this was said, the brahmin of the Bharadvaja clan said 
to the Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, 
Master Gotama!... Let Master Gotama remember me as a lay fol- 
lower who from today has gone for refuge for life." 




7. Brahmanasamyutta TJ1 



19 (9) The Mother Supporter 

<391 > At Savatthi. Then a brahmin who supported his mother 
approached the Blessed One ... and said to him: "Master 
Gotama, I seek almsfood righteously and thereby support my 
mother and father. In doing so, am I doing my duty?" 

"For sure, brahmin, in doing so you are doing your duty. One 
who seeks almsfood righteously [182] and thereby supports his 
mother and father generates much merit. 

702 "When a mortal righteously supports his parents. 

Because of this service to them 

The wise praise him here in this world. 

And after death he rejoices in heaven." <392> 

When this was said, the brahmin who supported his mother 
said to the Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magni- 
ficent, Master Gotama! . . . Let Master Gotama remember me as a 
lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life." 

20 (10) The Mendicant 

At Savatthi. Then a mendicant brahmin approached the Blessed 
One . . . and said to him: "Master Gotama, I am a mendicant and 
you are a mendicant. What is the difference between us in this 
respect?" 479 



[The Blessed One:] 

703 "It is not thus that one becomes a mendicant. 

Just because one begs others for alms. 

If one has taken up a domestic practice. 

One still has not become a bhikkhu. 480 

704 "But one here who leads the holy life. 

Having expelled merit and evil, <393> 

Who fares in the world with comprehension: 

He is truly called a bhikkhu." 

When this was said, the mendicant brahmin said to the 
Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master 




278 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



Gotama!... Let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower 
who from today has gone for refuge for life." 



22 (11) Sangarava 

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion a brahmin named Sangarava 
was residing at Savatthi. He was a practitioner of water-purifica- 
tion, one who believed in purification by water, who dwelt 
devoted to the practice of immersing himself in water at dusk 
and at dawn. 

Then, in the morning, the Venerable Ananda dressed and, tak- 
ing bowl and robe, entered Savatthi for alms. Having walked for 
alms in Savatthi, when he had returned from his alms round, 
after his meal he approached the Blessed One, paid homage to 
him, sat down to one side, [183] and said to him: 

"Here, venerable sir, a brahmin named Sangarava is residing 
at Savatthi. He is a practitioner of water-purification ... devoted 
to the practice of immersing himself in water at dusk and at 
dawn. It would be good, venerable sir, if the Blessed One would 
approach the residence of the brahmin Sangarava <394> out of 
compassion." The Blessed One consented by silence. 

Then, in the morning, the Blessed One dressed and, taking 
bowl and robe, approached the brahmin Saiigarava's residence, 
where he sat down in the appointed seat. Then the brahmin 
Sangarava approached the Blessed One and exchanged greet- 
ings with him, after which he sat down to one side. The Blessed 
One then said to him: "Is it true, brahmin, that you are a practi- 
tioner of water-purification, one who believes in purification by 
water, devoted to the practice of immersing yourself in water at 
dusk and at dawn?" 

"Yes, Master Gotama." 

"Considering what benefit do you do this, brahmin?" 

"Here, Master Gotama, whatever evil deed I have done dur- 
ing the day I wash away by bathing at dusk. Whatever evil deed 
I have done at night I wash away by bathing at dawn." <395> 

[The Blessed One:] 

705 "The Dhamma, brahmin, is a lake with fords of virtue — 

A limpid lake the good praise to the good — 




7. Brahmamsamyutta 279 



Where the knowledge-masters go to bathe. 

And, dry-limbed, cross to the far shore." 481 

When this was said, the brahmin Sangarava said to the 
Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master 
Gotama!... Let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower 
who from today has gone for refuge for life." [184] 



22 (12) Khomadussa 

Thus have I heard. On T>ne occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling among the Sakyans. where there was a town of the 
Sakyans named Khomadussa. 482 Then the Blessed One dressed 
and, taking bowl and robe, entered Khomadussa for alms. 

Now on that occasion the brahmin householders of 
Khomadussa had assembled in council on some business matter 
while it was drizzling. <396> Then the Blessed One approached 
the council. The brahmin householders of Khomadussa saw the 
Blessed One coming in the distance and said: "Who are these 
shaveling ascetics? Don't they know the rule of order?" 483 

Then the Blessed One addressed the brahmin householders of 
Khomadussa in verse: 

706 "That is no council where the good are absent; 

They are not the good who don't speak Dhamma. 

But having abandoned lust, hate, and delusion. 

Those speaking on Dhamma are alone the good." 

When this was said, the brahmin householders of Khoma- 
dussa said to the Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama! 
Magnificent, Master Gotama! The Dhamma has been made clear 
in many ways by Master Gotama, as though he were turning 
upright what had been turned upside down, revealing what was 
hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a 
lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms. We go for 
refuge to Master Gotama, and to the Dhamma, and to the 
Bhikkhu Sangha. Let Master Gotama remember us as lay follow- 
ers who from today have gone for refuge for life." <39 7> 




[185] <398> Chapter VIII 

8 Vahgisasamyutta 

Connected Discourses with Vangisa 



1 Renounced 

Thus have I heard. 484 On one occasion the Venerable Vangisa 
was dwelling at Alavi at the Aggalava Shrine together with his 
preceptor, the Venerable Nigrodhakappa. 485 Now on that occa- 
sion the Venerable Vangisa, newly ordained, not long gone 
forth, had been left behind as a caretaker of the dwelling. 

Then a number of women, beautifully adorned, approached 
the Aggalavaka Park in order to see the dwelling. When the 
Venerable Vangisa saw those women, dissatisfaction arose in 
him; lust infested his mind 486 Then it occurred to him: "It is a loss 
for me indeed, it is no gain for me! It is a mishap for me indeed, 
it is not well gained by me, that dissatisfaction has arisen in me, 
that lust has infested my mind. How could anyone else dispel 
my dissatisfaction and arouse delight? <399> Let me dispel my 
own dissatisfaction and arouse delight by myself." 

Then the Venerable Vangisa, having dispelled his own dissat- 
isfaction and aroused delight by himself, on that occasion recit- 
ed these verses: 

707 "Alas, though I am one who has renounced. 

Gone from home into homelessness. 

These thoughts still run over me. 

Impudent thoughts from the Dark One. 487 

708 "Even if mighty youths, great archers. 

Trained men, masters of the bow, 

A thousand such men who do not flee 
Should surround me on all sides, 488 



280 




8. Vangisasamyutta 28: 



709 And if women were to come here 
Still more numerous than this. 

They would never make me tremble 

For I stand firmly in the Dhamma. 489 [186] 

710 "I have heard this as a witness <400> 
From the Buddha, Kinsman of the Sun: 
The path leading to Nibbana — 

That is where my mind delights. 490 

711 "If, while I am dwelling thus. 

You approach me. Evil One, 

I will act in such a way, O Death, 

That you won't even see my path." 491 



2 Discontent 

On one occasion the Venerable Vaiigisa was dwelling at Alavl at 
the Aggalava Shrine together with his preceptor, the Venerable 
Nigrodhakappa. Now on that occasion, when the Venerable 
Nigrodhakappa returned from his alms round, after his meal he 
would enter the dwelling and would come out either in the 
evening or on the following day. 

Now on that occasion dissatisfaction had arisen in the 
Venerable Vaiigisa; lust had infested his mind. Then it occurred 
to the Venerable Vangisa: "It is a loss for me indeed, it is no gain 
for me! It is a mishap for me indeed, it is not well gained by me, 
that dissatisfaction has arisen in me, that lust has infested my 
mind. <40 1> How could anyone else dispel my dissatisfaction 
and arouse delight? Let me dispel my own dissatisfaction and 
arouse delight." 

Then the Venerable Vangisa, having dispelled his own dissat- 
isfaction and aroused delight," on that occasion recited these 
verses: 

712 "Having abandoned discontent and delight 
And household thoughts entirely. 

One should not nurture lust towards anything; 

The lustless one, without delight — 

He is indeed a bhikkhu. 492 




282 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



713 "Whatever exists here on earth and in space. 
Comprised by form, included in the world — 
Everything impermanent decays; 

The sages fare having pierced this truth. 493 <402> 

714 "People are tied to their acquisitions. 

To what is seen, heard, sensed, and felt; 

Dispel desire for this, be unstirred: 

They call him a sage 

Who clings to nothing here. 494 [187] 

715 "Then those caught in the sixty. 

Led by their own thoughts — 

There are many such among the people 
Who have settled on wrong doctrine: 

One who would not join their faction anywhere. 
Nor utter corrupt speech— he is a bhikkhu. 495 

716 "Proficient, long trained in concentration. 

Honest, discreet, without longing. 

The sage has attained the peaceful state. 
Depending on which he bides his time 
Fully quenched within himself." 496 <403> 



3 Well Behaved 

On one occasion the Venerable Vaiigisa was living at Alavi at 
the Aggalava Shrine together with his preceptor, the Venerable 
Nigrodhakappa. Now on that occasion, the Venerable Vaiigisa, 
because of his own ingenuity, had been looking down at other 
well-behaved bhikkhus. 497 Then the thought occurred to the 
Venerable Vaiigisa: "It is a loss for me indeed, it is no gain for 
me! It is a mishap for me indeed, it is not well gained by me, 
that because of my ingenuity I look down upon other well- 
behaved bhikkhus." 

Then the Venerable Vaiigisa, having aroused remorse in him- 
self, on that occasion recited these verses: 

717 "Abandon conceit, O Gotama, 

And leave the pathway of conceit entirely. 




8. Vangisasamyutta 283 



Infatuated with the pathway of conceit. 

For a long time you've been remorseful. 498 <404> 

718 "People smeared by denigration. 

Slain by conceit, fall into hell. 

People sorrow for a long time, 

Slain by conceit, reborn in hell. 

719 "But a bhikkhu never sorrows at all, 

A path-knower practising rightly. 

He experiences acclaim and happiness; 

Truly they call him a seer of Dhamma. 499 [188] 

720 "Therefore be pliant here and strenuous; 

Having abandoned the hindrances, be pure. 

Having entirely abandoned conceit. 

Be an end-maker by knowledge, peaceful.'' 500 

4 Ananda 

On one occasion the Venerable Ananda was dwelling at Savatthi 
in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Then, in the morning, 
the Venerable Ananda <405> dressed and, taking bowl and 
robe, entered Savatthi for alms with the Venerable Vaiigisa as 
his companion. Now on that occasion dissatisfaction had arisen 
in the Venerable Vaiigisa; lust had infested his mind. 501 Then 
the Venerable Vangisa addressed the Venerable Ananda in 
verse: 

721 "I am burning with sensual lust. 

My mind is engulfed by fire. 

Please tell me how to extinguish it. 

Out of compassion, O Gotama." 502 

[The Venerable Ananda:] 

722 "It is through an inversion of perception 
That your mind is engulfed by fire. 

Turn away from the sign of beauty 
Provocative of sensual lust. 503 




284 I- The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



723 "See formations as alien. 

As suffering, not as self. 

Extinguish the great fire of lust; 

Don't bum up again and again. 504 

724 "Develop the mind on foulness. 
One-pointed, well concentrated; <406> 
Apply your mindfulness to the body. 
Be engrossed in revulsion. 505 

725 "Develop meditation on the signless. 
And discard the tendency to conceit. 
Then, by breaking through conceit, 
You will be one who fares at peace." 506 



5 Well Spoken 

At Savatthi. 507 There the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus 
thus: "Bhikkhus!" 

"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said this: 

"Bhikkhus, when speech possesses four factors, then it is well 
spoken, not badly spoken, and it is blameless, not blameworthy 
among the wise. What four? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu speaks 
only what is well spoken, not what is badly spoken. He speaks 
only on the Dhamma, not on non-Dhamma. [189] He speaks 
only what is pleasant, not what is unpleasant. He speaks only 
what is true, not what is false. <407> When speech possesses 
these four factors, it is well spoken, not badly spoken, and it is 
blameless, not blameworthy among the wise." 508 

This is what the Blessed One said. Having said this, the 
Fortunate One, the Teacher, further said this: 

726 "What is well spoken, the good say, is foremost; 

Second, speak Dhamma, not non-Dhamma; 

Third, speak what is pleasant, not unpleasant; 

Fourth, speak the truth, not falsehood." 

Then the Venerable Vangisa rose from his seat, arranged his 
upper robe over one shoulder, and, raising his joined hands in 
reverential salutation towards the Blessed One, said to him: "An 




8. Varigisasamyutta 285 

inspiration has come to me. Blessed One! An inspiration has 
come to me. Fortunate One!" 509 
The Blessed One said: "Then express your inspiration, Vahgisa 
Then the Venerable Vahgisa extolled the Blessed One to his 
face with suitable verses: 

727 "One should utter only such speech 
By which one does not afflict oneself 
Nor cause harm to others: 

Such speech is truly well spoken. <408> 

728 "One should utter only pleasant speech. 

Speech that is gladly welcomed. 

When it brings them nothing evil 
What one speaks is pleasant to others. 

729 "Truth, indeed, is deathless speech: 

This is an ancient principle. 

The goal and the Dhamma, the good say. 

Are established upon truth. 510 

730 "The secure speech which the Buddha utters 
For the attainment of Nibbana, 

For making an end to suffering 
Is truly the foremost speech." 511 



6 Sariputta 

On one occasion the Venerable Sariputta was dwelling at 
Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Now on that 
occasion the Venerable Sariputta was instructing, exhorting, 
inspiring, and gladdening the bhikkhus with a Dhamma talk, 
<409> [spoken] with speech that was polished, fluent, articulate, 
expressing well the meaning. And those bhikkhus were listen- 
ing to the Dhamma with eager ears, attending to it as a matter of 
vital concern, directing their whole mind to it. 

Then it occurred to the Venerable Vahgisa: [190] "This 
Venerable Sariputta is instructing the bhikkhus with a Dhamma 
talk, [spoken] with speech that is polished, clear, articulate, 
expressing well the meaning. And those bhikkhus are listening 




286 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagiithavagga ) 



to the Dhamma with eager ears.... Let me extol the Venerable 
Sariputta to his face with suitable verses." 

Then the Venerable Vangisa rose from his seat, arranged his 
upper robe over one shoulder, and, raising his joined hands in 
reverential salutation towards the Venerable Sariputta, said to 
him: "An inspiration has come to me, friend Sariputta! An inspi- 
ration has come to me, friend Sariputta!" 

"Then express your inspiration, friend Vangisa." 

Then the Venerable Vangisa extolled the Venerable Sariputta 
to his face with suitable verses: 

731 "Deep in wisdom, intelligent. 

Skilled in the true path and the false, 

Sariputta, of great wisdom. 

Teaches the Dhamma to the bhikkhus. 

732 "He teaches briefly, <410> 

He speaks in detail. 

His voice, like that of a myna bird. 

Pours forth inspired discourse. 512 

733 "As he teaches them, they listen 
To his sweet utterance. 

Uplifted in mind, made joyful 
By his delightful voice. 

Sonorous and lovely. 

The bhikkhus incline their ears." 



7 Pavarana 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Savatthi in the 
Eastern Park in the Mansion of Migara's Mother together with a 
great Sangha of bhikkhus, with five hundred bhikkhus, all of 
them arahants. Now on that occasion — the Uposatha day of the 
fifteenth — the Blessed One was sitting in the open surrounded 
by the Bhikkhu Saiigha in order to hold the Pavarana. 513 Then, 
having surveyed the silent Bhikkhu Sangha, the Blessed One 
addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Come now, <41 1> bhikkhus, let 
me invite you: Is there any deed of mine, either bodily or verbal, 
which you would censure?" 




8. Vangisasarnyutta 28 7 



When this was said, the Venerable Sariputta rose from his 
seat, arranged his upper robe over one shoulder, and, raising his 
joined hands in reverential salutation towards the Blessed One, 
said to him: "Venerable sir, there is no deed of the Blessed One, 
either bodily or verbal, that we censure. [191] For, venerable sir, 
the Blessed One is the originator of the path unarisen before, the 
producer of the path unproduced before, the declarer of the 
path undeclared before. He is the knower of the path, the dis- 
coverer of the path, the one skilled in the path. And his disciples 
now dwell following that path and become possessed of it after- 
wards. 514 And I, venerable sir, invite the Blessed One: Is there 
any deed of mine, either bodily or verbal, which the Blessed One 
would censure?" 

"There is no deed of yours, Sariputta, either bodily or verbal, 
that I censure. For you, Sariputta, are wise, one of great wisdom, 
of wide wisdom, of joyous wisdom, of swift wisdom, <412> of 
sharp wisdom, of penetrative wisdom. Just as the eldest son of a 
wheel-turning monarch properly keeps in motion the wheel [of 
sovereignty] set in motion by his father, so do you, Sariputta, 
properly keep in motion the Wheel of Dhamma set in motion by 
me." 515 

"If, venerable sir, the Blessed One does not censure any deed 
of mine, bodily or verbal, does he censure any deed, bodily or 
verbal, of these five hundred bhikkhus?" 

"There is no deed, Sariputta, bodily or verbal, of these five 
hundred bhikkhus that I censure. For of these five hundred 
bhikkhus, Sariputta, sixty bhikkhus are triple-knowledge bear- 
ers, sixty bhikkhus are bearers of the six direct knowledges, 
sixty bhikkhus are liberated in both ways, while the rest are lib- 
erated by wisdom." 516 

Then the Venerable Vaiigisa rose from his seat, arranged his 
upper robe over one shoulder, and, raising his joined hands in 
reverential salutation towards the Blessed One, said to him: "An 
inspiration has come to me. Blessed One! An inspiration has 
come to me. Fortunate One!" 

The Blessed One said: "Then express your inspiration, 
Vaiigisa." <413> 

Then the Venerable Vaiigisa extolled the Blessed One to his 
face with suitable verses: 




288 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



734 "Five hundred bhikkhus have gathered today. 

The fifteenth day, for purification — 

Untroubled seers who have ended renewed existence, 
Who have cut off all fetters and bonds. [192] 

735 "Just as a king, a wheel-turning monarch, 
Accompanied by his ministers. 

Travels all over this mighty earth 
Bounded by the deep dark ocean — 

736 So they attend on the victor in battle. 

The unsurpassed caravan leader — 

The disciples bearing the triple knowledge. 

Who have left Death far behind. 517 

737 "All are true sons of the Blessed One, 

Here no worthless chaff is found. 

I worship the Kinsman of the Sun, <414> 

Destroyer of the dart of craving." 



8 Over a Thousand 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Savatthi in 
Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park, together with a great 
Sangha of bhikkhus, with 1,250 bhikkhus. Now on that occasion 
the Blessed One was instructing, exhorting, inspiring, and 
encouraging the bhikkhus with a Dhamma talk concerning 
Nibbana. And those bhikkhus were listening to the Dhamma 
with eager ears, attending to it as a matter of vital concern, 
directing their whole mind to it. 

Then it occurred to the Venerable Vahgisa: "This Blessed One 
is instructing the bhikkhus with a Dhamma talk concerning 
Nibbana. And those bhikkhus are listening to the Dhamma with 
eager ears.... Let me extol the Blessed One to his face with suit- 
able verses." 

Then the Venerable Vahgisa rose from his seat, arranged his 
upper robe over one shoulder, and, raising his joined hands in 
reverential salutation towards the Blessed One, said to him: "An 
inspiration has come to me. Blessed One! An inspiration has 
come to me, Fortunate One!" 

"Then express your inspiration, Vahgisa." 




8. Vanglsasarnyutta 289 



Then the Venerable Vangisa extolled the Blessed One to his 
face with suitable verses: <415> 

738 "Over a thousand bhikkhus here 
Attend upon the Fortunate One 

As he teaches the dust-free Dhamma, 

Nibbana inaccessible to fear. 518 

739 "They listen to the stainless Dhamma 
Taught by the Perfectly Enlightened One. 

The Enlightened One indeed shines 
Honoured by the Bhikkhu Sangha. 

740 "O Blessed One, your name is 'Naga/ 

The best seer of the seers. 

Like a great cloud bearing rain 

You pour down on the disciples. 519 [193] 

741 "Having emerged from his daytime abode 
From a desire to behold the Teacher, 

Your disciple Vangisa, O great hero. 

Bows down in worship at your feet." 

"Had you already thought out these verses, Vangisa, or did 
they occur to you spontaneously?" 520 <416> 

"I had not already thought out these verses, venerable sir; 
they occurred to me spontaneously." 

"In that case, Vangisa, let some more verses, not already 
thought out, occur to you." 

"Yes, venerable sir," the Venerable Vangisa replied. Then he 
extolled the Blessed One with some more verses that had not 
been previously thought out: 

742 "Having overcome the deviant course of Mara's path. 

You fare having demolished barrenness of mind. 

Behold him, the releaser from bondage, 

Unattached, dissecting into parts. 521 

743 "For the sake of leading us across the flood 
You declared the path with its many aspects. 




290 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



The seers of Dhamma stand immovable 
In that Deathless declared by you. 522 <41 7> 

744 "The light-maker, having pierced right through, 

Saw the transcendence of all stations; 

Having known and realized it himself. 

He taught the chief matter to the five. 523 

745 "When the Dhamma has been so well taught. 

What negligence is there for those who understand it? 
Therefore, living diligent in the Blessed One's Teaching, 
One should always reverently train in it." 



9 Kondanna 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Rajagaha in 
the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrel Sanctuary. Then the Venerable 
Anna Kondanna, after a very long absence, approached the 
Blessed One, prostrated himself with his head at the Blessed 
One's feet, kissed the Blessed One's feet, [194] stroked them 
with his hands, <418> and announced his name thus: "I am 
Kondanna, Blessed One! I am Kondanna, Fortunate One!" 524 

Then it occurred to the Venerable Vangisa: "This Venerable 
Anna Kondanna, after a very long absence, has approached the 
Blessed One . . . kisses the Blessed One's feet, strokes them with 
his hands, and announces his name.... Let me extol the Venerable 
Anna Kondanna in the Blessed One's presence with suitable 
verses." 

Then the Venerable Vangisa rose from his seat, arranged his 
upper robe over one shoulder, and, raising his joined hands in 
reverential salutation towards the Blessed One, said to him: "An 
inspiration has come to me, Blessed One! An inspiration has 
come to me. Fortunate One!" 

"Then express your inspiration, Vangisa." 

Then the Venerable Vangisa extolled the Venerable Anna 
Kondanna in the Blessed One's presence with suitable verses: 

746 "Enlightened in succession to the Buddha, 

The elder Kondanna, of strong endeavour. 




8. Vangisasamyutta 291 



Is one who gains pleasant dwellings. 

One who often gains the seclusions. 525 

747 "Whatever may be attained by a disciple 
Who practises the Master's Teaching, 

All that has been attained by him, <419> 
One who trained diligently. 

748 "Of great might, a triple-knowledge man. 
Skilled in the course of others' minds — 
Kondanna, a true heir of the Buddha, 
Pays homage at the-Teacher's feet." 526 



10 Moggallana 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Rajagaha on 
the Black Rock on the Isigili Slope, together with a great Saiigha 
of bhikkhus, with five hundred bhikkhus all of whom were 
arahants. Thereupon the Venerable Mahamoggallana searched 
their minds with his own mind [and saw that they were] 
released, without acquisitions. 

Then it occurred to the Venerable Vaiigisa: "The Blessed One 
is dwelling at Rajagaha on the Black Rock on the Isigili Slope.... 
Thereupon the Venerable Mahamoggallana has searched their 
minds with his own mind [and seen that they are] released, 
without acquisitions. Let me extol the Venerable Mahamog- 
gallana in the Blessed One's presence with suitable verses." [195] 

Then the Venerable Vangisa rose from his seat, arranged his 
upper robe over one shoulder, and, raising his joined hands in 
reverential salutation towards the Blessed One, said to him: 
<420> "An inspiration has come to me. Blessed One! An inspira- 
tion has come to me. Fortunate One!" 

"Then express your inspiration, Vangisa." 

Then the Venerable Vangisa extolled the Venerable Mahamog- 
gallana in the Blessed One's presence with suitable verses: 

749 "While the sage is seated on the mountain slope. 

Gone to the far shore of suffering. 

His disciples sit in attendance on him. 

Triple-knowledge men who have left Death behind. 




292 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



750 "Moggallana, great in spiritual power. 
Encompassed their minds with his own. 
And searching [he came to see] their minds: 
Fully released, without acquisitions! 

751 "Thus those perfect in many qualities 
Attend upon Gotama, 

The sage perfect in all respects. 

Gone to the far shore of suffering." 527 



11 Gaggara 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Campa on the 
bank of the Gaggara Lotus Pond together with a great Saiigha of 
bhikkhus, with five hundred bhikkhus, seven hundred male lay 
followers, <421> seven hundred female lay followers, and many 
thousands of devatas. The Blessed One outshone them in beauty 
and glory. 

Then it occurred to the Venerable Vaiigisa: "This Blessed One 
is dwelling at Campa ... and many thousands of devatas. The 
Blessed One outshines them in beauty and glory. Let me extol 
the Blessed One to his face with suitable verses." 

Then the Venerable Vaiigisa rose from his seat, arranged his 
upper robe over one shoulder, and, raising his joined hands in 
reverential salutation towards the Blessed One, said to him: "An 
inspiration has come to me. Blessed One! An inspiration has 
come to me. Fortunate One!" 

"Then express your inspiration, Vaiigisa." 

Then the Venerable Vaiigisa extolled the Blessed One to his 
face with a suitable verse: [196] 

752 "As the moon shines in a cloudless sky, 

As the sun shines devoid of stain. 

So you, Aiigirasa, O great sage. 

Outshine the whole world with your glory." 



12 Vaiigisa 

<422> On one occasion the Venerable Vaiigisa was dwelling at 
Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Now on that 




8. Vangisasamyutta 293 



occasion the Venerable Vangisa had only recently attained ara- 
hantship and, while experiencing the happiness of liberation, on 
that occasion he recited these verses: 528 

753 "Drunk on poetry, I used to wander 
From village to village, town to town. 

Then I saw the Enlightened One 
And faith arose within me. 529 

754 "He then taught me the Dhamma: 

Aggregates, sense bases, and elements. 

Having heard the Dhamma from him, 

I went forth into homelessness. 

755 "Indeed, for the good of many. 

The sage attained enlightenment. 

For the bhikkhus and bhikkhunis <423> 

Who have reached and seen the fixed course. 530 

756 "Welcome indeed has it been for me, 

My coming into the Buddha's presence. 

The three knowledges have been obtained. 

The Buddha's Teaching has been done. 

757 "I know now my past abodes. 

The divine eye is purified. 

A triple knowledge man, attained to spiritual powers, 

I am skilled in the course of others' minds." 531 




[197] <424> Chapter IX 

9 Vanasamyutta 

Connected Discourses in the Woods 



1 Seclusion 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion a certain bhikkhu was 
dwelling among the Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. 
Now on that occasion, while that bhikkhu had gone for his day's 
abiding, he kept on thinking evil unwholesome thoughts con- 
nected with the household life. 

Then the devata that inhabited that woodland thicket, having 
compassion for that bhikkhu, desiring his good, desiring to stir 
up a sense of urgency in him, approached him and addressed 
him in verses: 

758 "Desiring seclusion you entered the woods. 

Yet your mind gushes outwardly. 

Remove, man, the desire for people; 

Then you'll be happy, devoid of lust. 532 

759 "You must abandon discontent, be mindful — 

Let us remind [you] of that [way] of the good. <425> 

Hard to cross, indeed, is the dusty abyss; 

Don't let sensual dust drag you down. 533 

760 "Just as a bird littered with soil 
With a shake flicks off the sticky dust. 

So a bhikkhu, strenuous and mindful. 

With a shake flicks off the sticky dust." 

Then that bhikkhu, stirred up by that devata, acquired a sense 
of urgency. 



294 




9. Vanasarnyutta 295 



2 Rousing 

On one occasion a certain bhikkhu was dwelling among the 
Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. [198] Now on that occa- 
sion when that bhikkhu had gone for his day's abiding he fell 
asleep. 534 Then the devata that inhabited that woodland thicket, 
having compassion for that bhikkhu, desiring his good, desiring 
to stir up a sense of urgency in him, approached him and 
addressed him in verses: 

761 "Get up, bjiikkhu, why lie down? <426> 

What need do you have for sleep? 

What slumber [can there be] for one afflicted. 

Stricken, pierced by the dart? 

762 "Nurture in yourself that faith 

With which you left behind the home life 
And went forth into homelessness: 

Don't come under sloth's control." 

[The bhikkhu:] 535 

763 "Sensual pleasures are impermanent, unstable. 

Though the dullard is enthralled with them. 

When he's free, detached among those bound. 

Why trouble one gone forth? 

764 "When, by the removal of desire and lust 
And the transcendence of ignorance. 

That knowledge has been cleansed. 

Why trouble one gone forth? 536 <42 7> 

765 "When, by breaking ignorance with knowledge 
And by destruction of the taints. 

He is sorrowless, beyond despair. 

Why trouble one gone forth? 

766 "When he is energetic and resolute, 

Always firm in his exertion. 

Aspiring to attain Nibbana, 

Why trouble one gone forth?" 537 




296 I- The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



3 Kassapagotta 

On one occasion the Venerable Kassapagotta was dwelling 
among the Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. Now on that 
occasion, when he had gone for his day's abiding, the Venerable 
Kassapagotta exhorted a certain hunter. 538 Then the devata that 
inhabited that woodland thicket, having compassion for the 
Venerable Kassapagotta, desiring his good, desiring to stir up a 
sense of urgency in him, approached him and addressed him in 
verses: 

767 "The bhikkhu strikes me as a dolt <428> 

Who out of season exhorts a hunter 
Roaming in the rugged mountains 
With little wisdom, devoid of sense. 

768 "He listens but does not understand, 

He looks but does not see; 

Though the Dhamma is being spoken. 

The fool does not grasp the meaning. [199] 

769 "Even if you would bring ten lamps 
[Into his presence], Kassapa, 

Still he would not see forms. 

For he does not have eyes to see." 

Then the Venerable Kassapagotta, stirred up by that devata, 
acquired a sense of urgency. 



4 A Number 

On one occasion a number of bhikkhus were dwelling among 
the Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. Then, when they 
had spent the rains there, after the three months had passed 
those bhikkhus set out on tour. <429> Then the devata that 
inhabited that woodland thicket, not seeing those bhikkhus, 
lamenting, on that occasion recited this verse: 

770 "Today discontent appears to me 

When I see here so many vacant seats. 




9. Vanasamyutta 297 



Where have they gone, Gotama's disciples. 

Those splendid speakers rich in learning?" 539 

When this was said, another devata replied in verse: 

771 "They've gone to Magadha, gone to Kosala, 

And some are in the Vajjian land. 

Like deer that roam free from ties. 

The bhikkhus dwell without abode." 540 

5 Ananda 

On one occasion the Venerable Ananda was dwelling among the 
Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. Now on that occasion 
the Venerable Ananda was excessively involved instructing lay 
people. 541 <430> Then the devata that inhabited that woodland 
thicket, having compassion for the Venerable Ananda, desiring 
his good, desiring to stir up a sense of urgency in him, approached 
him and addressed him in verse: 

772 "Having entered the thicket at the foot of a tree. 

Having placed Nibbana in your heart, [200] 

Meditate, Gotama, and don't be negligent! 

What will this hullabaloo do for you?" 542 

Then the Venerable Ananda, stirred up by that deity, acquired 
a sense of urgency. 



6 Anuruddha 

On one occasion the Venerable Anuruddha was dwelling 
among the Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. Then a cer 
tain devata of the Tavatimsa host named Jalini, a former consor 
of the Venerable Anuruddha, approached him and addressee 
him in verse: 543 



773 "Direct your mind there [to that realm] 
Where you dwelt in the past 
Among the Tavatimsa devas <431> 

For whom all desires are fulfilled. 




300 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



9 Vajjian Prince (or Vesali) 

On one occasion a certain bhikkhu, a Vajjian prince, was dwel- 
ling at Vesali in a certain woodland thicket. Now on that occa- 
sion an all-night festival was being held in Vesali. [202] Then 
that bhikkhu, lamenting as he heard the clamour of instruments, 
gongs, and music coming from Vesali, 549 on that occasion recited 
this verse: 

783 "We dwell in the forest all alone 
Like a log rejected in the woods. 

On such a splendid night as this <435> 

Who is there worse off than us?" 

Then the devata that inhabited that woodland thicket, having 
compassion for that bhikkhu, desiring his good, desiring to stir 
up a sense of urgency in him, approached him and addressed 
him in verse: 

784 "As you dwell in the forest all alone 
Like a log rejected in the woods. 

Many are those who envy you. 

As hell-beings envy those going to heaven." 550 

Then that bhikkhu, stirred up by that devata, acquired a sense 
of urgency. 

10 Reciting 

On one occasion a certain bhikkhu was dwelling among the 
Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. Now on that occasion 
that bhikkhu had been excessively engrossed in recitation, but 
on a later occasion he passed the time living at ease and keeping 
silent 551 Then the devata that inhabited that woodland thicket, 
no longer hearing that bhikkhu recite the Dhamma, <436> 
approached him and addressed him in verse: 

785 "Bhikkhu, why don't you recite Dhamma-stanzas, 

Living in communion with other bhikkhus? 




9. Vanasamyutta 301 



Hearing the Dhamma, one gains confidence; 

In this very life [the reciter] gains praise." 

[The bhikkhu:] 

786 "In the past I was fond of Dhamma-stanzas 
So long as I had not achieved dispassion. [203] 

But from the time I achieved dispassion 

[I dwell in what] the good men call 
'The laying down by final knowledge 
Of whatever is seen, heard, or sensed.'" 552 

11 Unwholesome Thoughts 

On one occasion a certain bhikkhu was dwelling among the 
Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. Now on that occasion, 
when that bhikkhu had gone for the day's abiding, he kept on 
thinking evil unwholesome thoughts, that is, thoughts of sensu- 
ality, ill will, and harming. <437> Then the devata that inhabited 
that woodland thicket, having compassion for that bhikkhu, 
desiring his good, desiring to stir up a sense of urgency in him, 
approached him and addressed him in verses: 

787 "Because of attending carelessly. 

You, sir, are eaten by your thoughts. 

Having relinquished the careless way, 

You should reflect carefully 553 

788 "By basing your thoughts on the Teacher, 

On Dhamma, Saiigha, and your own virtues, 

You will surely attain to gladness, 

And rapture and happiness as well. 

Then when you are suffused with gladness. 

You'll make an end to suffering." 

Then that bhikkhu, stirred up by that devata, acquired a sense 
of urgency. 



12 Noon 

On one occasion a certain bhikkhu was dwelling among the 




302 I- The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. Then the devata that 
inhabited that woodland thicket <438> approached that 
bhikkhu and recited this verse in his presence: 

789 "When the noon hour sets in 
And the birds have settled down. 

The mighty forest itself murmurs: 

How fearful that appears to me!" 

[The bhikkhu:] 

790 "When the noon hour sets in 
And the birds have settled down. 

The mighty forest itself murmurs: 

How delightful that appears to me!" 



23 Loose in Sense Faculties 

On one occasion a number of bhikkhus were dwelling among 
the Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. They were restless, 
puffed up, personally vain, rough-tongued, [204] rambling in 
their talk, muddle-minded, without clear comprehension, 
unconcentrated, scatter-brained, loose in their sense faculties. 
Then the devata that inhabited that woodland thicket, having 
compassion for those bhikkhus, desiring their good, <439> 
desiring to stir up a sense of urgency in them, approached them 
and addressed them with verses: 

791 "In the past the bhikkhus lived happily. 

The disciples of Gotama. 

Without wishes they sought their alms. 

Without wishes they used their lodgings. 

Having known the world's impermanence. 

They made an end to suffering. 

792 "But now like headmen in a village 
They make themselves hard to maintain. 

They eat and eat and then lie down. 

Infatuated in others' homes. 




9. Vanasamyutta 303 



793 "Having reverently saluted the Sangha, 

I here speak only about some: 

They are rejected, without protector. 

Become just like the dead. 

794 "My statement is made with reference 
To those who dwell in negligence. 

As for those who dwell in diligence. 

To them I humbly pay homage." 

Then those bhikkhus, stirred up by that devata, acquired a 
sense of urgency. <440> 

24 The Thief of Scent 

On one occasion a certain bhikkhu was dwelling among the 
Kosalans in a certain woodland thicket. Now on that occasion, 
when he had returned from his alms round, after his meal that 
bhikkhu used to descend into a pond and sniff a red lotus. Then 
the devata that inhabited that woodland thicket, having com- 
passion for that bhikkhu, desiring his good, desiring to stir up a 
sense of urgency in him, approached him and addressed him in 
verse: 554 

795 "When you sniff this lotus flower. 

An item that has not been given. 

This is one factor of theft: 

You, dear sir, are a thief of scent." 

[The bhikkhu:] 

796 "I do not take, I do not damage, 

I sniff the lotus from afar; 

So for what reason do you say 
That I am a thief of scent? 555 

797 "One who digs up the lotus stalks, 

One who damages the flowers, 

One of such rough behaviour: <441> 

Why is he not spoken to?" 556 [205] 





[The devata:] 

798 "When a person is rough and fierce. 

Badly soiled like a nursing cloth, 

I have nothing to say to him; 

But it's to you that I ought to speak. 

799 "For a person without blemish. 

Always in quest of purity. 

Even a mere hair's tip of evil 
Appears as big as a cloud." 

[The bhikkhu:] 

800 "Surely, spirit, you understand me. 

And you have compassion for me. 

Please, O spirit, speak to me again. 

Whenever you see such a deed." 

[The devata:] 

801 "We don't live with your support. 

Nor are we your hired servant. 

You, bhikkhu, should know for yourself <442> 

The way to a good destination." 557 

Then that bhikkhu, stirred by that devata, acquired a sense of 
urgency. 




[206] <443> Chapter X 

10 Y akkhasamyutta 

Connected Discourses with Yakkhas 



1 Indaka 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Rajagaha on Mount Inda's Peak, the haunt of the 
yakkha Indaka. 558 Then the yakkha Indaka approached the 
Blessed One and addressed him in verse: 

802 "As the Buddhas say that form is not the soul. 

How then does one obtain this body? 

From where do one's bones and liver come? 

How is one begotten in the womb?" 559 

[The Blessed One:] 

803 "First there is the kalala; 

From the kalala comes the abbuda ; 

From the abbuda the pesi is produced; 

From the pesl the ghana arises; 

From the ghana emerge the limbs. 

The head-hair, body-hair, and nails. <444> 

804 And whatever food the mother eats — 

The meals and drink that she consumes — 

By this the being there is maintained. 

The person inside the mother's womb." 560 



2 Sakkanamaka 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Rajagaha on 
Mount Vulture Peak. Then the yakkha Sakkanamaka approached 
the Blessed One and addressed him in verse: 



305 




306 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



805 "Having abandoned all the knots 
As one fully released, 

It isn't good for you, an ascetic. 

To be instructing others." 561 

[The Blessed One:] 

806 "If, O Sakka, for some reason 
Intimacy with anyone should arise. 

The wise man ought not to stir his mind 
With compassion towards such a person. 

807 "But if with a mind clear and pure 
He gives instructions to others. 

He does not become fettered <445> 

By his compassion and sympathy." 562 [207] 



3 Suciloma 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Gaya at the 
Tankita Bed, the haunt of the yakkha Suciloma. 563 Now on that 
occasion the yakkha Khara and the yakkha Suciloma were pass- 
ing by not far from the Blessed One. Then the yakkha Khara said 
to the yakkha Suciloma: "That is an ascetic." 

"That is not an ascetic; that is a sham ascetic. 564 I'll soon find 
out whether he is an ascetic or a sham ascetic." 

Then the yakkha Suciloma approached the Blessed One and 
bent over the Blessed One. The Blessed One drew back. Then the 
yakkha Suciloma said to the Blessed One: "Are you afraid of me, 
ascetic?" 

"I'm not afraid of you, friend. It is just that your touch is 
evil." 565 <446> 

"I'll ask you a question, ascetic. If you won't answer me, I'll 
drive you insane or I'll split your heart or I'll grab you by the 
feet and hurl you across the Ganges." 

"I do not see anyone in this world, friend, with its devas, 
Mara, and Brahma, in this generation with its ascetics and brah- 
mins, its devas and humans, who could drive me insane or split 
my heart or grab me by the feet and hurl me across the Ganges. 
But ask whatever you want, friend." 




10. Yakkhasamyutta 307 



808 "What is the source of lust and hatred? 

Whence spring discontent, delight, and terror? 

Having arisen from what do the mind's thoughts 
[Toss one around] as boys toss up a crow?" 566 <447> 

[The Blessed One:] 

809 "Lust and hatred have their source here; 

From this spring discontent, delight, and terror; 

Having arisen from this, the mind's thoughts 
[Toss one around] as boys toss up a crow. 567 

810 "Sprung from affection, arisen from oneself. 

Like the trunk-bom shoots of the banyan tree; 

Manifold, clinging to sensual pleasures. 

Like a maluva creeper stretched across the woods. 568 [208] 

811 "Those who understand their source. 

They dispel it — listen, O yakkha! — 

They cross this flood so hard to cross. 

Uncrossed before, for no renewed existence." 569 



4 Manibhadda 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling among the 
Magadhans at the Manimalaka Shrine, the haunt of the yakkha 
Manibhadda. Then the yakkha Manibhadda approached the 
Blessed One and in the Blessed One's presence recited this verse: 

812 "It is always good for the mindful one. 

The mindful one thrives in happiness. 

It is better each day for the mindful one. 

And he is freed from enmity." 570 

[The Blessed One:] <448> 

813 "It is always good for the mindful one. 

The mindful one thrives in happiness. 

It is better each day for the mindful one. 

But he is. not freed from enmity. 




308 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



814 "One whose mind all day and night 
Takes delight in harmlessness. 

Who has lovingkindness for all beings — 
For him there is enmity with none." 571 



5 Sanu 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Savatthi in 
Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Now on that occasion a cer- 
tain female lay follower had a son named Sanu who had been 
possessed by a yakkha. 572 Then that female lay follower, lament- 
ing, on that occasion recited these verses: 

816 "With those who lead the holy life, 573 
Who observe the Uposatha days 
Complete in eight factors 

On the fourteenth or fifteenth, 

817 And on the eighths of the fortnight, <449> 

And during special periods. 

The yakkhas do not sport around: 

So I have heard from the arahants. 

But now today I see for myself 
The yakkhas sporting with Sanu." 

[The yakkha that has entered Sanu:] [209] 

818 "With those who lead the holy life. 

Who observe the Uposatha days 
Complete in eight factors 

On the fourteenth or fifteenth, 

819 And on the eighths of the fortnight. 

And during special periods. 

The yakkhas do not sport around: 

What you heard from the arahants is good. 

820 "When Sanu has awakened tell him 
This injunction of the yakkhas: <450> 

Do not do an evil deed 

Either openly or in secret. 

821 If you should do an evil deed. 

Or if you are doing one now. 




10. Yakkhasamyutta 309 



You won't be free from suffering 
Though you fly up and flee." 574 



[Sanu:] 575 

822 "They weep, mother, for the dead 
Or for one living who isn't seen. 

When you see, mother, that I'm alive. 

Why, O mother, do you weep for me?" 

[Sanu's mother:] 

823 "They weep, O son, for the dead 
Or for one living who isn't seen; 

But when one returns to the home life 
After renouncing sensual pleasures. 

They weep for this one too, my son. 

For though alive he's really dead. 576 

824 "Drawn out, my dear, from hot embers, <451> 
You wish to plunge into hot embers; 

Drawn out, my dear, from an inferno, 

You wish to plunge into an inferno. 577 

825 "Run forward, good luck be with you! 

To whom could we voice our grief? 

Being an item rescued from the fire. 

You wish to be burnt again." 578 



6 Piyankara 

On one occasion the Venerable Anuruddha was dwelling at 
Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. Now on that 
occasion the Venerable Anuruddha, having risen at the first 
flush of dawn, was reciting stanzas of Dhamma. Then the 
female yakkha Piyankara's Mother hushed her little child 
thus: 579 



826 "Do not make a sound, Piyankara, 

A bhikkhu recites Dhamma-stanzas. <452> 
Having understood a Dhamma-stanza, 

We might practise for our welfare. 




310 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



827 "Let us refrain from harming living beings. 
Let us not speak a deliberate lie. 

We should train ourselves in virtue: 

Perhaps we'll be freed from the goblin realm." 



7 Punabbasu 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Savatthi in 
Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. [210] Now on that occasion 
the Blessed One was instructing, exhorting, inspiring, and glad- 
dening the bhikkhus with a Dhamma talk concerning Nibbana. 
And those bhikkhus were listening to the Dhamma with eager 
ears, attending to it as a matter of vital concern, applying their 
whole mind to it. Then the female yakkha Punabbasu's Mother 
hushed her little children thus: 580 

828 "Be quiet, Uttarika, 

Be quiet, Punabbasu! <453> 

I wish to listen to the Dhamma 
Of the Teacher, the Supreme Buddha. 

829 "When the Blessed One speaks of Nibbana, 

Release from all the knots, 

There has arisen within me 
Deep affection for this Dhamma. 

830 "In the world one's own son is dear. 

In the world one's own husband is dear; 

But for me the quest for this Dhamma 
Has become even dearer than them. 

831 "For neither one's own son nor husband. 

Though dear, can release one from suffering 
As listening to true Dhamma frees one 
From the suffering of living beings. 581 

832 "In this world steeped in suffering, 

Fettered by aging and death, 

I wish to listen to the Dhamma 

That he — -the Buddha — fully awakened to. 




10. Yakkhasamyutta 311 



For freedom from aging and death. 

So be quiet, Punabbasu!" 582 <454> 

[Punabbasu:] 

833 "Mother dear, lam not talking; 

This Uttara is silent, too. 

Pay attention only to the Dhamma, 

For listening to true Dhamma is pleasant. 

Because we have not known true Dhamma 
We've been living miserably, mother. 

834 "He is the maker of light 

For bewildered devas and humans; 

Enlightened, bearing his final body. 

The One with Vision teaches the Dhamma." 

[Punabbasu's mother:] 

835 "It is good that my son has become so wise. 

He whom I bore and nursed at my breast. 

My son loves the pure Dhamma 

Of the Supremely Enlightened One. 

836 "Punabbasu, be happy! 

Today I have emerged at last. <455> 

Hear me too, O Uttara: 

The noble truths are seen!" 583 

8 Sudatta 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Rajagaha in 
the Cool Grove. Now on that occasion the householder Anatha- 
pindika had arrived in Rajagaha on some business. 584 He heard: 
"A Buddha, it is said, has arisen in the world!" He wanted to go 
and see the Blessed One immediately, [211] but it occurred to 
him: "It is not the right time to go and see the Blessed One today. 
I will go and see the Blessed One early tomorrow morning." 

He lay down with his mindfulness directed to the Buddha, 
and during the night he got up three times thinking it was 
morning. Then the householder Anathapindika approached the 
gate of the charnel ground. Nonhuman beings opened the gate. 




312 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 

<456> Then, as the householder Anathapindika was leaving the 
city, the light disappeared and darkness appeared. Fear, trepida- 
tion, and terror arose in him and he wanted to turn back. But the 
yakkha Sivaka, invisible, made the proclamation: 585 

837 "A hundred [thousand] elephants, 

A hundred [thousand] horses, 

A hundred [thousand] mule-drawn chariots, 

A hundred thousand maidens 
Adorned with jewellery and earrings. 

Are not worth a sixteenth part 
Of a single step forward. 586 

"Go forward, householder! Go forward, householder! Going 
forward is better for you, not turning back again." 

Then the darkness disappeared and light appeared to the 
householder Anathapindika, and the fear, trepidation, and ter- 
ror that had arisen in him subsided. 

A second time ... (verse 838 is included in this repetition) <45 7> 
...A third time the light disappeared and darkness appeared 
before the householder Anathapindika. Fear, trepidation, and 
terror arose in him and he wanted to turn back. But a third time 
the yakkha Sivaka, invisible, made the proclamation: 

839 "A hundred [thousand] elephants . . . 

Of a single step forward. 

"Go forward, householder! Go forward, householder! Going 
forward is better for you, not turning back again." 

Then the darkness [212] disappeared and light appeared to the 
householder Anathapindika, and the fear, trepidation, and ter- 
ror that had arisen in him subsided. 

Then the householder Anathapindika approached the Blessed 
One in the Cool Grove. Now on that occasion the Blessed One, 
having risen at the first flush of dawn, was walking back and 
forth in the open. The Blessed One saw the householder 
Anathapindika coming in the distance. He descended from the 
walkway, sat down in the seat that was prepared, and said to 
the householder Anathapindika: "Come, Sudatta." 587 

Then the householder Anathapindika, thinking, "The Blessed 




10. Yakkhasamyutta 313 



One has addressed me by my name," [thrilled and elated], 588 
prostrated himself right on the spot with his head at the Blessed 
One's feet <458> and said to him: "I hope, venerable sir, that the 
Blessed One slept well." 

[The Blessed One:] 

840 "Always indeed he sleeps well. 

The brahmin who is fully quenched. 

Who does not cling to sensual pleasures. 

Cool at heart, without acquisitions. 

841 "Having cut off all attachments. 

Having removed care from the heart, 

The peaceful one sleeps well. 

Having attained peace of mind." 589 

9 Sukka (1) 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Rajagaha in 
the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrel Sanctuary. Now on that occasion 
the bhikkhuni Sukka, surrounded by a large assembly, was 
teaching the Dhamma. Then a yakkha who had full confidence in 
the bhikkhuni Sukka, going from street to street and from square 
to square in Rajagaha, on that occasion recited these verses: 

842 "What has happened to these people in Rajagaha? <459> 
They sleep as if they've been drinking mead. 

Why don't they attend on Sukka 
As she teaches the deathless state? 590 

843 "But the wise, as it were, drink it up — 

That [Dhamma] irresistible. 

Ambrosial, nutritious — 

As travellers do a cloud." 591 

10 Sukka (2) 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Rajagaha in 
the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrel Sanctuary. [213] Now on that 
occasion a certain lay follower gave food to the bhikkhuni 




314 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



Sukka. Then a yakkha who had full confidence in the bhikkhuni 
Sukka, going from street to street and from square to square in 
Rajagaha, on that occasion recited this verse: 

844 “He has engendered much merit — 

Wise indeed is this lay follower. 

Who just gave food to Sukka, <460> 

One released from all the knots." 592 

11 Cira 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Rajagaha in 
the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrel Sanctuary. Now on that occa- 
sion a certain lay follower gave a robe to the bhikkhuni Cira. 
Then a yakkha who had full confidence in the bhikkhuni Cira, 
going from street to street and from square to square in Raja- 
gaha, on that occasion recited this verse:. 

845 "He has engendered much merit — 

Wise indeed is this lay follower. 

Who just gave a robe to Cira, 

One released from all the bonds." 

12 Alavaka 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Alavi, the haunt of the yakkha Alavaka. 593 Then the 
yakkha Alavaka approached the Blessed One and said to him: 
"Get out, ascetic!" <461 > 

"All right, friend," the Blessed One said, and he went out. 594 
"Come in, ascetic." 

"All right, friend," the Blessed One said, and he went in. 

A second time ... [214] A third time the yakkha Alavaka said 
to the Blessed One: "Get out, ascetic!" 

"All right, friend," the Blessed One said, and he went out- 
"Come in, ascetic." 

"All right, friend," the Blessed One said, and he went in. 

A fourth time the yakkha Alavaka said to the Blessed One: 
"Get out, ascetic." 

"I won't go out, friend. Do whatever you have to do." 




10. Yakkhasamyutta 315 



"I'll ask you a question, ascetic. If you won't answer me. I'll 
drive you insane or I'll split your heart or I'll grab you by the 
feet and hurl you across the Ganges." 595 

"I do not see anyone in this world, friend, with its devas 
Mara, and Brahma, in this generation with its ascetics and brah- 
mins, its devas and humans, who could drive me insane or split 
my heart or grab me by the feet and hurl me across the Ganges 
But ask whatever you want, friend." 596 

[Alavaka:] <462> 

846 "What here is a man's best treasure? 

What practised well brings happiness? 

What is really the sweetest of tastes? 

How lives the one who they say lives best?" 

[The Blessed One:] 

847 "Faith is here a man's best treasure; 

Dhamma practised well brings happiness; 

Truth is really the sweetest of tastes; 

One living by wisdom they say lives best." 597 

[Alavaka:] 

848 "How does one cross over the flood? 

How does one cross the rugged sea? 

How does one overcome suffering? 

How is one purified?" 

[The Blessed One:] 

849 "By faith one crosses over the flood. 

By diligence, the rugged sea. 

By energy one overcomes suffering. 

By wisdom one is purified." 598 

[Alavaka:] 

850 "How does one gain wisdom? 599 
How does one find wealth? <463> 

How does one achieve acclaim? 

How bind friends to oneself? 

When passing from this world to the next. 

How does one not sorrow?" 




316 The Samyutta Nikaya 



[The Blessed One:] 

851 "Placing faith in the Dhamma of the arahants 
For the attainment of Nibbana, 

From desire to learn one gains wisdom 
If one is diligent and astute. 600 

852 "Doing what is proper, dutiful. 

One with initiative finds wealth. [215] 

By truthfulness one wins acclaim; 

Giving, one binds friends. 

That is how one does not sorrow 

When passing from this world to the next. 601 

853 "The faithful seeker of the household life 
In whom dwell these four qualities — 

Truth, Dhamma, steadfastness, generosity — 

Does not sorrow when he passes on. <464 > 

854 "Come now, ask others as well. 

The many ascetics and brahmins. 

Whether there is found here anything better 

Than truth, self-control, generosity, and patience." 602 

[Alavaka:] 

855 "Why now should I ask this question 
Of the many ascetics and brahmins? 

Today I have understood 

The good pertaining to the future life. 603 

856 "Indeed, for my sake the Buddha came 
To reside at Alavi. 

Today I have understood 
Where a gift bears great fruit. 

857 "I myself will travel about 

From village to village, town to town. 

Paying homage to the Enlightened One 

And to the excellence of the Dhamma." 604 <465> 




[216] <466 > Chapter XI 

11 Sakkasamyiitta 

Connected Discourses with Sakka 



I. The First Subchapter 
(SuvIra) 



1 (1) SuvIra 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was dwell- 
ing at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. There the 
Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus!" 

"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said 
this: 

"Bhikkhus, once in the past the asuras marched against the 
devas. 605 Then Sakka, lord of the devas, addressed Suvira, a 
young deva, thus: 'Dear Suvira, these asuras are marching 
against the devas. Go, dear Suvira, launch a counter-march 
against the asuras.' - 'Yes, your lordship,' Suvira replied, but he 
became negligent. 606 A second time Sakka addressed Suvira ... 
<467> ... but a second time Suvira became negligent. A third 
time Sakka addressed Suvira ... but a third time Suvira became 
negligent. [217] Then, bhikkhus, Sakka addressed Suvira in 
verse: 

858 "'Where one need not toil and strive 
Yet still may attain to bliss: 

Go there, Suvira, 

And take me along with you.' 

[Suvira:] 

859 "'That a lazy man who does not toil 
Nor attend to his duties 



317 




318 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



Might still have all desires fulfilled: 

Grant me that, Sakka, as a boon.' 607 <468> 

[Sakka:] 

860 '"Where a lazy man who does not toil 
Might achieve unending bliss: 

Go there, Suvira, 

And take me along with you.' 

[Suvira:] 

861 "'The bliss, supreme deva, we might find 
Without doing work, O Sakka, 

The sorrowless state without despair: 

Grant me that, Sakka, as a boon.' 

[Sakka:] 

862 '"If there exists any place anywhere 
Where without work one won't decline. 

That is indeed Nibbana's path: 

Go there, Suvira, 

And take me along with you.' 608 

"So, bhikkhus, if Sakka, lord of the devas, subsisting on the 
fruit of his own merit, <469> exercising supreme sovereignty 
and rulership over the Tavatimsa devas, will be one who speaks 
in praise of initiative and energy, then how much more would it 
be fitting here for you, 609 who have gone forth in such a well- 
expounded Dhamma and Discipline, to toil, struggle, and strive 
for the attainment of the as-yet-unattained, for the achievement 
of the as-yet-unachieved, for the realization of the as-yet-unreal- 
ized." 



2 (2) Susima 

(This sutta is identical with the preceding one, except that a young 
deva is named Susima. Verses 863-67 = 858-62.) [218] <470-72> 




11. Sakkasamyutta 319 



3(3) The Crest of the Standard 

At Savatthl. There the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: 
"Bhikkhus!" 610 

"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said 
this: 

"Bhikkhus, once in the past the devas and the asuras were 
arrayed for battle. Then Sakka, lord of the devas, addressed the 
Tavatimsa devas thus: 'Dear sirs, when the devas are engaged in 
battle, [219] if fear or trepidation or terror should arise, on that 
occasion you should look up at the crest of my standard. For 
when you look up at the crest of my standard, whatever fear or 
trepidation or terror you may have will be abandoned. 611 

"'If you cannot look up at the crest of my standard, then you 
should look up at the crest of the deva-king Pajapati's standard. 
For when you look up at the crest of his standard, whatever fear 
or trepidation or terror you may have will be abandoned. 

'"If you cannot look up at the crest of the deva-king Pajapati's 
standard, then you should look up at the crest of the deva-king 
Varuna's standard.... If you cannot look up at the crest of the 
deva-king Varuna's standard, then you should look up at the 
crest of the deva-king Isana's standard.... For when you look up 
at the crest of his standard, whatever fear or trepidation or ter- 
ror you may have will be abandoned.' 612 <473> 

"Bhikkhus, for those who look up at the crest of the standard 
of Sakka, lord of the devas; or of Pajapati, the deva-king; or of 
Varuna, the deva-king; or of Isana, the deva-king, whatever fear 
or trepidation or terror they may have may or may not be aban- 
doned. For what reason? Because Sakka, lord of the devas, is not 
devoid of lust, not devoid of hatred, not devoid of delusion; he 
can be timid, petrified, frightened, quick to flee. 

"But, bhikkhus, I say this: If you have gone to a forest or to the 
foot of a tree or to an empty hut, and fear or trepidation or terror 
should arise in you, on that occasion you should recollect me 
thus: 'The Blessed One is an arahant, perfectly enlightened, 
accomplished in true knowledge and conduct, fortunate, knower 
of the world, unsurpassed leader of persons to be tamed, teacher 
of devas and humans, the Enlightened One, the Blessed One.' 
For when you recollect me, bhikkhus, whatever fear or trepida- 
tion or terror you may have will be abandoned. [220] 




320 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathdvagga) 



"If you cannot recollect me, then you should recollect the 
Dhamma thus: The Dhamma is well expounded by the Blessed 
One, directly visible, immediate, inviting one to come and see, 
applicable, to be personally experienced by the wise/ For when 
you recollect the Dhamma, bhikkhus, whatever fear or trepida- 
tion or terror you may have will be abandoned. 

"If you cannot recollect the Dhamma, then you should recol- 
lect the Saiigha thus: The Saiigha of the Blessed One's disciples 
is practising the good way, <474> practising the straight way, 
practising the true way, practising the proper way; that is, the 
four pairs of persons, the eight types of individuals — this 
Saiigha of the Blessed One's disciples is worthy of gifts, worthy 
of hospitality, worthy of offerings, worthy of reverential saluta- 
tion, the unsurpassed field of merit for the world.' For when you 
recollect the Saiigha, bhikkhus, whatever fear or trepidation or 
terror you may have will be abandoned. 

"For what reason? Because, bhikkhus, the Tathaga.ta, the 
Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One is devoid of lust, devoid 
of hatred, devoid of delusion; he is brave, courageous, bold, 
ready to stand his place." 

This is what the Blessed One said. Having said this, the 
Fortunate One, the Teacher, further said this: 

868 "In a forest, at the foot of a tree. 

Or in an empty hut, O bhikkhus. 

You should recollect the Buddha: 

No fear will then arise in you. 

869 "But if you cannot recall the Buddha, 

Best in the world, the bull of men. 

Then you should recall the Dhamma, 

Emancipating, well expounded. 

870 "But if you cannot recall the Dhamma, 

Emancipating, well expounded. 

Then you should recall the Saiigha, 

The unsurpassed field of merit. <475> 

871 "For those who thus recall the Buddha, 

The Dhamma, and the Saiigha, bhikkhus. 




11. Sakkasamyutta 321 



No fear or trepidation will arise. 
Nor any grisly terror." 



4(4) Vepacitti (or Patience) 

At Savatthi. The Blessed One said this: [221] 

"Once in the past, bhikkhus, the devas and the asuras were 
arrayed for battle. Then Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, addressed 
the asuras thus: 613 'Dear sirs, in the impending battle between 
the devas and the asuras, <476> if the asuras win and the devas 
are defeated, bind Sakka, lord of the devas, by his four limbs 
and neck and bring him to me in the city of the asuras.' And 
Sakka, lord of the devas, addressed the Tavatimsa devas thus: 
'Dear sirs, in the impending battle between the devas and the 
asuras, if the devas win and the asuras are defeated, bind 
Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, by his four limbs and neck and 
bring him to me in the Sudhamma assembly hall.' 

"In that battle, bhikkhus, the devas won and the asuras were 
defeated. Then the Tavatimsa devas bound Vepacitti by his four 
limbs and neck and brought him to Sakka in the Sudhamma 
assembly hall. 614 When Sakka was entering and leaving the 
Sudhamma assembly hall, Vepacitti, bound by his four limbs 
and neck, abused and reviled him with rude, harsh words. 
Then, bhikkhus, Matali the charioteer addressed Sakka, lord of 
the devas, in verse: 

872 "'When face to face with Vepacitti 

Is it, Maghava, from fear or weakness <477 > 

That you endure him so patiently. 

Listening to his harsh words?' 

[Sakka:] 

873 '"It is neither through fear nor weakness 
That I am patient with Vepacitti. 

How can a wise person like me 
Engage in combat with a fool?' 

[Matali:] 

874 "'Fools would vent their anger even more 
If no one would keep them in check. 




322 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



Hence with drastic punishment 

The wise man should restrain the fool.' 615 

[Sakka:] 

875 '"I myself think this alone 
Is the way to check the fool: 

When one knows one's foe is angry 
One mindfully maintains one's peace.' 

[Matali:] 

876 "'I see this fault, O Vasava, 

In practising patient endurance: 

When the fool thinks of you thus, 

"He endures me out of fear," <478> 

The dolt will chase you even more 
As a bull does one who flees.' [222] 

[Sakka:] 

877 "'Let it be whether or not he thinks, 

"He endures me out of fear," 

Of goals that culminate in one's own good 
None is found better than patience. 616 

878 "'When a person endowed with strength 
Patiently endures a weakling. 

They call that the supreme patience; 

The weakling must be patient always. 617 

879 "'They call that strength no strength at all — 
The strength that is the strength of folly — 

But no one can reproach a person 

Who is strong because guarded by Dhamma. 618 

880 "'One who repays an angry man with anger 
Thereby makes things worse for himself. 

Not repaying an angry man with anger, <479> 
One wins a battle hard to win. 

881 '"He practises for the welfare of both. 

His own and the other's. 




11. Sakkasamyutta 323 



When, knowing that his foe is angry. 

He mindfully maintains his peace. 

882 "'When he achieves thecure of both — 

His own and the other's — 

The people who consider him a fool 
Are unskilled in the Dhamma.' 

"So, bhikkhus, if Sakka, lord of the devas, subsisting on the 
fruit of his own merit, exercising supreme sovereignty and 
rulership over the Tavatimsa devas, will be one who speaks in 
praise of patience and gentleness, then how much more would it 
be fitting here for you, who have gone forth in such a well- 
expounded Dhamma and Discipline, to be patient and gentle." 

5 (5) Victory by Well-Spoken Counsel 

<480> At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus, once in the past the devas and the 
asuras were arrayed for battle. Then Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, 
said to Sakka, lord of the devas: 'Lord of the devas, let there be 
victory by well-spoken counsel.' [And Sakka replied:] 'Vepacitti, 
let there be victory by well-spoken counsel.' 

"Then, bhikkhus, the devas and the asuras appointed a panel 
of judges, saying: 'These will ascertain what has been well spoken 
and badly spoken by us.' 

"Then Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, said to Sakka, lord of the 
devas: 'Speak a verse, lord of the devas.' When this was said, 
Sakka said to Vepacitti: 'You, Vepacitti, being the senior deva 
here, speak a verse.' 619 [223] When this was said, Vepacitti, lord 
of the asuras, recited this verse: 620 

883 "'Fools would vent their anger even more 
If no one would keep them in check. 

Hence with drastic punishment 

The wise man should restrain the fool.' 

"When, bhikkhus, Vepadtti, lord of the asuras, spoke this 
verse, the asuras applauded but the devas were silent. Then 
Vepacitti said to Sakka: 'Speak a verse, lord of the devas.' When 
this was said, Sakka, lord of the devas, recited this verse: 




324 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



884 "'I myself think this alone <481> 

Is the way to check the fool: 

When one knows one's foe is angry 
One mindfully maintains one's peace.' 

"When, bhikkhus, Sakka, lord of the devas, spoke this verse, 
the devas applauded but the asuras were silent. Then Sakka said 
to Vepacitti: 'Speak a verse, Vepacitti.' When this was said, 
Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, recited this verse: 

885 '"I see this fault, O Vasava, 

In practising patient endurance: 

When the fool thinks of you thus, 

"He endures me out of fear," 

The dolt will chase you even more 
As a bull does one who flees.' 

"When, bhikkhus, Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, spoke this 
verse, the asuras applauded but the devas were silent. Then 
Vepacitti said to Sakka: 'Speak a verse, lord of the devas.' When 
this was said, Sakka, lord of the devas, recited these verses: 

886-891 "'Let it be whether or not he thinks, 

... (verses = 877-82 ) ... [224] <482> 

Are unskilled in the Dhamma.' 

"When, bhikkhus, these verses were spoken by Sakka, lord of 
the devas, the devas applauded but the asuras were silent. Then 
the panel of judges appointed by the devas and the asuras said 
this: 'The verses spoken by Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, are in 
the sphere of punishment and violence; hence [they entail] con- 
flict, contention, and strife. But the verses spoken by Sakka, lord 
of the devas, <483> are in the sphere of nonpunishment and 
nonviolence; hence [they entail] freedom from conflict, freedom 
from contention, and freedom from strife. Sakka, lord of the 
devas, has won the victory by well-spoken counsel.' 

"In this way, bhikkhus, Sakka, lord of the devas, won the vic- 
tory by well-spoken counsel." 




11. Sakkasamyutta 325 



6 (6) The Bird Nests 

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus, once in the past the devas and the asuras 
were arrayed for battle. In that battle the asuras won and the 
devas were defeated. In defeat the devas withdrew towards the 
north while the asuras pursued them. Then Sakka, lord of the 
devas, addressed his charioteer Matali in verse: 

892 '"Avoid, O Matali, with your chariot pole 
The bird nests in the silk-cotton woods; 

Let's surrender our lives to the asuras <484> 

Rather than make these birds nestless.' 621 

"'Yes, your lordship,' Matali the charioteer replied, and he 
turned back the chariot with its team of a thousand thorough- 
breds. 

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to the asuras: 'Now Sakka 's char- 
iot with its team of a thousand thoroughbreds has turned back. 
[225] The devas will engage in battle with the asuras for a sec- 
ond time.' Stricken by fear, they entered the city of the asuras. In 
this way, bhikkhus, Sakka, lord of the devas, won a victory by 
means of righteousness itself." 

7 (7) One Should Not Transgress 

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus, once in the past, when Sakka, lord of the 
devas, was alone in seclusion, the following reflection arose in 
his mind: 'Though someone may be my sworn enemy, I should 
not transgress even against him.' 

"Then, bhikkhus, Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, <485> having 
known with* his own mind the reflection in Sakka's mind, 
approached Sakka, lord of the devas. Sakka saw Vepacitti coming 
in the distance and said to him: 'Stop, Vepacitti, you're caught!' 622 

- 'Dear sir, do not abandon the idea that just occurred to you.' 623 

- 'Swear, Vepacitti, that you won't transgress against me.' 

[Vepacitti:] 

893 "'Whatever evil comes to a liar. 

Whatever evil to a reviler of noble ones. 




326 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



Whatever evil to a betrayer of friends. 

Whatever evil to one without gratitude: 

That same evil touches the one 

Who transgresses against you, Suja's husband."' 624 



8 (8) Verocana, Lord of the Asuras 

At Savatthi in Jeta's Grove. Now on that occasion the Blessed 
One had gone for his day's abiding and was in seclusion. Then 
Sakka, <486> lord of the devas, and Verocana, lord of the asuras, 
approached the Blessed One and stood one at each door post. 
Then Verocana, lord of the asuras, recited this verse in the pres- 
ence of the Blessed One: 625 

894 "A man should make an effort 
Until his goal has been achieved. 

Goals shine when achieved: 

This is the word of Verocana." [226] 

[Sakka:] 

895 "A man should make an effort 
Until his goal has been achieved. 

Of goals that shine when achieved. 

None is found better than patience." 626 

[Verocana:] 

896 "All beings are bent on a goal 
Here or there as fits the case. 

But for all creatures association 
Is supreme among enjoyments. 

Goals shine when achieved: 

This is the word of Verocana." 627 <487> 

[Sakka:] 

897 "All beings are bent upon a goal 
Here or there as fits the case. 

But for all creatures association 
Is supreme among enjoyments. 

Of goals that shine when achieved. 

None is found better than patience." 




11. Sakkasarnyutta 327 



9 (9) Seers in a Forest 

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus, once in the past a number of seers who 
were virtuous and of good character had settled down in leaf 
huts in a tract of forest. Then Sakka, lord of the devas, and 
Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, approached those seers. 

"Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, put on his boots, bound his 
sword on tightly, and, with a parasol borne aloft, entered the 
hermitage through the main gate; then, having turned his left 
side towards them, 628 he walked past those seers who were vir- 
tuous and of good character. But Sakka, lord-of the devas, took 
off his boots, handed over his sword to others, <488> lowered 
his parasol, and entered the hermitage through an [ordinary] 
gate; then he stood on the lee side, raising his joined hands in 
reverential salutation, paying homage to those seers who were 
virtuous and of good character. 

"Then, bhikkhus, those seers addressed Sakka in verse: 

898 '"The odour of the seers long bound by their vows. 

Emitted from their bodies, goes with the wind. 

Turn away from here, O thousand-eyed god. 

For the seers' odour is foul, O deva-king.' 629 

[Sakka:] 

899 "'Let the odour of the seers long bound by their vows. 
Emitted from their bodies, go with the wind; 

We yearn for this odour, O venerable sirs. 

As for a garland of flowers on the head. [227] 

The devas do not perceive it as repulsive.'" 630 <489> 



10 (10) Seers by the Ocean 

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus, once in the past a number of seers who 
were virtuous and of good character had settled down in leaf 
huts along the shore of the ocean. Now on that occasion the 
devas and the asuras were arrayed for a battle. Then it occurred 
to those seers who were virtuous and of good character: 'The 
devas are righteous, the asuras unrighteous. There may be dan- 
ger to us from the asuras. Let us approach Sambara, lord of the 
asuras, and ask him for a guarantee of safety.' 631 




328 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



"Then, bhikkhus, just as quickly as a strong man might extend 
his drawn-in arm or draw in his extended arm, those seers who 
were virtuous and of good character disappeared from their leaf 
huts along the shore of the ocean and reappeared in the pres- 
ence of Sambara, lord of the asuras. Then those seers addressed 
Sambara in verse: 

900 "The seers who have come to Sambara 
Ask him for a guarantee of safety. <490> 

For you can give them what you wish. 

Whether it be danger or safety.' 632 

[Sambara:] 

901 '"I'll grant no safety to the seers. 

For they are hated devotees of Sakka; 

Though you appeal to me for safety. 

I'll give you only danger.' 

[The seers:] 

902 "'Though we have asked for safety. 

You give us only danger. 

We receive this at your hands: 

May ceaseless danger come to you! 

903 "'Whatever sort of seed is sown. 

That is the sort of fruit one reaps: 

The doer of good reaps good; 

The door of evil reaps evil. 

By you, dear, has the seed been sown; 

Thus you will experience the fruit.' 

"Then, bhikkhus, having put a curse on Sambara, lord of the 
asuras, just as quickly as a strong man might extend his drawn- 
in arm <491> or draw in his extended arm, those seers who 
were virtuous and of good character disappeared from the pres- 
ence of Sambara and reappeared in their leaf huts on the shore 
of the ocean. [228] But after being cursed by those seers who 
were virtuous and of good character, Sambara, lord of the asur- 
as, was gripped by alarm three times in the course of the 
night." 633 <492 > 




11. Sakkasamyutta 329 



II. The Second Subchapter 
(The Seven Vows) 



11 (1) Vows 

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus, in the past, when Sakka, lord of the 
devas, was a human being, he adopted and undertook seven 
vows by the undertaking of which he achieved the status of 
Sakka. 634 What were the seven vows? 

(1) "'As long as I live may I support my parents.' 

(2) "'As long as Ilive may I respect the family elders.' 

(3) "'As long as I live may I speak gently.' 

(4) "'As long as I live may I not speak divisively.' 

(5) "'As long as I live may I dwell at home with a mind devoid 
of the stain of stinginess, freely generous, open-handed, delight- 
ing in relinquishment, devoted to charity, 635 delighting in giving 
and sharing.' 

(6) "'As long as I live may I speak the truth.' 

(7) "'As long as I live may I be free from anger, and if anger 
should arise in me may I dispel it quickly.' 

"In the past, bhikkhus, when Sakka, lord of the devas, was a 
human being, he adopted and undertook these seven vows by 
the undertaking of which he achieved the status of Sakka. <493> 

904 "When a person supports his parents. 

And respects the family elders; 

When his speech is gentle and courteous. 

And he refrains from divisive words; 

905 When he strives to remove meanness. 

Is truthful, and vanquishes anger. 

The Tavatimsa devas call him 

% 

Truly a superior person." [229] 



12(2) Sakka' s Names 

At Savatthi in Jeta's Grove. There the Blessed One said to the 
bhikkhus: 

"Bhikkhus, in the past, when Sakka, lord of the devas, was a 
human being, he was a brahmin youth named Magha; therefore 
he is called Maghava. 636 




330 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



"Bhikkhus, in the past, when Sakka, lord of the devas, was a 
human being, he gave gifts in city after city; therefore he is 
called Purindada, the Urban Giver. 637 

"Bhikkhus, in the past, when Sakka, lord of the devas, was a 
human being, he gave gifts considerately; therefore he is called 
Sakka. 638 

"Bhikkhus, in the past, when Sakka, lord of the devas, was a 
human being, <494> he gave a rest house; therefore he is called 
Vasava. 639 

"Bhikkhus, Sakka, lord of the devas, thinks of a thousand matters 
in a moment; therefore he is called Sahassakkha, Thousand-eyed 6 « 

"Bhikkhus, Sakka's wife is the asura maiden named Suja; 
therefore he is called Sujampati, Suja's husband. 641 

"Bhikkhus, Sakka, lord of the devas, exercises supreme sover- 
eignty and rulership over the Tavatimsa devas; therefore he is 
called lord of the devas. 

"Bhikkhus, in the past, when Sakka, lord of the devas, was a 
human being, he adopted and undertook seven vows by the 
undertaking of which he achieved the status of Sakka...." 

(The remainder of this sutta is identical ivith the preceding one. 
Verses 906-7 = 904-5.) [230] <495> 

13 (3) Mahali 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Vesali in the Great Wood in the Hall with the 
Peaked Roof. Then Mahali the Licchavi approached the Blessed 
One, paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him: 

"Venerable sir, has the Blessed One seen Sakka, lord of the 
devas?" 

"I have, Mahali." 

"Surely, venerable sir, that must have been one who looked 
like Sakka, lord of the devas; for Sakka, lord of the devas, is dif- 
ficult to see." 

"I know Sakka, Mahali, and I know the qualities that make for 
Sakka, by the undertaking of which Sakka achieved the status of 
Sakka. <496> 

"In the past, Mahali, when Sakka, lord of the devas, was a 
human being, he was a brahmin youth named Magha. Therefore 
he is called Magha va...." 




11. Sakkasamyutta 331 



(Here follows the names of Sakka as in 11:12 and the seven vows as 
in 11:11, followed by verses 908-9 = 904-5.) [231] <49 7> 



14 (4) Poor 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Rajagaha in 
the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrel Sanctuary. There the Blessed 
One addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus!" 

"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said 
this: 

"Bhikkhus, once in the past in this same Rajagaha there was a 
poor man, a pauper, an indigent. He undertook faith, virtue, 
learning, generosity, and wisdom in the Dhamma and 
Discipline proclaimed by the Tathagata. Having done so, with 
the breakup of the body, after death, [232] <498> he was reborn 
in a good destination, in a heavenly world, in the company of 
the Tavatimsa devas, where he outshone the other devas in 
regard to beauty and glory. 642 

"Thereupon the Tavatimsa devas found fault with this, grum- 
bled, and complained about it, saying: 'It is wonderful indeed, 
sir! It is amazing indeed, sir! For formerly, when this young 
deva was a human being, he was a poor man, a pauper, an indi- 
gent. Yet with the breakup of the body, after death, he has been 
reborn in a good destination, in a heavenly world, in the compa- 
ny of the Tavatimsa devas, where he outshines the other devas 
in regard to beauty and glory.' 

"Then, bhikkhus, Sakka, lord of the devas, addressed the 
Tavatimsa devas thus: 'Dear sirs, do not find fault with this 
young deva. Formerly, when this young deva was a human 
being, he undertook faith, virtue, learning, generosity, and wis- 
dom in the Dhamma and Discipline proclaimed by the 
Tathagata. Having done so, with the breakup of the body, after 
death, he has been reborn in a good destination, in a heavenly 
world, in the company of the Tavatimsa devas, where he out- 
shines the other devas in regard to beauty and glory.' 

"Then, bhikkhus, instructing the Tavatimsa devas, 643 Sakka, 
lord of the devas, on that occasion recited these verses: <499> 



910 "'When one has faith in the Tathagata, 
Unshakable and well established. 




332 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



And good conduct built on virtue. 

Dear to the noble ones and praised; 644 

911 "'When one has confidence in the Sangha 
And one's view is straightened out, 

They say that one isn't poor; 

One's life is not lived in vain. 

912 "'Therefore the person of intelligence, 
Remembering the Buddha's Teaching, 
Should be devoted to faith and virtue, 

To confidence and vision of the Dhamma.'" 



15 (5) A Delightful Place 

At Savatthi in Jeta's Grove. Then Sakka, lord of the devas, 
approached the Blessed One, paid homage to him, stood to one 
side, and said to him: "Venerable sir, what is a delightful 
place?" [233] 

[The Blessed One:] <500> 

913 "Shrines in parks and woodland shrines. 

Well-constructed lotus ponds: 

These are not worth a sixteenth part 
Of a delightful human being. 

914 "Whether in a village or forest. 

In a valley or on the plain — 

Wherever the arahants dwell 
Is truly a delightful place." 

16 (6) Bestowing Alms 

On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Rajagaha on 
Mount Vulture Peak. Then Sakka, lord of the devas, approached 
the Blessed One, paid homage to him, and stood to one side. 
Standing to one side, he addressed the Blessed One in verse: 645 

915 "For those people who bestow alms. 

For living beings in quest of merit. 




11. Sakkasamyutta 333 



Performing merit of the mundane type, 

Where does a gift bear great fruit?" 646 

[The Blessed One:] <501> 

916 "The four practising the way 

And the four established in the fruit: 

This is the Sangha of upright conduct 
Endowed with wisdom and virtue. 647 

917 "For those people who bestow alms. 

For living beings in quest of merit, 

Performing merit of the mundane type, 

A gift to the Saiigha bears great fruit." 

17 (7) Veneration of the Buddha 

At Savatthi in Jeta's Grove. Now on that occasion the Blessed 
One had gone for his day's abiding and was in seclusion. Then 
Sakka, lord of the devas, and Brahma Sahampati approached the 
Blessed One and stood one at each doorpost. Then Sakka, lord of 
the devas, recited this verse in the presence of the Blessed One: 

918 "Rise up, O hero, victor in battle! 

Your burden lowered, debt-free one, wander in the world. 

Your mind is fully liberated 

Like the moon on the fifteenth night." 648 [234] 

[Brahma Sahampati:] "It is not in such a way that the Tatha- 
gatas are to be venerated, lord of the devas. The Tathagatas are 
to be venerated thus: 

919 "Rise up, O hero, victor in battle! <502> 

O caravan leader, debt-free one, wander in the world. 
Teach the Dhamma, O Blessed One: 

There will be those who will understand." 649 

18 (8) The Worship of Householders (or Sakka' s Worship (1)) 

At Savatthi. There the Blessed One said this: "Bhikkhus, once in 
the past Sakka, lord of the devas, addressed his charioteer 




334 I. The Book with Verses {Sagathavagga) 



Matali thus: 'Harness the chariot with its team of a thousand 
thoroughbreds, friend Matali. Let us go to the park grounds to 
see the beautiful scenery.' - 'Yes, your lordship,' Matali the char- 
ioteer replied. Then he harnessed the chariot with its team of a 
thousand thoroughbreds and announced to Sakka, lord of the 
devas: 'The chariot has been harnessed, dear sir. You may come 
at your own convenience.' 650 

"Then, bhikkhus, Sakka, lord of the devas, descending from 
the Vejayanta Palace, raised his joined hands in reverential salu- 
tation, and worshipped the different quarters. Then Matali the 
charioteer addressed Sakka in verse: 

920 "'These all humbly worship you — 

Those versed in the Triple Veda, 

All the khattiyas reigning on earth. 

The Four Great Kings and the glorious Thirty — <503> 

So who, O Sakka, is that spirit 
To whom you bow in worship?' 651 

[Sakka:] 

921 "'These all humbly worship me — 

Those versed in the Triple Veda, 

All the khattiyas reigning on earth. 

The Four Great Kings and the glorious Thirty — 

922 But I worship those endowed with virtue. 

Those long trained in concentration, 

Those who have properly gone forth 
With the holy life their destination. 652 

923 '"I worship as well, O Matali, 

Those householders making merit. 

The lay followers possessed of virtue 
Who righteously maintain a wife.' 

[Matali:] 

924 "'Those whom you worship, my lord Sakka, 

Are indeed the best in the world. 

I too will worship them — 

Those whom you worship, Vasava.' <504> 




11. Sakkasamyutta 335 



[The Blessed One:] 

925 "Having given this explanation. 

Having worshipped the different quarters, 

The deva-king Maghava, Suja's husband. 

The chief, climbed into his chariot." [235] 

19 (9) The Worship of the Teacher (or Sakka's Worship (2)) 

(As above down to:) 

"Then, bhikkhus, Sakka, lord of the devas, descending from the 
Vejayanta Palace, raised his joined hands in reverential saluta- 
tion and worshipped the Blessed One. Then Matali the chario- 
teer addressed Sakka, lord of the devas, in verse: 

926 "'Both devas and human beings 
Humbly worship you, Vasava. 

So who, O Sakka, is that spirit 
To whom you bow in worship?' 

[Sakka:] <505> 

92 7 "'The Perfectly Enlightened One here 
In this world with its devas. 

The Teacher of perfect name: 

He is the one whom I worship, Matali. 653 

* 

928 "'Those for whom lust and hatred 
And ignorance have been expunged. 

The arahants with taints destroyed: 

These are the ones whom I worship, Matali. 

929 "'The trainees who delight in dismantling, 

Who cliligently pursue the training 

For the removal of lust and hatred, 

For transcending ignorance: 

These are the ones whom I worship, Matali.' 654 

[Matali:] 

930 "'Those whom you worship, my lord Sakka, 

Are indeed the best in the world. 




336 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



I too will worship them — 

Those whom you worship, Vasava.' 

[The Blessed One:] 

931 "Having given this explanation. 

Having worshipped the Blessed One, 

The deva-king Maghava, Suja's husband, 

The chief, climbed into his chariot." <506> 

20 (10) The Worship of the Sahgha (or Sakka's Worship (3)) 

(As above down to:) [236] 

"Then, bhikkhus, Sakka, lord of the devas, descending from the 
Vejayanta Palace, raised his joined hands in reverential saluta- 
tion and worshipped the Sahgha of bhikkhus. Then Matali the 
charioteer addressed Sakka, lord of the devas, in verse: 

932 "'It is these that should worship you — 

The humans stuck in a putrid body. 

Those submerged inside a corpse. 

Afflicted with hunger and thirst. 655 

933 Why then do you envy them. 

These who dwell homeless, Vasava? 

Tell us about the seers' conduct; 

Let us hear what you have to say.' 

[Sakka:] <507> 

934 "'This is why I envy them, 656 
Those who dwell homeless, Matali: 

Whatever village they depart from. 

They leave it without concern. 

935 "'They do not keep their goods in storage. 

Neither in a pot nor in a box. 

Seeking what has been prepared by others, 

By this they live, firm in vows: 

Those wise ones who give good counsel. 

Maintaining silence, of even faring. 657 

936 "'While devas fight with asuras 




11. Sakkasamyutta 337 



And people fight with one another. 

Among those who fight, they do not fight; 
Among the violent, they are quenched; 
Among those who grasp, they do not grasp: 
These are the ones whom I worship, Matali.' 

[Matali:] 

937 "Those whom you worship, my lord Sakka, 
Are indeed the best in the world. 

I too will worship them — 

Those whom you worship, Vasava.' <508> 

[The Blessed One:] 

938 "Having given this explanation. 

Having worshipped the Bhikkhu Sangha, 
The deva-king Maghava, Suja's husband. 
The chief, climbed int» his chariot." 

[237] III. The Third Subchapter 

(Sakka Pentad) 



21 (1) Having Slain 

At Savatthi in Jeta's Grove. Then Sakka, lord of the devas, 
approached the Blessed One, paid homage to him, and stood to 
one side. Standing to one side, Sakka, lord of the devas, 
addressed the Blessed One in verse: 

939 "Having slain what does one sleep soundly? 

Having slain what does one not sorrow? <509> 

What is the one thing, O Gotama, 

Whose killing you approve?" 

[The Blessed One:] 

940 "Having slain anger, one sleeps soundly; 

Having slain anger, one does not sorrow; 

The killing of anger, O Vasava, 

With its poisoned root and honeyed tip: 

This is the killing the noble ones praise. 

For having slain that, one does not sorrow." 




338 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



22 (2) Ugly 

At Savatthi in Jeta's Grove. There the Blessed One said this: 
"Bhikkhus, once in the past a certain ugly deformed yakkha sat 
down on the seat of Sakka, lord of the devas. 658 Thereupon the 
Tavatimsa devas found fault with this, grumbled, and com- 
plained about it, saying: 'It is wonderful indeed, sir! It is amaz- 
ing indeed, sir! This ugly deformed yakkha has sat down on the 
seat of Sakka, lord of the devas!' <510> But to whatever extent 
the Tavatimsa devas found fault with this, grumbled, and com- 
plained about it, to the same extent that yakkha became more 
and more handsome, more and more comely, more and more 
graceful. 

“Then, bhikkhus, the Tavatimsa devas approached Sakka and 
said to him: 'Here, dear sir, an ugly deformed yakkha has sat 
down on your seat. ... But to whatever extent the devas found 
fault with this ... [238] that yakkha became more and more 
handsome, more and more comely, more and more graceful.' - 
'That must be the anger-eating yakkha.' 

"Then, bhikkhus, Sakka, lord of the devas, approached that 
anger-eating yakkha. 659 Having approached, he arranged his 
upper robe over one shoulder, knelt down with his right knee 
on the ground, and, raising his joined hands in reverential salu- 
tation towards that yakkha, <511> he announced his name three 
times: 'I, dear sir, am Sakka, lord of the devas! I, dear sir, am 
Sakka, lord of the devas!' To whatever extent Sakka announced 
his name, to the same extent that yakkha became uglier and 
uglier and more and more deformed until he disappeared right 
there. 

"Then, bhikkhus, having sat down on his own seat, instruct- 
ing the Tavatimsa devas, Sakka, lord of the devas, on that occa- 
sion recited these verses: 

941 '"I am not one afflicted in mind, 

Nor easily drawn by anger's whirl. 

I never become angry for long. 

Nor does anger persist in me. 660 

942 "'When I'm angry I don't speak harshly 
And I don't praise my virtues. 




11. Sakkasamyutta 339 



I keep myself well restrained <512> 

Out of regard for my own good.'" 661 

23 (3) Magic 

At Savatthi. The Blessed One said this: "Bhikkhus, once in the 
past Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, was sick, afflicted, gravely 
ill. 662 Then Sakka, lord of the devas, approached Vepacitti to 
inquire about his illness. Vepacitti saw Sakka coming in the dis- 
tance and said to him: 'Cure me, lord of the devas.' - [239] 
'Teach me, Vepacitti, the Sambari magic.' 663 - 'I won't teach it, 
dear sir, until I have asked the asuras for permission.' 

"Then, bhikkhus, Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, asked the asuras: 
'May I teach the Sambari magic to Sakka, lord of the devas?' - 
'Do not teach him the Sambari magic, dear sir.' 664 

"Then, bhikkhus, Vepacitti, lord of the asuras, addressed 
Sakka, lord of the devas, in verse: <513> 

943 '"A magician — O Maghava, Sakka, 

King of devas, Suja's husband — 

Goes to the terrible hell. 

Like Sambara, for a hundred years.'" 665 

24 (4) Transgression 

At Savatthi. Now on that occasion two bhikkhus had a quarrel 
and one bhikkhu had transgressed against the other. Then the 
former bhikkhu confessed his transgression to the other 
bhikkhu, but the latter would not pardon him. 666 

Then a number of bhikkhus approached the Blessed One, paid 
homage to him, sat down to one side, and reported to him what 
had happened. <514> [The Blessed One said:] 

"Bhikkhus, there are two kinds of fools: one who does not see 
a transgression as a transgression; and one who, when another 
is confessing a transgression, does not pardon him in accor- 
dance with the Dhamma. These are the two kinds of fools. 

"There are, bhikkhus, two kinds of wise people: one who sees 
a transgression as a transgression; and one who, when another 
is confessing a transgression, pardons him in accordance with 
the Dhamma. These are the two kinds of wise people. 




340 I. The Book with Verses (SagatMvagga) 



"Once in the past, bhikkhus, Sakka, lord of the devas, instruct- 
ing the Tavatimsa devas in the Sudhamma assembly hall, on 
that occasion recited this verse: [240] 

944 '"Bring anger under your control; 

Do not let your friendships decay. 

Do not blame one who is blameless; 

Do not utter divisive speech. 

Like a mountain avalanche 
Anger crushes evil people.'" 667 

25 (5) Nonanger 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. 
There the Blessed One said this: 

"Bhikkhus, once in the past Sakka, lord of the devas, instruct- 
ing the Tavatimsa devas in the Sudhamma assembly hall, on 
that occasion recited this verse: <515> 

945 "'Do not let anger overpower you; 

Do not become angry at those who are angry. 

Nonanger and harmlessness always dwell 
Within [the hearts of] the noble ones. 

Like a mountain avalanche 
Anger crushes evil people.'" 668 



< 516 > 



The Book with Verses is finished. 




Notes 



2. Devatasamyutta 

1 Marisa, "dear sir," is the term which the devas generally 
use to address the Buddha, eminent bhikkhus (see, e.g., 
40:10; IV 270,16), and members of their own community 
(11:3; I 218,34); kings also use it to address one another 
(3:12; 1 80,4). Spk explains it as a term of affection meaning 
"one without suffering" (niddukkha), but it is probably a 
Middle Indie form of Skt madrsa. 

The word "flood" ( ogha ) is used metaphorically, but 
here with technical overtones, to designate a doctrinal set 
of four floods (see 45:171), so called, according to Spk, 
"because they keep beings submerged within the round of 
existence and do notallow them to rise up to higher states 
and to Nibbana." The four (with definitions from Spk) are: 
(i) the flood of sensuality ( kdmogha ) = desire and lust for 
the five cords of sensual pleasure (agreeable forms, 
sounds, etc. — see 45:176); (ii) the flood of existence 
(i bhavogha ) = desire and lust for form-sphere existence and 
formless-sphere existence and attachment to jhana; (iii) 
the flood of views ( ditthogha ) = the sixty-two views 
(DN 1 12-38); and (iv) the flood of ignorance (avijjogha) = 
lack of knowledge regarding the Four Noble Truths. Flood 
imagery is also used at w. 298-300, 511-13, and 848-49. 

2 Appatittham khvaham avuso anayuham ogham ataritn. Spk: 
The Buddha's reply is intended to be paradoxical, for one 
normally crosses a flood by halting in places that offer a 
foothold and by straining in places that must be crossed. 



341 




342 L The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



Spk glosses appatittham only with appatitthahanto (an alter- 
native form of the present participle), but Spk-pt elaborates: 
"Not halting: not coming to a standstill on account of the 
defilements and so forth; the meaning is 'not sinking' 
(appatitthahanto ti kilesadinatn vasena asantitthanto , asam- 
sidanto ti attho)." The verb patititthati usually means "to 
become established," i.e., attached, principally on account 
of craving and other defilements: see below v. 46 and n. 35. 
Consciousness driven by craving is "established" (see 
12:38-40, 12:64, 22:53-54), and when craving is removed it 
becomes "unestablished, unsupported." The arahant 
expires "with consciousness unestablished" ( appatitthitena 
vihhdnena ... parinibbuto; see 4:23 (I 122,12-13)). All these 
nuances resonate in the Buddha's reply. 

The verb ayuhati is rare in the Nikayas, but see below 
v. 263df, v. 264d, and Sn 210d. It is an intensification of 
uhati (augmented by a- with -y- as liaison); the simple verb 
occurs at MN I 116,13-14, where it might be rendered "to 
be strained." Its occurrence there ties up with the present 
context: a strained mind is far from concentration. In the 
later literature the noun form dyuhana acquires the techni- 
cal sense of "accumulation," with specific reference to 
kamma; in the formula of dependent origination ( paticca - 
samuppdda), volitional formations (sahkhdra) are said to 
have the function of dyuhana; see Patis I 52,14, 26; 
Vism 528,12 (Ppn 17:51), 579,31-580,4 (Ppn 17:292-93). 

Spk: The Blessed One deliberately gave an obscure reply 
to the deva in order to humble him, for he was stiff with 
conceit yet imagined himself wise. Realizing that the deva 
would not be able to penetrate the teaching unless he first 
changed his attitude, the Buddha intended to perplex him 
and thereby curb his pride. At that point, humbled, the 
deva would ask for clarification and the Buddha would 
explain in such a way that he could understand. 

3 The Buddha's brief reply points to the middle way 
(majjhimd patipada) in its most comprehensive range, both 
practical and philosophical. To make this implication clear 
Spk enumerates seven dyads: (i) "halting" by way of 
defilements, one sinks; "straining" by way of volitional 
formations, one gets swept away; (ii) by way of craving 




1. Devatdsamyutta: Notes 343 



and views, one sinks; by way of the other defilements, one 
gets swept away; (iii) by way of craving, one sinks; by 
way of views, one gets swept away; (iv) by way of the 
eternalist view, one sinks; by way of the annihilationist 
view, one gets swept away (see It 43,12-44,4); (v) by way of 
slackness one sinks, by way of restlessness one gets swept 
away; (vi) by way of devotion to sensual pleasures one 
sinks, by way of devotion to self-mortification one gets 
swept away; (vii) by way of all unwholesome volitional 
formations one sinks, by way of all mundane wholesome 
volitional formations one gets swept away. Nanananda 
suggests connecting the principle of "not halting, not 
straining" with each of the four floods: see SN-Anth 
2:56-58. 

4 Spk: The Buddha is called a brahmin in the sense of ara- 
hant (see Dhp 388, 396-423). He is fully quenched ( pari - 
nibbuto) in that he is quenched through the quenching of 
defilements (kilesanibbdnena nibbutam). Craving is desig- 
nated attachment ( visattika ) because it clings and adheres to 
a variety of sense objects. 

5 Spk: When the deva heard the Buddha's reply he was 
established in the fruit of stream-entry. 

6 Sattanam nimokkham pamokkham vivekam. Spk: "Emanci- 
pation ( nimokkha ) is the path, for beings are emancipated 
from the bondage of defilements by the path; release 
(pamokkha) is the fruit, for at the moment of the fruit 
beings have been released from the bondage of defile- 
ments; seclusion ( viveka ) is Nibbana, for when they attain 
Nibbana beings are separated from all suffering. Or, alter- 
natively, all three are designations for Nibbana: for having 
attained Nibbana, beings are emancipated, released, sepa- 
rated from all suffering." The actual wording of the verse 
seems to confirm the second alternative. 

7 Spk glosses: Nandibhavaparikkhaya ti nandimiilakassa 
kammabhavassa parikkhayena; nandiya ca bhavassa cd ti pi 
vattati; "By delight-existence-destruction: by the utter 
destruction of kamma-process existence rooted in delight; 
it is also proper to understand it as meaning '(the destruc- 
tion) of delight and of existence.'" It would be more plau- 
sible, however, to construe this three-term tappurisa as an 




344 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



inverted compound placed in irregular order probably 
owing to the exigencies of verse. This interpretation is 
confirmed by Pj II 469,14 and Dhp-a IV 192,7-8 in their 
gloss on the related bahubbihi compound nandlbhava- 
parikkhinam as tisu bhavesu parikkhinatanham ; "one who has 
destroyed craving for the three realms of existence." See 
too below v. 300c and n. 165. 

8 In this verse only the first two padas conform to a recog- 
nizable metre (Vatta), which indicates that the verse is cor- 
rupt. Ee2 amends the third pada and adds a line found 
only in a Lanna ms to arrive at a novel reading: vedananam 
nirodha ca/ upasanto carissati ti. It then treats the last three 
padas of the other editions as prose. This, however, alters 
the meaning of the verse in such a way that it no longer 
directly answers the question. 

Spk: By the first method of explanation, delight in exis- 
tence ( nandibhava , or, following the gloss: "existence rooted 
in delight"), being the threefold activity of kammic forma- 
tion (tividhakammabhisahkhara — see 12:51), implies the 
aggregate of volitional formations ( sahkharakkhandha ); per- 
ception and consciousness implies the two aggregates associ- 
ated therewith; and by mentioning this, the feeling associ- 
ated with those three aggregates is included. Thus, by 
way of the nonoccurrence of the four kammically active 
mental aggregates ( anupadinnaka-arupakkhandha ), "Nibbana 
with residue" ( sa-upadisesa-nibbana ) is indicated. By the 
phrase by the cessation and appeasement of feelings ( vedananam 
nirodha upasama), the kammically acquired ( upadinnaka ) 
feeling is referred to, and by mentioning this the other 
three associated aggregates are implied; the aggregate of 
form is included as their physical basis and object. Thus, 
by way of the nonoccurrence of the five kammically 
acquired aggregates, "Nibbana without residue" ( anupadi - 
sesa-nibbdna ) is indicated. By the second method (taking 
"delight" and "existence" as parallel terms), delight implies 
the aggregate of volitional formations; existence, the aggre- 
gate of form; and the other three aggregates are shown 
under their own names. Nibbana is indicated as the 
nonoccurrence of these five aggregates. Thus the Blessed 
One concludes the teaching with Nibbana itself. 




1. Devatasamyutta: Notes 345 



On the two elements of Nibbana, see the General 
Introduction, p. 50. 

9 Spk: "Life is swept along" ( upaniyati jivitam) means: 
"(Life) is destroyed, it ceases; or it moves towards, i.e., 
gradually approaches, death" ( upaniyati ti parikkhiyati niruj- 
jhati; upagacchati vd; anupubbena maranam upeti ti attho). 
"Short is the life span" ( appam ayu): "The life span is limit- 
ed in two ways: first, because it is said, 'One who lives 
long lives for a hundred years or a little longer' (see 4:9); 
and second, because in the ultimate sense the life-moment 
of beings is extremely limited, enduring for a mere act of 
consciousness." Spk continues as at Vism 238 (Ppn 8:39). 

10 Spk: This deva had been reborn into one of the brahma 
worlds with a long life span. When he saw beings passing 
away and taking rebirth in realms with a short life span, 
he was moved to pity and urged them to do "deeds of 
merit" ( punnani ) — to develop the form-sphere and form- 
less-sphere jhanas — so that they would be reborn into the 
form and formless realms with a long life span. The 
Buddha's verse is a rejoinder intended to show that the 
deva's advice is still tied to the round of existence and 
does not lead to emancipation. The peace ( santi ) which the 
Buddha commends is Nibbana. 

Spk explains two denotations of lokamisa, literally "car- 
nal things": (i) figuratively ( pariydyena ), it denotes the 
entire round of existence with its three planes, the objec- 
tive sphere of attachment, "the bait of the world"; (ii) liter- 
ally ( nippariyayena ), it signifies the four requisites (cloth- 
ing, food, dwelling, and medicines), the material basis for 
survival. For the figurative use of dmisa, see v. 371d, 
v. 480, and 35:230; in the last text, however, the six sense 
objects are compared to baited hooks rather than to the 
bait itself. 

11 Vayoguna anupubbam jahanti. Spk: Youth deserts one who 
reaches middle age; both youth and middle age desert one 
who reaches old age; and at the time of death, all three 
stages desert us. 

12 Spk: One must cut off ( chinde ) the five lower fetters (identity 
view, doubt, the distorted grasp of rules and vows, sensual 
desire, ill will). One must abandon (jahe ) the five higher 




346 I- The Book wi th Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



fetters (lust for form, lust for the formless, conceit, rest- 
lessness, ignorance). In order to cut off and abandon these 
fetters one must develop a further five (pahca cuttari bhdvaye), 
namely, the five spiritual faculties (faith, energy, mindful- 
ness, concentration, wisdom). The five ties (pahcasahga) are: 
lust, hatred, delusion, conceit, and views. A bhikkhu who 
has surmounted these five ties is called a crosser of the flood 
(oghatinno), that is, a crosser of the fourfold flood (see n. 1). 

Strangely, although the verses refer to the five ties as if 
they are a standard doctrinal set, no pentad of sahgas can 
be found as such in the Nikayas; the five sahgas are men- 
tioned at Vibh 377,16-18. 

13 Spk says, "When the five faculties are awake the five hin- 
drances are asleep, and when the five hindrances are 
asleep the five faculties are awake," but this seems redun- 
dant; the explanation would be more satisfactory if we 
take the first phrase to be stating that when the five facul- 
ties are asleep the five hindrances are awake, thus making 
more explicit the relationship of diametric opposition and 
mutual exclusion between the two pentads. Spk contin- 
ues: "It is by the same five hindrances that one gathers dust, 
i.e., the dust of the defilements; and it is by the five facul- 
ties that one is purified." 

14 Spk identifies the dhammd of pada a as the catusacca- 
dhamma, "the things (or teachings) of the four (noble) 
truths." Who may be led into others' doctrines: Spk: The doc- 
trines of the other spiritual sects apart from the Buddha's 
Teaching are called "others' doctrines" ( paravada ); specifi- 
cally, the doctrines of the sixty-two views (DN I 12-38). 
Some tend to these doctrines of their own accord, some 
are led into them and adopt them through the influence of 
others. 

15 Those awakened ones ( sambuddha ). Spk: There are four kinds 
of awakened ones: omniscient Buddhas, paccekabuddhas, 
"four-truth awakened ones" (i.e., arahant disciples), and 
those awakened through learning. The first three types are 
indicated in the present context. They fare evenly amidst the 
uneven: they fare evenly amidst the uneven common domain 
of the world, or amidst the uneven community of sentient 
beings, or amidst the uneven multitude of defilements. 




1. Devatasarnyutta: Notes 347 



16 Spk: Here taming ( dama ) signifies the qualities pertaining 
to concentration. Sagehood ( mona ) is the knowledge of the 
four supramundane paths, so called because it experi- 
ences ( munati ti monam); that is, it knows the four truths. 
The realm of Death (maccudheyya) is the round with its three 
planes, so called because it is the domain of Death; its 
beyond or far shore (para) is Nibbana. 

17 Spk sees this couplet as an implicit formulation of the 
threefold training: by the abandoning of conceit the higher 
virtue ( adhisila ) is implied; by well concentrated (susamd- 
hitatto ), the training in concentration or the higher mind 
(adhicitta); and by lofty mind ( sucetaso ), denoting a mind 
endowed with wisdom, the training in the higher wisdom 
(adhipahha). To this we might add that the last phrase, 
everywhere released ( sabbadhi vippamutto), points to the cul- 
mination of the threefold training in liberation ( vimutti ). 
See DN II 122,15-123,12. 

18 Spk: This verse was spoken by an earth-bound deva who 
dwelt in that forest. Each day he would see the bhikkhus 
who inhabited the forest sitting in meditation after their 
meal. As they sat, their minds would become unified and 
serene, and the serenity of their minds would become 
manifest in their complexion ( vanna ). Puzzled that they 
could have such serene faces while living under these aus- 
tere conditions, the deva came to the Buddha to inquire 
into the cause. The facial complexion ( mukhavanna ) or 
complexion of the skin ( chavivanna ) is understood to indi- 
cate success in meditation; see 21:3 (II 275,20-21), 28:1 
(III 235,22); and Vin I 40,14, and 41,2. 

19 Tavatimsa, "the realm of the thirty-three," is the third 
sense-sphere heaven. It is so named because thirty-three 
youths, headed by the youth Magha, had been reborn 
here as a result of their meritorious deeds. Magha himself 
became Sakka, ruler of the devas. Nandana is the Garden 
of Delight in Tavatimsa, so called because it gives delight 
and joy to anyone who enters it. According to Spk, this 
deva had just taken rebirth into this heaven and, while 
wandering through the Nandana Grove, he spoke the 
verse as a spontaneous paean of joy over his celestial 
glory. Spk glosses naradevanam with devapurisanam, "deva- 




348 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



males"; it is clearly not a dvanda compound. Tidasa, "the 
Thirty" (lit. "triple ten"), is a poetic epithet for Tavatimsa. 

20 Spk ascribes this rejoinder to a female deva who was a 
noble disciple (ariyasdvika). Thinking, "This foolish deva 
imagines his glory to be permanent and unchanging, 
unaware that it is subject to cutting off, perishing, and dis- 
solution," she spoke her stanza in order to dispel his delu- 
sion. The "maxim of the arahants" is pronounced by the 
Buddha at 15:20 (II 193, also at DN II 199,6-7); the deva- 
king Sakka repeats it on the occasion of the Buddha's 
parinibbana (see v. 609). The first line usually reads aniccd 
vat a sahkhard rather than, as here, aniccd sabbasahkhdra. An 
identical exchange of verses occurs below at 9:6, with the 
goddess Jalini and the Venerable Anuruddha as speakers. 
The feminine vocative bale in pada b implies that the latter 
dialogue was the original provenance of the verse, or in 
any case that the first devata is female. 

Spk: Formations here are all formations of the three 
planes of existence ( sabbe tebhumakasahkhard), which are 
impermanent in the sense that they become nonexistent 
after having come to be (hutvd abhdvatthena aniccd). Their 
appeasement is blissful ( tesam vupasamo sukho ): Nibbana 
itself, called the appeasement of those formations, is 
blissful. 

21 Upadhi, "acquisitions" (from upa + dha, "to rest upon") 
means literally "that upon which something rests," i.e., 
the "foundations" or "paraphernalia" of existence. The 
word has both objective and subjective extensions. 
Objectively, it refers to the things acquired, i.e., one's 
assets and possessions; subjectively, to the act of appropri- 
ation rooted in craving. In many instances the two senses 
merge, and often both are intended. The word functions 
as a close counterpart of updddna, "clinging," to which, 
however, it is not etymologically related. See in this con- 
nection 12:66 and II, n. 187, and Sn p. 141. 

Spk (along with other commentaries) offers a fourfold 
classification of upadhi: (i) kdmupadhi, acquisitions as sen- 
sual pleasures and material possessions; (ii) khandhupadhi, 
the five aggregates; (iii) kilesupadhi, defilements, which are 
the foundation for suffering in the realm of misery; and 




1. Devatasamyutta: Notes 34 9 



(iv) abhisahkharupadhi, volitional formations, accumula- 
tions of kamma, which are the foundation for all suffering 
in samsara. In the deva's verse upadhi is used in the first 
sense. 

In his reply the Buddha turns the devata's expression 
"one without acquisitions" ( nirupadhi ) on its head by 
using the term as a designation for the arahant, who is 
free from all four kinds of upadhi and thus completely free 
from suffering. The pair of verses recurs below at 4:8, with 
Mara as the interlocutor. 

22 Spk: There is no affectbn like that for oneself because people, 
even if they discard their parents and neglect to care for 
their children, still care for themselves (see v. 392). There 
is no wealth equal to grain because people, when famished, 
will give away gold and silver and other assets in order to 
obtain grain. There is no light like wisdom because wisdom 
can illumine the ten-thousandfold world system and dis- 
pel the darkness concealing the three periods of time, 
which even the sun cannot do (see AN II 139—40). Among 
the waters the rain is supreme because if the rainfall were to 
be cut off even the great ocean would dry up, but when 
the rain continues to pour down the world becomes one 
mass of water even up to the Abhassara deva world. 

23 From this point on, wherever the text does not specify the 
identity of the speakers, it is implied that the first verse is 
spoken by a devata and the reply by the Buddha. 

24 In pada b. Be and Se read sannisivesu, a word not encoun- 
tered elsewhere, while Eel & 2, following SS, read san- 
nisinnesu, which may be a "correction" of the original 
reading; the text available to the subcommentator evident- 
ly read sannisivesu. Spk glosses: yathd phasukatthanam upa- 
gantva sannisinnesu vissamanesu. [Spk-pt: parissamavi- 
nodanattham sabbaso sannisidantesu ; d-karassa hi v-karam 
katva niddeso.] The gist of this explanation is that at noon 
all the birds (and other animals), exhausted by the heat, 
are quietly resting in order to dispel their fatigue. 

In pada c the resolution of sanateva is problematic. Spk 
glosses: sanati viya mahaviravam viya muccati, "it seems to 
make a sound, it seems as if it releases a great roar." This 
implies that Spk divides the sandhi into sanate iva. Ee2 




350 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathdvagga) 



apparently accepts this with its reading sanate va. 
Following a suggestion of VAT, I resolve it sanati eva, tak- 
ing the sense to be that the forest itself is emitting the 
sound. The verb sanati means merely to make a sound, 
and is elsewhere used to describe a noisy creek 
(Sn 720-21), so here the sound might be more appropriate- 
ly described as a murmur than as a roar. In pada d the 
verb is patibhdti, glossed by Spk as upatthati. 

Spk: In the dry season, at high noon, when the animals 
and birds are all sitting quietly, a great sound arises from 
the depths of the forest as the wind blows through the 
trees, bamboo clusters, and hollows. At that moment an 
obtuse deva, unable to find a companion with whom to sit 
and converse amiably, uttered the first stanza. But when a 
bhikkhu has returned from his alms round and is sitting 
alone in a secluded forest abode attending to his medita- 
tion subject, abundant happiness arises (as is expressed in 
the rejoinder). 

25 Arati, tandi, vijambhikd, and bhattasammada recur at 46:2 
(V 64,31-32) and 46:51 (V 103,13-14). Formal definitions are 
at Vibh 352. Spk: The noble path ( ariyamagga ) is both the 
mundane and supramundane path. The clearing of the 
path comes about when one expels the mental corruptions 
by means of the path itself, with the energy (viriya) 
conascent with the path. 

On the distinction between the mundane and supra- 
mundane paths, see the Introduction to Part V, pp.1490-92. 

26 Spk explains pade pade, in pada c, thus: "In each object 
(drammane drammane); for whenever a defilement arises in 
relation to any object, it is just there that one founders 
(visidati). But the phrase can also be interpreted by way of 
the modes of deportment ( iriydpatha ); if a defilement arises 
while one is walking, (standing, sitting, or lying down), it 
is just there that one founders. Intentions ( sahkappa ) should 
be understood here by way of the three wrong intentions, 
i.e., of sensuality, ill will, and harming." 

27 The simile of the tortoise is elaborated at 35:240, followed 
by the same verse. Spk: One is independent ( anissito ) of the 
dependencies of craving and views, and fully quenched by 




1. Devatasamyutta: Notes 351 



the quenching of defilements (kilesaparinibbana). He would 
not reprove another person for defects in conduct, etc., 
from a desire to humiliate him, but he would speak out of 
compassion, with the idea of rehabilitating him, having 
set up in himself the five qualities (speaking at the right 
time, about a true matter, gently, in a beneficial way, with 
a mind of lovingkindness; see AN III 244,1-3). 

28 Be and Se read the verb in pada c as apabodhati, Eel as 
appabodhati, Ee2 as appabodheti. Apparently the latter read- 
ings arose on the supposition that the word is formed 
from a + pabodh. Spk's gloss — apaharanto bujjhati, "who, 
pulling back, knows" — supports apabodhati (apa + bodh). 
The Skt parallel at Uv 19:5 has a different pada altogether, 
sarvapapam jahaty esa. Though the verse includes no osten- 
sible interrogative, Spk interprets it as posing a question. 1 
take koci to be equivalent to kvaci, though Spk glosses it as 
a personal pronoun. 

Spk: As a good thoroughbred who knows to pull back 
from the whip does not let it strike him, so a bhikkhu who 
is keen to avoid blame — who knows to pull back from it — 
does not let any genuine ground for abuse strike him. The 
deva asks: "Is there any such arahant?" But no one is 
wholly free from abuse on false grounds. The Buddha 
answers that such arahants, who avoid unwholesome 
states from a sense of shame, are few. , 

29 Spk: The deva refers to one's mother as a "little hut" 
because one dwells in her womb for ten months; to a wife 
as a "little nest" because, after a hard day's work, men 
resort to the company of women in the way that birds, 
after searching for food during the day, resort to their 
nests at night; to sons as "lines extended" ( santanaka ) 
because they extend the family lineage; and to craving as 
bondage. The Buddha replies as he does because he will 
never again dwell within a mother's womb, or support a 
wife, or beget sons. 

30 Spk: The deva asked these additional questions because 
he was astonished by the Buddha's quick replies and 
wanted to find out if he had really grasped the meaning. 

Although three eds. employ the singular santanakam in 




352 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 

pada c of this verse, SS and Ee2 have the plural santanake, 
which seems preferable for maintaining consistency with 
the other verses. Kintdham should be resolved kin te aham. 

31 The opening portion of this sutta appears, with elabora- 
tion, in the prologue to the Samiddhi Jataka (]a No. 167), 
which includes the first pair of verses as well. MN No. 133 
opens in a similar way, with Samiddhi as the protagonist. 
The bhikkhu Samiddhi was so named because his body 
was splendid ( samiddha ), handsome and lovely. Spk 
makes it clear that this is a female devata (called a deva- 
dhita in the Jataka), an earth-deity ( bhummadevatd ) who 
resided in the grove. When she saw Samiddhi in the light 
of the early dawn, she fell in love with him and planned to 
seduce him. Samiddhi appears below at 4:22 and 35:65-68. 

32 The verses revolve around a pun on the double meaning 
of bhunjati, to eat food and to enjoy sense pleasures. The 
devata is ostensibly telling Samiddhi to eat before going 
on alms round (i.e., to get his fill of sensual pleasures 
before taking to the monk's life), but Samiddhi insists he 
will not abandon the monk's life for the sake of sensual 
enjoyment. 

Spk: The devata had spoken of time with reference to the 
time of youth, when one is able to enjoy sensual pleasures. 
In padas ab of his reply Samiddhi speaks with reference to 
the time of death ( maranakdla ), which is hidden ( channa ) in 
that one never knows when it will arrive. In pada d he 
refers to the time for practising the duty of an ascetic 
(samanadhammakaranakala), as it is difficult for an old per- 
son to learn the Dhamma, practise austerities, dwell in the 
forest, and develop the meditative attainments. The vo in 
pada a is a mere indeclinable ( nipatamatta ). 

33 At 4:21 Mara offers the same advice to a group of young 
bhikkhus, who reply in words identical with those of 
Samiddhi. The Buddha's exposition of the dangers in sen- 
sual pleasures may be found at MN I 85-87, 364-67, 506-8, 
and elsewhere. Samiddhi's answer reiterates the standard 
verse of homage to the Dhamma, omitting only the first 
term ("well expounded"), which is not relevant here. Spk 
interprets the "immediate" or "timeless" ( akdlika ) charac- 
ter of the Dhamma by way of the Abhidhamma doctrine 




1. Devatdsamyutta: Notes 353 



that the fruit ( phala ) arises in immediate succession to its 
respective path (magga), but this idea certainly seems too 
narrow for the present context, where the contrast is sim- 
ply between the immediately beneficial Dhamma and 
"time-consuming" sensual pleasures. For more on akdlika, 
see II, n. 103. 

A few words are called for in explanation of my transla- 
tion of opanayika as "applicable," which departs from the 
prevalent practice of rendering it "leading onward." CPD 
points out that "the context in which [the word] occurs 
shows clearly that it cannot have the active sense of 'lead- 
ing to' ... but must rather be interpreted in a passive sense 
(gerundive) in accordance with the commentaries." To be 
sure, Vism 217,10-12 (Ppn 7:84) does allow for an active 
sense with its alternative derivation: nibbdnam upaneti ti 
ariyamaggo upaneyyo ... opanayiko, "it leads on to Nibbana, 
thus the noble oath is onward-leading ... so it is leading 
onwards"; this derivation, however, is almost surely pro- 
posed with "edifying" intent. Earlier in the same passage 
the word is glossed by the gerundive upanetabba, "to be 
brought near, to be applied," so I follow the derivation at 
Vism 217,3-9 (Ppn 7:83), which is probably correct etymo- 
logically: bhavanavasena attano citte upanayanam arahati ti 
opanayiko ... asahkhato pana attano cittena upanayanam ara- 
hati ti opanayiko; sacchikiriyavasena alliyanam arahati ti attho; 
"The Dhamma (as noble path) is applicable because it 
deserves application within one's own mind by way of 
meditative development.... But the unconditioned 
Dhamma (i.e., Nibbana) is applicable because it deserves 
application with one's own mind; that is, it deserves being 
resorted to by way of realization." While the word 
opanayika does not occur in any other context that allows 
us to draw inferences about its meaning, the cognate 
expression att' iipandyiko (at 55:7 (V 353,21, 26 ) and 
Vin III 91,33-34) clearly means "applicable to oneself." On 
the other hand, to indicate that the Dhamma conduces to 
Nibbana the texts use another expression, niyydnika 
upasamasamvattanika (see, e.g., 55:25 (V 380, ll) and 
MN I 67,13), which would not fit the contexts where the 
above formula appears. 




354 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



34 Spk: "Each of the deva-kings has a retinue of a hundred or 
a thousand kotis of devas. Placing themselves in grand 
positions, they see the Tathagata. How can powerless female 
devas like us get a chance to see him?" A koti = 10,000,000. 

35 Spk: What can be expressed (akkheyya) are the five aggre- 
gates, the objective sphere of linguistic reference ( not the 
terms of expression themselves). Beings who perceive what 
can be expressed (akkheyyasahhino sattd): When ordinary 
beings perceive the five aggregates, their perceptions are 
affected by the ideas of permanence, pleasure, and self, 
elsewhere called "distortions" (vipallasa, AN II 52,4-8). 
These distorted perceptions then provoke the defilements, 
on account of which beings become established in what can be 
expressed (akkheyyasmim patitthita). Beings "become estab- 
lished in" the five aggregates in eight ways: by way of 
lust, hatred, delusion, views, the underlying tendencies, 
conceit, doubt, and restlessness (see n. 2). 

It-a II 31-32, commenting on the same couplet at It 53, 
says that "beings who perceive what can be expressed" 
are those who perceive the five aggregates by way of a 
percept occurring in the mode of "I," "mine," "deva," 
"human," "woman," or "man," etc. That is, they perceive 
the five aggregates as a being or person, etc. 

Spk suggests that this verse is stated in order to show 
how sensual pleasures are "time-consuming." [Spk-pt: 
Kama here denotes all phenomena of the three planes, 
called sensual pleasures because they are pleasurable 
( kamaniyd ).] This suggestion seems confirmed by the last 
line: those who do not understand the five aggregates cor- 
rectly "come under the yoke of Death"; they undergo 
repeated birth and death and hence remain caught in 
samsara, the net of time. 

36 Spk: One "fully understands what can be expressed" by 
way of the three kinds of full understanding: (i) by full 
understanding of the known (hdtaparihhd) one under- 
stands the five aggregates in terms of their individual 
characteristics, etc.; (ii) by full understanding by scruti- 
nization (tiranaparihhd) one scrutinizes them in forty-two 
modes as impermanent, suffering, etc.; (iii) by full under- 
standing as abandonment ( pahanaparinha ) one abandons 




1. Devatdsamyutta: Notes 355 



desire and lust for the aggregates by means of the 
supreme path. For a fuller discussion, see Vism 606-7 
(Ppn 20:3-4) and Vism 611-13 (Ppn 20:18-19), based on 
Patis II 238-42, where, however, only forty modes are 
enumerated under (ii). The forty-two modes are at 
Vism 655,15-30 (Ppn 21:59), in connection with "discerning 
formations as void." 

One does not conceive " one who expresses" ( akkhataram na 
mahhati). Spk: The arahant does not conceive the speaker 
as an individual ( puggala ); that is, he no longer takes the 
five aggregates to be "mine," "I," and "my self." 

That does not exist for him (tarn hi tassa na hoti ti ): In this 
couplet I follow SS in omitting, as an interpolation, the 
words na tassa atthi, included in all the printed eds. The 
Skt version too, cited at Ybhus 2:2 (Enomoto, CSCS, p. 23), 
does not include such a phrase, but reads: tad vai na vid- 
yate tasya, vadeyur yena tam pare, "That does not exist for 
him by which others might speak of him." 

Spk explains that there exist no grounds for speaking of 
the arahant as lustful, or as hating, or as deluded. It would 
be more fitting, perhaps, to see this second couplet as 
referring to the arahant after his parinibbana, when by 
casting off the five aggregates ("what can be expressed") 
he goes beyond the range of verbal expression (see 
Sn 1076). It should be noted that thematically these two 
verses closely correspond to the Mulapariyaya Sutta (MN 
No. 1). Spk states that this verse discusses the "directly 
visible" ninefold supramundane Dhamma, i.e., the four 
paths, their fruits, and Nibbana. 

37 The "three discriminations" ( tayo vidha) are the three 
modes of conceit: the conceit "I am better" ( seyyo 'ham 
asmimana), the conceit "I am equal" ( sadiso 'ham asmimana), 
and the conceit "I am worse" ( hino 'ham asmimana). See 
22:49 (III 48-49), 45:162, 46:41. At Vibh 389-90 it is shown 
that these three become ninefold in so far as each triad 
may be entertained by one who is truly better, truly equal, 
or truly worse. One "not shaken in the three discrimina- 
tions" is the arahant, who alone has completely eradicated 
the fetter of conceit. Spk points out that the first couplet 
shows how sensual pleasures are time-consuming, while 




35 6 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



the second couplet discusses the supramundane Dhamma. 

38 The most common reading of this pada is pahasi sankham 
na vimanam ajjhaga, found in Be, Se, and Eel of v. 49, in Be 
and Eel of the parallel v. 105, and in the lemma in Spk 
(Be, Se) to v. 49. From his comments it is clear the com- 
mentator had a text with vimana, which he explains as 
equivalent to vividhamana: "He does not assume the three- 
fold conceit with its nine divisions" ( navabhedam tividha- 
mdnam na upagato). Spk's alternative explanation, which 
takes vimanam to be the mother's womb, the destination of 
the rebirth process, seems too fanciful to be taken serious- 
ly. Vimdnadassi occurs at Sn 887b in the sense of "contemp- 
tuous," but this meaning of vimana may be too narrow for 
the present context. 

The verse may have originally read na ca manam and 
this reading may have already been corrupted before the 
age of the commentaries, cfv confusion being not uncom- 
mon in Sinha la-script texts. The corruption would then 
have been preserved and perpetuated by the commenta- 
tors. Despite the dominance of na vimanam, the reading na 
ca manam is found in v. 105 of Se, in the lemma to v. 49 in 
four Sinhala mss of Spk (referred to in the notes to Spk 
(Se)), and in Thai eds. of SN and Spk. The Skt counterpart 
(quoted at Ybhus 2:4; Enomoto, CSCS, p. 23) has prahaya 
manam ca na sangam eti, which corresponds more closely to 
the alternative reading of the Pali. The original finite verb 
may have been the rare reduplicative perfect djd (as in SS) 
or agd (as in Ee2 and Thai eds.). See von Hiniiber, "On the 
Perfect in Pali," Selected Papers, pp. 174-76. 

Spk understands pahasi sankham to mean that the ara- 
hant can no longer be described by such concepts as lust- 
ful, hating, or deluded, but the point is more likely to be 
that he has stopped forming papahcasahhdsahkhd, "ideas 
and notions arisen from mental proliferation" (see 
MN 1 112,2-3). The Skt reading sangam may actually make 
better sense in this context. It seems that this phrase refers 
back to v. 47 and na vimanam ajjhaga back to v. 48. It is pos- 
sible, too, that the lines describe the arahant after his 
parinibbana, when he can no longer be reckoned by way 
of the five aggregates (see 44:1). Padas cf seem to be 




1. Devatasamyutta: Notes 357 



describing the arahant after his parinibbana, though else- 
where he is also said to be unfindable here and now (e.g., 
at 22:86; III 118,35-36). 

39 Spk explains the avoidance of evil in body, speech, and 
mind by way of the ten courses of wholesome kamma (see 
MN I 47,12-17, 287-288, etc.). The phrase having abandoned 
sense pleasures rejects the extreme of indulgence in sensual 
pleasures; one should not pursue a course that is painful and 
harmful rejects the extreme of self -mortification. Thus, Spk 
says, the verse points to the middle way that avoids the 
two extremes. The whole verse can also be construed posi- 
tively in terms of the Noble Eightfold Path: doing no evil 
by body and speech implies right speech, right action, and 
right livelihood; "mindful" implies right effort, right 
mindfulness, and right concentration; "clearly compre- 
hending" implies right view and right intention. Spk says 
that at the end of the Buddha's discourse the devata was 
established in the fruit of stream-entry and spoke this 
verse, "a great Dhamma teaching," in order to show the 
eightfold path by which she had attained the fruit. 

40 In pada b, I read dayhamane va, with Eel and SS, as against 
dayhamano va in Be, Se, and Ee2. With bhavardga in pada c, 
these verses also appear as Th 39-40 and 1162-63. In the 
present form the pair of verses sets a problem in interpre- 
tation, for kdmardga, sensual lust, is abandoned by the 
third path, while sakkayaditthi, identity view, is abandoned 
by the first path, so the devata appears to be advocating a 
higher attainment than the Buddha. This problem does 
not arise in the Th version, since bhavardga, lust for exis- 
tence, is abandoned by the fourth path, that of ara- 
hantship. Spk gives an ingenious solution: The deva spoke 
his verse with reference to the abandoning of sensual lust 
by way of suppression only ( vikkhambhanappahdnam eva), 
i.e., temporarily through the attainment of jhana, while 
the Buddha recommended the attainment of stream-entry, 
which eliminates identity view by way of eradication 
(samuccheda) so that not even the subtle underlying ten- 
dency ( anusaya ) remains, thus ensuring full liberation in a 
maximum of seven more lives. 

41 The verse poses a riddle which hinges on two connota- 




358 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



tions of phusati, "to touch": (i) to acquire a particular 
kamma, here the grave kamma of wronging an innocent 
person; and (ii) to reap the result of that kamma when it 
comes to maturity. 

42 At Sn 662 this verse refers to Kokaliya's calumny of 
Sariputta and Moggallana (see 6:10, which includes the 
story but not this verse). A different, and less credible, 
background story is told at Dhp-a III 31-33, commenting 
on Dhp 125; see BL 2:282-84. On the kammic result of 
harming innocents, see Dhp 137-40. 

43 This verse and the next form the opening theme of Vism 
and are commented on at Vism 1-4 (Ppn 1:1-8); the expla- 
nation is incorporated into Spk. VAT suggests that the 
words antojatd bahijatd should be taken as bahubbihi com- 
pounds in apposition to pajd ("having a tangle inside, hav- 
ing a tangle outside"), but I translate in accordance with 
Spk, which treats them as tappurisa. 

Spk: Tangle ( jatd ) is a term for the network of craving, in 
the sense that it "laces together," for it arises repeatedly up 
and down among the sense objects such as forms. There is 
a tangle inside, a tangle outside, because craving arises with 
respect to one's own possessions and those of others; with 
respect to one's own body and the bodies of others; and 
with respect to the internal and external sense bases. 

44 The Buddha's reply is a succinct statement of the threefold 
training, with samddhi referred to by the word citta. Spk 
says wisdom is mentioned three times in the verse: first as 
innate intelligence ("wise"); second, as insight-wisdom 
(vipassand-panna), the wisdom to be developed; and third, 
as "discretion," the pragmatic wisdom that takes the lead 
in all tasks ( sabbakiccaparindyika parihariyapanna). 

Spk: "Just as a man standing on the ground and taking 
up a well-sharpened knife might disentangle a great tan- 
gle of bamboos, so this bhikkhu ... standing on the 
ground of virtue and taking up, with the hand of practical 
intelligence exerted by the power of energy, the knife of 
insight-wisdom well sharpened on the stone of concentra- 
tion, might disentangle, cut away, and demolish the entire 
tangle of craving that had overgrown his own mental con- 
tinuum" (adapted from Ppn 1:7). 




1. Devatasarnyutta: Notes 359 



45 While the previous verse shows the trainee (sekha), who is 
capable of disentangling the tangle, this verse shows the 
arahant, the one beyond training ( asekha ), who has fin- 
ished disentangling the tangle. 

46 Spk says this verse is stated to show the opportunity (or 
region) for the disentangling of the tangle ( jatdya vijata- 
nokasa). Here name ( ndma ) represents the four mental 
aggregates. Spk treats impingement ( patigha ) as metrical 
shorthand for perception of impingement ( patighasanna ). 
According to Spk-pt, in pada c we should read a com- 
pressed dvanda compound, patigharupasahha ("perceptions 
of impingement and of form"), -the first part of which has 
been truncated, split off, and nasalized to fit the metre. 
Impingement being the impact of the five sense objects on 
the five sense bases, "perception of impingement" 
(patighasanna) is defined as the fivefold sense perception 
(see Vibh 261,31-34 and Vism 329,22-24; Ppn 10:16). 
Perception of form ( rupasahhd ) has a wider range, com- 
prising as well the perceptions of form visualized in the 
jhanas [Spk-pt: perception of the form of the earth -kasina, 
etc.]. Spk explains that the former implies sense-sphere 
existence, the latter form-sphere existence, and the two 
jointly imply formless-sphere existence, thus completing 
the three realms of existence. 

It is here that this tangle is cut. Spk: The tangle is cut, in the 
sense that the round with its three planes is terminated; it 
is cut and ceases in dependence on Nibbana. 

47 Readings of pada b differ. I follow Se and Ee2, mano yatat- 
tam agatam, as against Be na mano samyatattam dgatam. 

Spk: This deva held the view that one should rein in 
every state of mind; whether wholesome or not, whether 
mundane or supramundane, the mind should be reined 
in, not aroused. [Spk-pt: He believed that every state of 
mind brings suffering and that the unconscious state is 
better.] The Buddha spoke the rejoinder to show that a 
distinction should be made between the mind to be reined 
in and the mind to be developed. See 35:205 (IV 195,15-30), 
where the Buddha advises reining in the mind (tato cittam 
nivaraye) from objects that arouse the defilements. 

48 Spk: This deva, who dwelt in a forest grove, heard the 




360 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagdthdvagga ) 



forest bhikkhus using such expressions as "I eat, I sit, my 
bowl, my robe," etc. Thinking, "I had imagined these 
bhikkhus to be arahants, but can arahants speak in ways 
that imply belief in a self?" he approached the Buddha 
and posed his question. 

49 Voharamattena so vohareyya. Spk: "Although arahants have 
abandoned talk that implies belief in a self, they do not 
violate conventional discourse by saying. The aggregates 
eat, the aggregates sit, the aggregates' bowl, the aggregates' 
robe'; for no one would understand them." See in this 
connection DN I 202,7-9: "Thus, Citta, there are these 
worldly expressions, worldly terms, worldly conventions, 
worldly concepts, which the Tathagata uses without 
grasping them." 

50 Spk: At this point the deva thought that while arahants 
may not speak thus because they hold a view (of self), 
they might do so because they still have conceit (i.e., 
asmimana, the conceit "I am"). Hence he asked the second 
question, and the Buddha's reply indicates arahants have 
abandoned the ninefold conceit (see n. 37). 

51 Spk resolves managanthassa in pada b as mano ca gantha 
assa, "for him conceit and knots," in order to conform to 
the doctrinal tetrad of gantha, which does not include 
miina; see 45:174. It seems, however, that here managantha 
should be understood in a looser sense, as manassa gantha. 
At It 4,16, in a sutta solely about mana, we find managantha 
used as a bahubbihi compound qualifying paja ("a genera- 
tion knotted by conceit") and arahants described as 
managanthabhibhuno ("those who have overcome the knots 
of conceit"), which supports my rendering here. The read- 
ings of pada c vary: Be has mahhatam, Se mahhanam 
(which is the gloss in Spk (Be)), Eel yamatam, Ee2 ya mat am 
(= yam mataml). Spk explains that he has transcended the 
threefold conceiving due to craving, views, and conceit. 

52 Spk: The question refers to the "streams" of samsara, the 
answer to Nibbana. Portions of the reply can be found at 
DN 1 223,15-15 and Ud 9,4. On the stopping of the streams, 
see Sn 1034-37, and on the round not revolving see the 
expression vattam ... natthi pahhapanaya at 22:56-57 and 
44:6 (IV 391,9). 




1. Devatasamyutta: Notes 361 



53 Ee2 precedes this verse with another (v. 70) found only in 
two Lanna mss from northern Thailand. As that verse is 
not included in any other edition or known ms of SN, and 
hardly relates to the subject matter of the dialogue 
between the Buddha and the devata, it clearly does not 
belong here; thus I have not translated it. My decision is 
further supported by the absence of any gloss on the verse 
in Spk and Spk-pt, which indicates it was not found in the 
texts available to the commentators. At Ee2, p. xvii, the 
editor argues that this verse must be "restored" to provide 
a question put by the deity, but he assumes that the sutta 
originally read the first word of v. 72d as te which was 
then changed to ko or ke by the textual tradition in order to 
supply a question. But since ke as a question makes per- 
fectly good sense, both syntactically and semantically, 
there is no reason to suppose the original reading was te 
and thus no need to interpolate a new verse to supply the 
question. 

54 Spk: “Among those who have become so avid ( ussukkajdtesu ): 
Among those who are engaged in various tasks, avid to 
produce unarisen forms, etc., and to enjoy those that have 
arisen." In pada c of the second verse I read ke 'dha tanham 
with Be and Se, as against gedhatanham ("greed and crav- 
ing") in Eel & 2, and kodhatanham ("anger and craving") 
in SS. In pada d, Ee2 reads te lokasmim as against ke lokas- 
mim in the other eds. 

Ussuka (Skt utsuka) means anxiously desirous, zealous, 
or busily engaged in some pursuit. The corresponding 
noun is ussukka, which is sometimes found where the 
adjective would have been more appropriate. Ussuka is 
used in both a laudatory and reprobative sense. At 41:3 
(IV 288,12 = 291,4, 302,7), it occurs in the commendatory 
sense, which I render "zealous." See too MN I 324,27 and 
Vin I 49,19-50,8. The negative sense — of being greedy, 
ambitious, or "avid" (my preferred rendering) — is found 
here and at Dhp 199. The expression appossukka, lit. "hav- 
ing little zeal," is used to describe one who refrains from 
busy activity. In SN we find this expression — which I gen- 
erally render, loosely, "(living)_at ease" — at 9:10 (I 202,22), 
21:4 (II 277,12), 35:240 (IV 178,1, here "keeping still"), and 




362 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathdvagga) 



51:10 (V 262,18). The abstract noun appossukkata, at 6:1 
(1 137,1, 6), characterizes the Buddha's original inclination' 
just after his enlightenment, towards a life of quietude 
rather than towards the “busy work" of preaching the 
Dhamma. See too below n. 366 and n. 551. 

55 Spk: The four wheels are the four modes of deportment 
(walking, standing, sitting, lying down). The nine doors are 
the nine "wound openings" (eyes, ears, nostrils, mouth, 
genitals, anus). It is filled up with impure body parts 
(head-hairs, etc.), and bound with greed, i.e., with craving. 
How does one escape from it?: How caft there be emergence 
from such a body? How can there be freedom, release, a 
transcendence of it? Spk-pt adds: It is born from a bog 
(pahkajata) because it is produced in the foul bog of the 
mother's womb. The Pali expression could also have been 
rendered, "It is a bog," but I follow Spk-pt. This stark per- 
spective on the body is elaborated at Sn 1, 11, pp. 34-35. 

56 In pada a (= Dhp 398a), Eel nandim should be amended to 
naddhim. Spk explains that in the Dhp verse varatta is crav- 
ing ( tanha ), but as craving is mentioned separately in our 
verse, varatta is glossed differently here. 

Spk: The thong ( naddhi ) is hostility (upanaha), i.e., strong 
anger; the strap ( varatta ) is the remaining defilements. 
Desire and greed refer to the same mental state spoken of in 
two senses: desire ( icchd ) is the preliminary weak stage, or 
the desire for what has not been obtained; greed (lobha) is 
the subsequent strong stage, or the holding to an acquired 
object. Craving with its root: with its root of ignorance. 

57 This verse of inquiry occurs at Sn 165-66, though with an 
additional couplet and with a variant line in place of the 
actual question. The inquirers there are the two yakkhas, 
Hemavata and Satagira. The question (or rather, string of 
questions) is posed only at Sn 168 and the reply given at 
Sn 169; they are identical with the question and reply at 
vv. 221-22. It is only after receiving this reply that the 
yakkhas pose the present question, katham dukkha pamuc- 
cati?, and the answer given is identical. Having antelope 
calves ( enijahgha ) is one of the thirty-two marks of a great 
man (see DN III 156,5-12; MN II 136,14). On naga, see 
below n. 84. 




L Devatasamyutta: Notes 363 



58 Spk: Here: in this name-and-form ( namarupa ). By mention- 
ing the five cords of sensual pleasure, form is indicated 
[Spk-pt: because they have the nature of form]. By mind 
(mano), name (nama), i.e., the four mental aggregates, is 
indicated. Thus the basis (of desire) here can be interpret- 
ed by way of the five aggregates, etc. 

59 Spk explains that these devas were called satullapakayika 
("belonging to the extolling-of-the-good group") because 
they had been reborn in heaven as a result of extolling the 
Dhamma of the good by way of undertaking it [Spk-pt: 
that is, the Dhamma of the good which consists of going 
for refuge, taking the precepts, etc.]. 

The background story is as follows: Once a merchant 
ship with a crew of seven hundred men, while crossing 
the sea, was beset by a terrible storm. As the ship sank, the 
crew members, praying frantically to their gods, noticed 
one of their number sitting calmly, cross-legged "like a 
yogi," free from fear. They asked him how he could 
remain so calm, and he explained that as he had undertak- 
en the Three Refuges and Five Precepts he had no reason 
for fear. They requested the same from him, and after 
dividing them into seven groups of a hundred each he 
gave each group in turn the refuges and precepts, com- 
pleting the procedure just as the ship was swallowed up 
by the sea. As the fruit of this final deed of merit, all the 
men were immediately reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven in 
a single group with their leader at the head. Recognizing 
that they had attained such fortune through their leader's 
kindness, they came to the Blessed One's presence to 
speak praise of him. 

60 Spk: Just as oil is not to be obtained from sand, so wisdom 
is not gained from another, from the blind fool; but just as 
oil is obtained from sesamum seeds, so one gains wisdom 
by learning the Dhamma of the good and by following a 
wise person. 

61 I take sat at am to be an accusative adverb from the abstract 
noun of sata. Spk, however, takes it as an adverb froir 
satata, "continually," which seems less satisfactory. 

62 Pariyayena. Spk glosses karanena, "for a reason," which 
does not help much. I understand the purport to be that 




364 I- The Book with Verses ( Sagathdvagga ) 



their verses are only provisionally correct, acceptable 
from a mundane point of view. The Buddha's verse is 
definitive ( nippariyayena ) because it points to the ultimate 
goal. See the contrast of pariyayena and nippariyayena at 
AN IV 449-54. 

63 The stain (mala) is stinginess itself; see the stock descrip- 
tion of the generous lay follower as one who "dwells at 
home with a mind rid of the stain of stinginess" ( vigata - 
malamaccherena cetasa agaram ajjhavasati). 

64 Spk: Those do not die among the dead: They do not die 
among those who are "dead" by the death consisting in 
miserliness. The goods of the miser are just like those of 
the dead, for neither distribute their belongings. 

65 Spk: If one practises the Dhamma: if one practises the 
Dhamma by way of the ten courses of wholesome kamma. 
Though getting on by gleaning (samuhjakam care): one gets on 
"by gleaning" by cleaning up the threshing floor, etc., 
beating the straw, etc. Of those who sacrifice a thousand: Of 
those who sacrifice (offer alms) to a thousand bhikkhus or 
who offer alms purchased with a thousand pieces of 
money. This done a hundred thousand times is equivalent 
to alms given to ten kotis of bhikkhus or worth ten kotis of 
money (a koti = 10,000,000). Are not worth even a fraction: 
the word "fraction" (kala) can mean a sixteenth part, or a 
hundredth part, or a thousandth part; here a hundredth 
part is intended. If one divides into a hundred parts (the 
value of) a gift given by him, the gift of 10,000 kotis given 
by the others is not worth one portion of that. 

Though Spk speaks of alms offerings to bhikkhus, v. 94 
just below implies that the animal sacrifices of the brah- 
mins are what is being rejected. 

66 Spk: "Faith" here means faith in kamma and its fruit. Just 
as in war a few heroic men conquer even many cowards, 
so one endowed with faith, etc., in giving even a small 
gift, crushes much stinginess and achieves abundant fruit. 

67 Spk explains dhammaladdhassa as either wealth righteously 
gained, or a person who has gained righteousness, i.e., a 
noble disciple. The former alternative makes better sense; 
see AN II 68,13-20. Yama is the god of the nether world; 
Vetarani is the Buddhist equivalent of the river Styx (see 




1. Devatdsamyutta: Notes 365 



Sn 674 and Pj II 482,4-6). Spk says that Vetarani is men- 
tioned only as "the heading of the teaching," i.e., as an exam- 
ple; he has actually passed over all thirty-one great hells. 

68 Viceyyadanam. The expression is an absolutive syntactical 
compound; see Norman, "Syntactical Compounds in 
Middle Indo- Aryan," in Collected Papers, 4:218-19. 

Spk: A gift given after making discrimination. There are 
two kinds of discrimination: (i) regarding the offering, i.e., 
one puts aside inferior items and gives only superior 
items; and (ii) regarding the recipient, i.e., one leaves aside 
those defective in morality or the followers of the ninety- 
five heretical creeds ( pasanda , the non-Buddhist sects; see 
n. 355) and gives to those endowed with such qualities as 
virtue, etc., who have gone forth in the Buddha's dispen- 
sation. 

69 In pada a, I read addha hi with Ee2 and SS (also at Ja 
III 472,29), as against s addha hi in Be and Eel and saddhabhi 
in Se. Spk glosses dhammapadam va in pada b thus: 
nibbanasaiikhatam dhammapadam eva, "just the state of 
Dhamma known as Nibbana." Usually dhammapada is a 
stanza or saying of Dhamma (as at w. 785-86, 826), which 
is also plausible in this context, but I prefer to take it as a 
metrical contraction of dhammapatipada, the practice-path 
of Dhamma, a sense attested to at Sn 88, which explicitly 
equates dhammapada with magga. The point the Buddha is 
then making is that the practice of Dhamma (by the Noble 
Eightfold Path aimed at Nibbana) is better than the prac- 
tice of giving aimed at a heavenly rebirth. 

The fuller gloss on the verse at Ja III 474 supports the 
above interpretation: "Although giving is definitely 
(i ekamsen ' eva, apparently the gloss on addha hi) praised in 
many ways, a dhammapada — a portion of Dhamma (dhamma- 
kotthasa) consisting in serenity and insight and in 
Nibbana — is even better than giving. Why so? Because in 
the past ( pubb ' eva) — that is, in this aeon, Kassapa Buddha 
and so on — and even earlier ( pubbatar ' eva), that is, 
Vessabhu Buddha and so on (in earlier aeons), the good, 
the superior persons (s appurisa), endowed with wisdom, 
developed serenity and insight and attained Nibbana." 

70 In pada d, we should adopt the reading of the agent noun 




366 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



aganta in Be, Se, and Ee2, as against agantva in Eel, which 
leaves the sentence with an unresolved absolutive clause. 
We find aganta used in the sense of agami, and anaganta 
used synonymously with anagami (in relation to itthattam 
"this state of being") at AN I 63,30-64,18. 

Spk: They do not come from Death's realm, that is, from 
the round of existence with its three planes, to Nibbana, 
which is the state of no-more-coming-back ( apunagamana ), so 
called because beings do not return from Nibbana. One 
who is heedless and bound to sensual pleasures cannot 
attain that. 

71 The identity of the speaker of this passage is difficult to 
determine from the text. I follow Ee2 in taking it to be 
another devata. Though most editions break the lines up 
as if they were verse, there is no recognizable metre and it 
seems likely they are intended as prose. Ee2 does not 
number it as a verse. 

Spk says that misery ( agha ) in the first line is the suffer- 
ing of the five aggregates, and suffering ( dukkha ) in the 
second line is synonymous with it. The fourth line is para- 
phrased: "By the removal of the five aggregates the suffer- 
ing of the round is removed." 

72 In pada b the unusual compound sahkapparaga is glossed 
by Spk as sahkappitaraga, "intended lust." Mp III 407,5 
glosses: sahkappavasena uppannarago, "lust arisen by way of 
intention (or thought)." Spk-ptadds: subhadivasena sahkap- 
pitavatthumhi rago, "lust in regard to an object thought 
about as beautiful, etc." The key to the expression, how- 
ever, is probably Dhp 339d (= Th 760d), where we find 
sahkappa raganissita, "intentions based on lust." Spk sums 
up the purport of the verse thus: "Here the identification 
of sensuality with the sensual object is rejected; it is the 
sensual defilement that is called sensuality." 

Dhira allows of two derivations, one meaning "wise," 
the other "firm, steadfast"; see PED and MW, s.v. dhira. I 
have usually translated it as "wise," following the com- 
mentarial gloss pandita, but elsewhere (e.g., at w. 411e, 
413e, 493a, 495a) I have taken advantage of the word's 
ambivalence to render it "steadfast." The word has elevated 
overtones and seems to be used solely in verse. 




1. Devatasarnyutta: Notes 367 



73 Akincana in pada c is a common epithet of the arahant. Spk 
explains it as devoid of the "something" (or impediments) 
of lust, hatred, and delusion (see 41:7; IV 297,18-19 = 
MN 1 298,14-15). 

74 Spk: Mogharaja was an elder skilled in the sequential 
structure of discourses (anusandhikusala). [Spk-pt: He was 
one of the sixteen pupils of the brahmin Bavari; see 
Sn 1116-19.] Having observed that the meaning of the last 
verse had not gone in sequence, he spoke thus to connect 
it in sequence (perhaps by drawing out its implications?). 
Spk points out that although all arahants can be described 
as "the best of men, faring for the good of humans" ( narut - 
tamam ytthacaram naranam), the elder used this expression 
with specific reference to the Buddha ( dasabalatn sandhay' 
eva). Spk paraphrases his statement as an interrogative (te 
kim pasamsiya udahu apasamsiya), which I follow, but it 
might also be read as a simple declaration which is first 
confirmed and then improved upon by the Buddha. 

75 Spk explains bhikkhu in pada a (and presumably in pada d 
too) as a vocative addressed to Mogharaja; but as the lat- 
ter is also addressed by name it seems preferable to take 
the word in both instances as a nominative plural. In both 
Be and Se the word is clearly plural.,, The Buddha thus 
confirms that those who venerate him are praiseworthy, 
but steers the inquirer beyond mere devotion by adding 
that those who understand the truth and abandon doubt 
(by attaining the path of stream-entry) are even more 
praiseworthy; for they will eventually become "surmoun- 
ters of ties" (sarigatiga), i.e., arahants. 

76 Spk: There is no separate deva world named "the fault- 
finders" (ujjhdnasannino). This name was given to these 
devas by the redactors of the texts because they arrived in 
order to find fault with the Tathagata for his "misuse" of 
the four requisites. They had thought: "The ascetic 
Gotama praises contentment with simple requisites to the 
bhikkhus, but he himself lives luxuriously. Daily he teaches 
the Dhamma to the multitude. His speech goes in one 
direction, his deeds in another." The fact that they address 
the Buddha while they are still hovering in the air is 
already indicative of disrespect. 




368 I . The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



77 Spk defines kitava as a fowler ( sakunika ) and explains: "As 
a fowler conceals himself behind branches and foliage and 
kills the fowl that come near, thereby supporting his wife, 
so the swindler conceals himself behind a rag-robe and 
cheats the multitude with clever talk. All the use he makes 
of the four requisites (robes, food, lodging, and medicines) 
is use by theft. The deva utters this verse with reference to 
the Blessed One." The same explanation of kitava is given 
at Dhp-a III 375 (to Dhp 252). However, at Ja VI 228,19 the 
word occurs in a context that clearly shows it means a 
gambler; it is glossed by akkhadhutta, a dice-gambler, and I 
translate accordingly here. See Palihawadana, "From 
Gambler to Camouflage: The Strange Semantic 
Metamorphosis of Pali Kitava." 

78 Spk: Why did the Buddha display a smile? It is said that 
those devas did not apologize in a way that accorded with 
the Buddha's true nature (sabhiivena); they acted as if there 
were no difference between the Tathagata, the supreme 
person in the world, and ordinary worldly people. The 
Blessed One smiled with the intention: "When discussion 
arises from this, I will show the power of a Buddha and 
thereafter I will pardon them." 

79 In pada d, I follow Se in reading tenidha, as against kenidha 
in Be and Eel and ko tiidha in Ee2. Neither Spk nor Spk-pt 
offers any help with the meaning of the verse. I translate 
kusala here in accordance with Spk-pt's gloss, anavajja. At 
KS 1:35 this verse has been overlooked. 

80 This line is missing only in Eel, which gives the impres- 
sion that the following verses are spoken by the same 
deva (and so C.Rh.D has translated them). 

81 This verse is identical with v. 104 except that in pada d 
sangd replaces dukkhd. On the five ties, see n. 12. 

82 This sutta reproduces the opening of the Mahasamaya 
Sutta (DN No. 20). The background story, related in detail 
in Spk (as well as in Sv II 672-77 on DN No. 20), begins 
when the Buddha intervened to prevent a war between 
the Sakyans and Koliyans, his paternal and maternal kins- 
men, over the waters of the river Rohini. After he mediat- 
ed a peaceful resolution of their conflict, 250 youths from 
each community went forth under him as monks. After a 




1. Devatasamyutta: Notes 369 



period of exertion, they all attained arahantship on the 
same day, the full-moon day of the month of Jetthamula 
(May-June). When the sutta opens, on the same night, 
they have all assembled in the Master's presence in order 
to announce their attainments. The word samaya in the 
title means, not "occasion," but meeting or "concourse"; 
Spk glosses mahdsamaya in v. 121 as mahdsamuha, "great 
assembly." 

83 The Pure Abodes ( suddhavasa ) are five planes in the form 
realm into which only nonretumers can be reborn: Aviha, 
Atappa, Sudassa, Sudassi, and Akanittha. Here they attain 
final deliverance without ever returning from that realm. 
All the inhabitants are thus either nonreturners or 
arahants. 

84 In pada a, I read khilam with Se and Eel & 2, as against 
khilam in Be. As indakhilam appears in pada b, khilam 
would be redundant in pada a.. The two words are unre- 
lated: khila is a wasteland, both literally and figuratively; 
khila, a stake or pillar, of which a particular kind, the inda- 
khila, is planted in front of a city gate or at the entrance to 
a house as an auspicious symbol. Spk defines all three 
terms — khila, paligha, and indakhila — in the same way, as 
lust, hatred, and delusion. At 45:166 these three are called 
khila, but at MN I 139,19-22 paligha is identified with igno- 
rance (avijjd). A set of five cetokhila is mentioned at 
MN 1 101,9-27. 

These bhikkhus are unstirred ( anejd ) by the stirring (or 
commotion, ejd ) of craving (see 35:90). Ndga is a word used 
to designate various types of powerful beings, particularly 
a class of semi-divine dragons, but it also can denote 
cobras and bull elephants and is used as a metaphor for 
the arahant; see MN 1 145,5-7. In relation to the arahant the 
dominant sense is that of the bull elephant (see Dhp 
chap. 23), but because the latter expression would, in 
English, seem demeaning rather than complimentary I 
have left ndga untranslated. Spk explains the word by way 
of "edifying etymology" thus: chandadihi na gacchanti ti 
ndga; tena tena maggena pahine kilese na dgacchanti ti ndga; 
ndnappakdram dgum na karonti ti ndga; "nagas, because 
they do not go along by way of desire and so forth; nagas. 




370 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



because they do not return to the defilements abandoned 
by the successive paths; nagas, because they do not commit 
the various kinds of crime." Spk calls this a brief account 
and refers the reader to Nidd I 201-2 for a full explana- 
tion. See too Sn 522, which offers a similar etymology. 

The "One with Vision" ( cakkhuma ) is the Buddha, so 
called because he possesses the "five eyes" (see n. 370). 

85 Spk: This verse refers to those who have gone for refuge 
by the definitive going for refuge ( nibbematika - 
saranagamana). Spk-pt: By this the supramundane going 
for refuge is meant (i.e., by the minimal attainment of 
stream-entry). But those who go for refuge to the Buddha 
by the mundane going for refuge (i.e., without a noble 
attainment) will not go to the plane of misery; and if there 
are other suitable conditions, on leaving the human body 
they will fill up the hosts of devas. 

86 The Buddha's foot had been injured when his evil cousin 
Devadatta tried to murder him by hurling a boulder at 
him on Mount Vulture Peak. The boulder was deflected, 
but a splinter that broke off from it cut the Buddha's foot 
and drew blood. The full story of Devadatta's evil 
schemes is related at Vin II 184-203; see too Nanamoli, Life 
of the Buddha, chap. 13. This same incident forms the back- 
ground to 4:13 below. According to Spk, the seven hun- 
dred devas who came to see the Blessed One included all 
the devas of the Satullapa host. 

87 Spk: He is called a naga on account of his strength (see 
n. 84); a lion ( siha ) on account of his fearlessness; a thor- 
oughbred ( ajaniya ) on account of his familiarity with what 
he has learned (Ibyattaparicayatthena), or because he 
knows what is the right means and the wrong means; a 
chief bull ( nisabha ) because he is without a rival; a beast of 
burden (dhorayha) because of bearing the burden; tamed 
(danta) because he is free from deviant conduct. 

Spk glosses nagavata as nagabhavena. Geiger takes 
nagavata as the instrumental of the adjective nagavant used 
adverbially in the sense of a comparison (GermTr, p. 93). 
However, I follow Norman's suggestion (in a personal 
communication) that -vata here may be the Pali equivalent 
of Skt -vrata, in the sense of "sphere of action, function. 




1. Devatdsamyutta: Notes 371 



mode or manner of life, vow" (MW). Eel, based on a 
Lanna commentary, emends the text to read nago va td ca 
pan' uppanna saririkd vedana (and similarly in the parallel 
passages that follow); see Ee2, p. xviii. But I am doubtful 
that the text would switch so suddenly from metaphor (in 
the previous sentence) to simile, and then back to 
metaphor below. 

88 I read with Se: Passa samddhim subhavitam cittafi ca suvimut- 
tam na cabhinatam na capanatam na ca sasahkhdraniggayha- 
varitavatam. Be is identical except that the final word in the 
compound is read as - gatam ; Eel -cdritavatam is clearly an 
error, rectified in PED, s.v. vdritavata. Ee2 reads as in Se, 
but with niggayha taken as uncompounded, which leaves 
sasankhara dangling. The same expression occurs else- 
where: at AN IV 428,9-10 the full formula is used to 
describe a samddhi called ahhdphala, the fruit of final 
knowledge (or perhaps, "having final knowledge as its 
fruit"); sasahkhdraniggayhavaritavata, at AN I 254,34, 
describes a samddhi developed as the basis for the six 
abhihha (probably the fourth jhana); and at AN III 24,9, 
DN III 279,4, and Vibh 334,15, it characterizes a "right con- 
centration of fivefold knowledge" ( pahcahdnika sammd 
samddhi). In the present context, it seems, the expression 
qualifies cittam, mind, though the min d has these qualities 
by virtue of the samddhi in which it is absorbed. At 
AN IV 428,9-10 and elsewhere the phrase clearly qualifies 
the samddhi. 

Spk (Se): The concentration is that of the fruit of ara- 
hantship ( arahattaphalasamadhi ). The mind is said to be well 
liberated ( suvimuttam ) because it is liberated by the fruit. 
Not bent forward and not bent back: the mind accompanied 
by lust is said to be "bent forward" ( abhinatam ), that 
accompanied by hate to be "bent back" ( apanatani ). 
Rejecting both, he speaks thus. Not blocked and checked by 
forceful suppression: It is not blocked and checked, having 
suppressed the defilements forcefully, with effort; rather, 
it is checked because the defilements have been cut off. 
The meaning is that it is concentrated by the concentration 
of fruition (na ca sasankharaniggayhavdritavatan ti na 
sasahkharena sappayogena kilese niggahetvd varitavatam; 




372 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 

kilesanam pana chinnattd vatam, phalasamddhind samdhitan ti 
attho). (N.B. While Spk (Be) reads -gatam in the lemma, it 
reads -vatam twice in the explanation.) 

Spk-pt: This is not achieved, not fixed, forcefully, with 
effort, by way of abandoning in a particular respect or by 
way of abandoning through suppression as is the mun- 
dane-jhana mind or insight; but rather (it is achieved) 
because the defilements have been completely cut off 
( lokiyajjhdnacittam viya vipassand viya ca sasahkhdrena sap- 
pay ogena tadahgappahana-vikkhambhanappahdnavasena ca 
vikkhambhetva na adhigatam na thapitam, kihcarahi kilesanam 
sabbaso chinnatdya). 

The Pali phrase is extremely difficult and the exact read- 
ing uncertain. Indeed, in the Central Asian Skt ms corre- 
sponding to DN III 279,4 (Waldschmidt, Sanskrittexte aus 
den Turfanfunden IV, p. 70, V.8 (3)), it is conspicuously 
absent. A Skt version in Srav-bh (p. 444,19-21) reads varivad 
dhrtam, “maintained like water," which seems to me 
unlikely to correspond to the original reading. 

Eel puts a hiatus after niggayha, and Ee2 separates it off 
entirely; the other eds. integrate niggayha into the long 
compound. There is no way to determine, on the basis of 
grammar alone, which is correct. Each attempt to resolve 
the expression into its elements gives rise to its own special 
problems, and even the atthakatlws and tikds offer conflict- 
ing explanations, e.g., Sv III 1060,11-13 and Vibh-a 421,13-15 
take niggayha to be absolutive (as does Spk) and turn varita 
into the absolutive vdretvd; their respective tikds, Sv-pt 
III 284,24-27 (Be) and Vibh-mt 205,16-18 (Be), take niggayha 
as the gerundive niggahetabba and varita as the gerundive 
varetabba. Since niggayha occurs elsewhere unambiguously 
as an absolutive (e.g., at MN III 118,4, interestingly, as 
here, without a direct object), while there seem to be no 
instances in canonical Pali of the word occurring as a 
gerundive, the atthakathas are more likely to be right. 
Norman questions this interpretation on the ground that 
there is no other known instance in Pali of an absolutive 
occurring as the second member of a compound (personal 
communication), but perhaps we should not rule out the 
possibility that we have such a construction here. I trans- 




1. Devatasamyutta: Notes 373 



late, however, in compliance with natural English idiom 
rather than in strict conformity with the syntax of the Pali. 

Readings of the last part of the compound vary among 
the different traditions: in general varitavata prevails in the 
Sinhalese tradition, varitagata in the Burmese, with 
Burmese vv.ll. varivavata and varivavata also recorded. 
Varita here is a past participle of the causative vareti, to 
block, to restrain. The terminal member of the compound 
could then be either vata or gata. Gata is clearly a past par- 
ticiple. Vata is more problematic. At KS 1:39, varitavatam is 
rendered "having the habit of self-denial." Apparently 
C.Rh.D understands vata as equivalent to Skt vrata. 
However, Spk's gloss, chinnattd vatam phalasamddhina 
samahitam, suggests that we have a past participle here, 
and I would propose that vata represents Skt vrta, which 
according to MW can mean "stopped, checked, held 
back." I cannot cite other occurrences of the simple partici- 
ple vata in Pali, but prefixed forms are common enough: 
samvuta, nibbuta, vivata, dvata, etc. Thus we would have 
here two past participles from the same root, one 
causative, the other simple, so that the compound vdrita- 
vata would mean "blocked and checked" (unfortunately 
two distinct English verbs are needed to capture the 
nuances). Although this construction is certainly unusual, 
it need not be rejected out of hand, as it may have been 
used for special emphasis. If the reading gata is accepted, 
varitagata could mean "gone to (attained to) control," with 
varita taken as a noun of state. This certainly sounds more 
natural than varitavata, but the prevalence of vata in the 
textual tradition lends strong support to its authenticity. 

89 It is not clear who is speaking these stanzas, and the verses 
themselves have no evident connection to the preceding 
prose portion of the sutta. It is possible they were annexed 
to the prose text by the redactors of the canon. 

I read pada a as in Be, Se, and Ee2 thus: paticaveda satam 
samatn. The mention of five Vedas is strange but Spk 
explains: itihdsapancamdnam vedanam, "the Vedas with the 
histories as a fifth." Spk glosses satam samam as vassasatam; 
Geiger is certainly wrong in rejecting this explanation 
(GermTr, p. 41, n. 3). Spk also glosses hinattarupd as hinatta- 




374 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



sabhava and mentions a variant, hinattharupa, glossed by 
Spk-pt as hinatthajatika parihinattha, "those of low goals, 
those who have fallen away from the goal." 

90 Pajjunna (Skt Parjanya) is the deva-king of rain clouds; 
originally a Vedic deity, Spk assigns him to the heaven of 
the Four Great Kings. He is mentioned at DN III 205,6. 
Nothing else is known about his two daughters, named 
after the red lotus (see v. 401a). 

91 These four verses, in the old Arya metre, have been recon- 
structed by Alsdorf, Die Arya-Strophen des Pali-Kanons, 
p. 321. 

92 Neither Spk nor Spk-pt offers help with the singular sattassa 
in pada a, but I take this simply as a metrical adaptation of 
sattdnam. The line then expresses the same idea as 45:139 
(V 41,23-42,2). 

93 Spk: There are two Roruva hells: the Smokey Roruva 
(dhumaroruva) and the Flaming Roruva ( jalaroruva ). The 
Smokey Roruva is a separate hell, but the Flaming Roruva 
is a name for the great hell Avici, called Roruva because 
when beings are roasted there they cry out again and 
again (punappunam ravam ravanti). At 3:20 the Flaming 
Roruva is spoken of as the Great Roruva ( maharoruva ). 

94 Spk-pt glosses khantiya in pada b as hdnakhantiya, which 
implies that here the word does not bear its usual mean- 
ing of patience, but the special sense of "acquiescence" (in 
the Teaching). See the expression dhammanijjhanakkhanti at 
MN n 173,21-22. 

95 The Dhamma is of such a nature (tadiso dhammo). Spk: "For 
such is the nature of the Dhamma, O Blessed One, it has 
such a structure, such divisions, that it lends itself to 
analysis in many ways." Spk-pt: "It is such that one who 
has penetrated the truths as they are, skilled in the mean- 
ing and the doctrine, might explain, teach, proclaim, 
establish, disclose, analyse, and elucidate it, bringing forth 
examples, reasons, and conclusions." 

96 Ee2, again on the testimony of the Lanna mss, precedes 
this verse with another one (v. 138) on the unpredictability 
of death, found also at Ja II 58. But if the verse were origi- 
nally part of the text, Spk would surely have incorporated 
here the commentary on it found, with the verse itself, at 




1. Devatdsamyutta: Notes 375 



Vism 236-37 (Ppn 8:29-34). Since there are strong reasons 
against the inclusion of the verse, I have passed over it in 
this translation. 

97 Yakkha in pada c is glossed by Spk-pt as satta. Although ko 
is an interrogative, it seems that the sentence is declarative 
in force. The verse may be echoing the Taittiriyaka 
Upanisad, II.2, III.2, 7-10. 

98 Spk explains the riddle thus: The ocean ( samudda ) or abyss 
(pdtala) is craving, called an ocean because it is unfillable 
and an abyss because it gives no foothold. Its one root 
(ekamula) is ignorance; the two whirlpools ( dviravatta ) are 
the views of eternalism and annihilationism. [Spk-pt: 
Craving for existence revolves by way of the eternalist 
view; craving for extermination by way of the annihila- 
tionist view.] The three stains (timala) are lust, hatred, and 
delusion; the five extensions (pahcapatthara), the five cords 
of sensual pleasure; and the twelve eddies ( dvddasdvatta ), 
the six internal and external sense bases. 

Nanananda proposes an alternative interpretation of 
some of these terms: with reference to 36:4, he takes the 
abyss to be painful feeling, and with reference to 35:228, 
the ocean to be the six sense faculties. The two whirlpools 
are pleasant and painful feeling; the one root, contact. For 
details see SN-Anth 2:63-66. 

99 Spk: Of perfect name ( anomandma ): of undefective name, of 
complete name, because he (the Buddha) possesses all 
excellent qualities (see too v. 927c and n. 653). The seer of 
the subtle goal (or "meanings": nipunatthadassim ): because 
he sees the fine, recondite meanings such as the diversity 
of aggregates, etc. He is the giver of wisdom (pahhddadam) 
by teaching the path of practice for the achievement of 
wisdom. Treading the noble path ( ariye pathe kamamanam): 
the present tense is used with reference to the past, for the 
Blessed One had gone along the noble path on the site of 
the great enlightenment; he is not going along it now. 

I question Spk's explanation of nipunattha, which seems 
to refer to attha in the sense of the goal, i.e., Nibbana. 

100 Spk relates the background story: In his previous life this 
deva had been an overzealous bhikkhu who had neglected 
sleep and food in order to attend to his meditation subject. 




376 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagdthdvagga ) 



Because of his excessive zeal, he died of a wind ailment 
and was immediately reborn in the Tavatimsa heaven 
amidst a retinue of celestial nymphs (acchara). The change 
occurred so quickly that he did not even know he had 
expired and thought he was still a bhikkhu. The nymphs 
tried to seduce him, but he rejected their amorous 
advances and tried to resume his meditation practice. 
Finally, when the nymphs brought him a mirror, he real- 
ized he had been reborn as a deva, but he thought: "I did 
not practise the work of an ascetic in order to take rebirth 
here, but to attain the supreme goal of arahantship." Then, 
with his virtue still intact, surrounded by the retinue of 
nymphs, he went to the Buddha and spoke the first verse. 

The verse revolves around a word play between 
Nandana, the garden of delight, and Mohana, the garden 
of delusion. The garden was "resounding with a host of 
nymphs" because the nymphs were singing and playing 
musical instruments. Spk paraphrases the question by 
way of its intent: "Teach me insight meditation, which is 
the basis for arahantship." 

101 Spk: The eightfold path is called the straight way ( ujuko 
maggo) because it is devoid of crookedness of bodily con- 
duct, etc. The destination, Nibbana, is said to be fearless 
( abhaya ) because there is nothing to fear in that and 
because there is no fear for one who has attained it. Unlike 
an actual chariot, which rattles or whines when its axle is 
not lubricated or when it is mounted by too many people, 
the eightfold path does not rattle or whine (na kujati na 
viravati) even when mounted simultaneously by 84,000 
beings. The chariot itself is also the eightfold path, and its 
wheels of wholesome states ( dhammacakka ) are bodily and 
mental energy. The "Dhamma" that is called the charioteer 
is the supramundane path, with the right view of insight 
(vipassand-sammdditthi) running out in front ( purejava ). For 
just as the king's servants first clear the path before the 
king comes out, so the right view of insight clears the way 
by contemplating the aggregates, etc., as impermanent, 
etc., and then the right view of the path (magga-samma- 
ditthi) arises fully understanding the round of existence. 

In v. 150c I read akujano with Be and Ee2, as against aku- 




1 Devatasamyutta: Notes 377 



jatio in Se and Eel. Geiger derives akujano from kujati, "to 
be crooked" (GermTr, p. 51, n. 3), but see Ja VI 252,20, 
where the "chariot of the body" is described as vacasahha- 
makujano, "not rattling by restraint of speech," which sup- 
ports the reading and rendering adopted here. The 
extended simile should be compared with that of the 
brahmayana, the divine vehicle, at 45:4; see too the extend- 
ed chariot simile at Ja VI 252-53. 

102 Spk: Having completed the discourse (the verse), the 
Buddha taught the Four Noble Truths, and at the end of 
that discourse the deva was established in the fruit of 
stream-entry; the other beings present attained the fruits 
that accorded with their own supporting conditions. 

103 Spk explains all these as gifts to the Sangha. Parks ( arama ) 
are distinguished by planted flowering trees and fruit 
trees, while groves ( vana ) are clusters of wild trees. Papa is 
glossed as a shed for giving drinking water. 

104 These verses were spoken by Anathapindika, chief patron 
of the Buddha, after he was reborn in the Tusita heaven. 
They recur below, with prose text, at 2:20. 

105 Anathapindika had been especially devoted to Sariputta, 
who delivered a moving sermon to him while he was on 
his deathbed: see MN No. 143, which also includes the 
same account of the great patron's posthumous visit to 
Jeta's Grove. 

Spk: At best can only equal him ( etavaparamo siya ): There is 
no bhikkhu, not even one who has attained Nibbana, who 
surpasses the Elder Sariputta ( na therena uttaritaro nama atthi). 

106 "Yama's world" (yamaloka) here evidently refers to the 
pettivisaya, the domain of ghosts. Yama is the Lord of 
Death; see MN III 179-86, AN 1 138-42. 

107 I read with Se and Eel ete sagge pakasenti, as against Be ete 
sagga pakasanti, "these heavens shine," and Ee2 ete sagge 
pakasanti, "these shine in heaven." I take sagge as accusative 
plural rather than locative singular, which is also plausible. 

108 Spk-pt: Because they are endowed with happiness they 
are like the devas who exercise control over the goods cre- 
ated by others. The comparison is with the devas of the 
paranimmitavasavatti realm, the sixth sense-sphere heaven. 

109 The deva Ghatikara had been a potter during the dispen- 




378 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



sation of the Buddha Kassapa, who had a monastic seat at 
Vehalinga, the potter's home town. At that time the future 
Buddha Gotama was his closest friend, the brahmin youth 
Jotipala. Although Jotipala went forth as a bhikkhu under 
the Buddha Kassapa, Ghatikara had to remain in the 
household life to support his blind, aged parents. He was 
the Buddha's chief supporter and had attained the stage 
of nonreturner. Highlights from the story, related in 
MN No. 81, appear in the verses to follow here. 

Aviha is one of the Pure Abodes (see n. 83). Spk says 
that the seven bhikkhus were liberated by the liberation of 
the fruit of arahantship, which they attained immediately 
after taking rebirth into the Aviha brahma world. 

110 In pada a, I read pahkam with Be and Eel as against 
sahgani ("tie") in Se and Ee2. Spk states that the abandon- 
ing of the human body implies the eradication of the five 
lower fetters and the celestial bond ( dibbayoga ) signifies 
the five higher fetters. 

111 I follow the spelling of the names in Se. Upaka is the for- 
mer Ajivaka ascetic whom the newly enlightened Buddha 
met while en route to Isipatana (MN I 170,33-171,20). 
Later, after an unhappy marriage, he entered the Sangha: 
see DPPN 1:386. The story of Pukkusati is related in MN 
No. 140 and Ps V 33-63; see too DPPN 2:214-16. Pihgiya 
here may be identical with the pupil of Bavari whose verses 
occur at Sn 1131-49, though this remains uncertain. The 
identity of the other bhikkhus cannot be established. 

112 I read pada a with Be and Se kusali bhasasi tesam. Spk: 
Kusalan ti idatn vacanam imassa atthi ti kusali; tesam theranam 
tvam kusalam anavajjam bhasasi. 

113 On "where name-and-form ceases" see above n. 46. Spk 
paraphrases the next to last line: "Those elders (did so) hav- 
ing understood that Dhamma here in your dispensation." 

1 14 Bhaggava was the potter's name, possibly a clan name. 

115 Spk says that the concluding verse was added by the 
redactors of the texts. The statement that both were 
inwardly developed ( bhdvitattdnam ) and were bearing 
their final bodies (sarirantimadharinam) implies that after 
his rebirth in the Pure Abodes, Ghatikara too had become 
an arahant. 




1. Devatasamyutta: N otes 379 



116 Se and Ee2 read corehi 'hariyam, Be corehyahariyam. Both 
are orthographical attempts to salvage a text that appears to 
assert the exact opposite of the meaning required. Without 
such editorial moulding corehi hariyam (the reading of Eel) 
would mean, "What is it that thieves should bear away?" 
— the rendering used at KS 1:51. Spk offers no help. 

117 Reading in pada a (in the next verse too) pavasato with Be, 
Se, and Ee2, as against pathavato in Eel. 

118 Spk: Sons are the support ( vatthu ) of human beings 
because they care for their parents in old age. A wife is the 
best companion because one can confide to her one's most 
personal secrets. 

119 Spk: The deviant path ( uppatha ) is a nonpath ( amagga ) for 
going to heaven and Nibbana. Undergoes destruction day 
and night ( rattindivakkhaya ): it is destroyed by the days and 
nights or during the days and nights. Women are the stain of 
the holy life: by washing off an external stain one can 
become clean, but if one is defiled by the stain of women it 
is not possible to make oneself pure. Austerity ( tapa ) is a 
name for restraint, the ascetic practices ( dhutahgaguna ), 
energy, and extreme asceticism ( dukkarakarika ); all these 
except extreme asceticism (i.e., self -mortification) are prac- 
ticeg that bum up the defilements. The holy life ( brahma - 
cariya) is abstinence from sexual intercourse. 

On "the bath without water" see w. 646, 705. To appre- 
ciate this expression one must remember that for the brah- 
mins in the Buddha's time (as for many Hindus today) rit- 
ual bathing was a way to wash away one's sins. The 
Buddha replaced this with the "internal bath" of the mind; 
see 7:21 below and MN I 39,1-2, 280,18-20. 

120 Spk: Metre is the scaffolding of verses ( chando nidanam 
gathanam ): Metres, beginning with the gayatti, are the scaf- 
folding of verses; for one beginning the preliminary verses 
first considers, "In which metre should it be?" Syllables 
constitute their phrasing ( akkhara tasam viyahjanam ): For syl- 
lables make up words, and words make up a verse, and a 
verse reveals the meaning. Verses rest on a base of names: 
One composing a verse composes it by relying on some 
name such as "the ocean" or "the earth." The poet is the 
abode where verses dwell: The abode ( dsaya ) of verses is their 




380 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



support ( patittha ); verses come forth from the poet, and 
thus he is their support. 

121 In pada a, I read addhabhavi with Be and Eel & 2, as 
against anvabhavi in Se. Addhabhavi is aorist of adhibhavati, 
to overcome, to overpower; see CPD, s.v. addhabhavati. 
Spk: There is no living being or entity that is free from a 
name, whether the name be natural or fabricated. Even a 
tree or stone with no known name is still called "the 
nameless one." 

122 The verb in pada b is passive. Spk to v. 246 glosses the 
active parikassati as parikaddhati, to drag around. Spk: 
Those who come under the control of the mind are sub- 
jected to total obsession. Spk-pt: The sutta speaks of those 
who have not fully understood reality. But those who 
have fully understood the aggregates and abandoned the 
defilements do not come under control of the mind; 
rather, it is the mind that comes under their control. 

123 Spk glosses vicarana in pada b by paddni, feet, explaining 
that the singular should be understood as a plural. In doc- 
trinal contexts the cognate vicara means examination, and 
is regularly coupled with vitakka to describe the thought 
process, e.g., in the formula for the first jhana. Here, how- 
ever, the point seems to be that thought can travel over 
vast distances without physical locomotion. 

124 I read with Be, Se, Eel, and Spk (Be) kissa dhupayito, as 
against kissa dhumayito in Ee2, SS, and Spk (Se). The verse 
is also at Th 448 with dhupayito. Norman (at EV I, n. 
to 448) contends this word means "perfumed" or 
"obscured (by smoke)," but Spk glosses as aditto; see too 
v. 542, where padhupito must mean "burning." 

125 Spk: The world is ensnared by craving ( tanhaya uddito) 
because the eye, caught with the rope of craving, is 
ensnared on the peg of forms; so too with the ear and 
sounds, etc. The world is shut in by death ( maccund pihito ): 
Even though the kamma done in the last life is only one 
mind-moment away, beings do not know it because they 
are shut off from it, as if by a mountain, by the strong 
pains occurring at the time of death. 

126 See above n. 57. Following a suggestion of VAT, I take 
updddya in pada c to be an absolutive with the literal 




1. Devatasarnyu tta: Notes 381 



meaning "clinging," completed by the finite verb vihahhati 
in pada d; loko in v. 221c thus becomes a mere metrical 
filler. Spk, however, has adopted an alternative solution, 
supplying a suppressed finite verb and interpreting 
upddaya in the extended sense of "depending on" thus: 
tdni yeva ca upaddya agamma paticca pavattati ; "It occurs 
dependent on, contingent on, in dependence on them." 
Pj II 210,27-28, commenting on Sn 168, takes a similar 
approach, though with a different finite verb. 

The Hemavata Sutta itself, however, suggests that 
upaddya should be taken in the literal sense of "clinging 
to." For after the Buddha has replied at Sn 169 with an 
answer identical to that in the present sutta, at Sn 170 the 
yakkha asks: Katamam tam upadanam yattha loko vihahiiati?, 
"What is that clinging wherein the world is harassed?" — a 
question which surely refers back to that same upaddya. 

Spk: The "six" in the question should be understood by 
way of the six internal sense bases, but it may also be 
interpreted by way of the six internal and external bases. 
For the world has arisen in the six internal bases, forms inti- 
macy with the six external bases, and by clinging to (or 
depending on) the six internal bases, it is harassed in the 
six external bases. 

The verse offers a solution to the problem posed below 
at 2:26, on how the world exists and arises in this very 
body endowed with perception and mind. On the origina- 
tion of the world in the six internal bases, see 12:44 (= 
35:107). Norman discusses the verses from a philological 
angle at GD, pp. 181-82, n. to 168. 

127 Se, Ee2 jhatva is certainly the correct reading, chetvd in Be 
and Eel a normalization. The gloss in Spk, vadhitva, sup- 
ports jhatva, and G-Dhp 288-89 has jatva, the Gandhari 
Prakrit counterpart. See Brough, Gandhari Dharmapada, 
pp. 164, 265-66. Jhatva is also found in the SS reading of 
v. 94b. 

128 Spk: Anger has a poisoned root ( visamula ) because it results 
in suffering. It has a honeyed tip ( madhuragga ) because 
pleasure arises when one returns anger with anger, abuse 
with abuse, or a blow with a blow. 

129 Spk: A token is that by which something is discerned 




382 I. The Book with Verses (Sagdthavagga) 



(pahhdyati etend ti panhdnam). A standard is the token of a 
chariot because a chariot, seen from a distance, is identified 
by its standard as belonging to such and such a kind. A 
married woman, even the daughter of a universal 
monarch, is identified as Mrs. So-and-So; hence a husband 
is the token of a woman. On the standard ( dhaja ) as the token 
of a chariot, see 11:2 and n. 611. 

130 SS record a v.l. sddhutaram inpada c, but Spk's gloss madhu- 
taram indicates that the reading available to the commen- 
tator here was sddutaram' However, Spk recognizes the 
same v.l. in connection with the identical w. 846-47. See 
n. 597. 

Spk: A householder who lives by wisdom (pahhajivi) is 
one who becomes established in the Five Precepts and 
offers regular almsfood, etc.; one gone forth who lives by 
wisdom uses his requisites with proper reflection, takes 
up a meditation subject, sets up insight, and attains the 
noble paths and fruits. 

131 Spk: The former deva had asked the Buddha these ques- 
tions, but the second deva interrupted, saying, "Why ask 
the Buddha? I'll answer you," and then offered his own 
ideas. But the first deva rebuked him for intruding and 
again addressed the questions to the Buddha. 

Spk: Seed of the seven kinds of grain is the best of things 
that rise up because, when seed rises, food becomes plenti- 
ful and the country is secure. Rain from a rain cloud excels 
among things that fall down for this ensures a plentiful crop. 
Cattle are the best of things that go forth, that walk about on 
foot, because they produce the five kinds of dairy prod- 
ucts (milk, curd, butter, ghee, and cream-of-ghee) by 
which people sustain their health. A son is the most excel- 
lent of speakers because he does not say anything harmful 
to his parents in the royal court, etc. 

It should be noted that pavajamananam in pada c is the 
present participle of pavajati or pabbajati, which, in a reli- 
gious context, signifies the act of leaving the household 
life to become a monk (pabbajjd). Hence the Buddha's 
reply in the next verse. 

132 Spk: Knowledge ( vijjd ) is the knowledge of the four paths; 
ignorance {avijjd) is the great ignorance at the root of the 




1. Devatasarnyutta: Notes 383 



round. The Sahgha is the best of things that go forth 
because it is a rich field of merit. The Buddha is the best of 
speakers because his teaching of the Dhamma helps 
release many hundred thousands of beings from bondage. 

133 Maggo c' anekayatanappavutto. Spk: He says, "The path is 
explained by many methods ( kdranehi ), by way of the thirty- 
eight meditation objects. Such being the case, why have 
these people become frightened and grasped hold of the 
sixty-two views?" The thirty-eight meditation objects 
(atthatimsarammana) are identical with the classical forty 
kammatthana (e.g., in Vism) except that the list of kasinas is 
drawn from the Nikayas (e.g., MN II 14,29-15,2), in which 
the last two (the space kasina and the consciousness kasina) 
are the same as the first two formless attainments ( druppa ) 
and hence are not reckoned twice. In the Vism system 
these two are replaced by the limited space kasina and the 
light kasina, which brings the number up to forty. 

134 The last line should be read with Be, Se, and Ee2 as 
dhamme thito paralokam na bhdye. Eel omits dhamme thito, 
apparently by oversight. Spk interprets "rightly directed 
speech and mind" and "doing no evil deeds with the 
body" as the preliminary factors of purification, and takes 
the four qualities mentioned in pada d to be the "four 
things" on which one should stand. But it also suggests 
another interpretation: right bodily, verbal, and mental 
conduct are the first three things, and the four qualities in 
pada d taken together are the fourth. The first alternative 
sounds more plausible. 

135 The Pali terms for the six fissures ( chiddani ) are: dlassa, 
pamada, anutthdna, asamyama, nidda, tandi. Spk-pt: These six 
things are called fissures because they do not give an 
opportunity for wholesome states of mind to occur. 

136 Spk: A woman is called the best of goods because a woman 
is an article that should not be given away ( avissajjaniya - 
bandatta ); or else she is so called because all bodhisattas 
and wheel-turning monarchs are conceived in a mother's 
womb. Spk-pt: Even the most precious jewel is not called 
"the best of goods" because it still falls into the category of 
things that might be given away; but a woman who has 
not abandoned the family customs should not be relin- 




384 L The Book wit h Verses ( Sagdthavagga ) 



quished to anyone, and hence she is called the best of 
goods. Further, a woman is the best of goods because she 
is a mine for the best of gems, that is, because (her body) is 
the place for the birth of the human thoroughbreds (i.e., 
Buddhas and arahants). 

137 Abbuda (“plague") is glossed by Spk as vindsakarana, a 
cause of destruction. The word also occurs in v. 591 as an 
extremely high number, in 6:10 as the name of a hell, and 
at v. 803 as a stage in the development of the fetus. 

138 Spk: One should not give oneself away by becoming the 
slave of another, but an exception is made of all bodhi- 
sattas. So too, except for all bodhisattas, one should not 
relinquish oneself to lions and tigers, etc. 

139 I interpret pada c, in both the question and the reply, with 
the aid of Spk, which paraphrases only the reply: Gdvo 
kamme s ajivanan ti kammena saha jivantdnam gdvo va kamme 
kammasahdya kammadutiyaka ndma honti; “For those who 
live together with work, cattle are called the work-compan- 
ions, the work-partners, in work; for the work of plough- 
ing, etc., is accomplished along with a team of cattle." 

In pada d, sitassa (Ee2: sit a ’ssa) should be resolved sitam 
assa. Spk takes assa to refer to "the mass of beings" (or of 
people: sattakdyassa) and explains iriyapatha, "the course of 
movement" (or "mode of deportment"), as the means of 
livelihood ( jivitavutti ); it glosses sita (furrow) with nangala 
(plough). The purport is that the activity of ploughing is 
the essential means for sustaining human life. 

140 Spk: Firmly established in virtue. 

2. Devaputtasamyutta 

141 Devaputta means literally "son of the devas," but since 
devas are depicted as arising in their celestial abodes by 
way of spontaneous birth, I translate the compound sim- 
ply as "young deva." 

Spk: They are reborn in the laps ( arika ) of devas. The 
males are called sons of the devas (devaputta)-, the females, 
daughters of the devas (devadhitaro). When they are not 
known by name it is said, "a certain devata" (as in the pre- 
ceding samyutta); but those who are known by name are 




2. Devaputtasamyutta: Notes 385 



referred to as “a son of the devas named So-and-So" (as 
here). Spk-pt: This last statement is made only as a gener- 
alization, for the identity of several devatas is known. 

142 Spk: When the Buddha taught the Abhidhamma in the 
Tavatimsa heaven during the seventh rains retreat after 
his enlightenment, this young deva heard him give a 
description of the bhikkhu (as at Vibh 245-46), but did not 
hear his instruction to the bhikkhu, his exhortation to the 
bhikkhu, "Think in this way, not in that way; attend in 
this way, not in that way; abandon this, enter and dwell in 
that" (as at DN I 214,18-21). He speaks with reference to 
this. 

143 Tahhev' ettha patibhdtu. Lit. "Let it occur to you yourself in 
regard to this." Throughout this work I have rendered this 
peculiar Pali idiom, and its variants, in ways that best 
accord with natural English diction. 

144 Well-spoken counsel ( subhasitassa ). Spk interprets this to 
mean that one should train oneself in just the fourfold 
good conduct of speech (see below 8:5; also MN 1 288,1-22), 
(and in talk) concerning the Four Noble Truths, the ten 
suitable topics of discussion (see MN III 113,25-31), and the 
thirty-seven aids to enlightenment. It seems to me more 
likely the purport is that one should train in accordance 
with good counsel. 

Spk offers two interpretations of samanupasana in pada 
b: (i) that which is to be attended to by an ascetic, namely 
one of the thirty-eight meditation subjects (see n. 133); and 
(ii) attending upon an ascetic, i.e., serving learned 
bhikkhus in order to increase one's wisdom. The first 
seems more plausible. The calming of the mind ( cittupasama ) 
is the training by way of the eight meditative attainments 
(atthasamapatti). 

145 In pada b, I read ce with Be, Se, and Ee2, as against ca in 
Eel. I construe the convoluted syntax of this verse in 
accordance with Spk. Spk explains that he should be liber- 
ated in mind ( vimuttacitto ) through (temporary) liberation 
by devotion to the meditation subject [Spk-pt: liberation 
by insight and jhana, which are temporary types of libera- 
tion, since at this point he has not yet attained ara- 
hantship, the final liberation of mind]. The heart's attain- 




386 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathdvagga) 



merit ( hadayassanupatti ) is arahantship, which is also the 
advantage (anisamsa) on which he should be bent. 

146 Spk: Magha is a name for Sakka, who asks the same set of 
questions below and receives the same reply (at w. 939-40). 
It is a derivative of the name Magha, by which he was 
known during his life as a human being. He is called 
Vatrabhu because he attained rulership among the devas 
by overcoming others with his conduct (vattena anne abhib- 
havati), or because he overcame the asura named Vatra. 
Neither of these names is mentioned among Sakka's 
names at 11:12. 

147 By "brahmin" he refers to the arahant. Spk: This young 
deva believed that there was no end to the arahant's 
duties and that the arahant must continue striving even 
after reaching arahantship. The Buddha spoke the rejoin- 
der to correct him. The Buddha's verse is unique ( asankinna ) 
in the Tipitaka, for nowhere else does the Buddha criticize 
the arousing of energy, but here he speaks thus to show 
that there is a conclusion to the arahant's duty. 

148 On the verb ayuhati, encountered in 1:1, see n. 2. To have 
gone beyond (pdragata) is to have attained Nibbana. 

149 Spk: This young deva, it is said, had been a meditator in a 
previous life, but he had thick defilements and thus could 
suppress them only with much effort. Though he did the 
work of an ascetic, because his supporting conditions 
were weak he passed away and took rebirth in the deva 
world without having reached the plane of the noble ones. 
He came to the Blessed One's presence to proclaim the dif- 
ficulty of the ascetic life. 

150 Spk: Although the noble path is neither impassable nor 
uneven ( duggamo visamo), this is said because there are 
many impediments in the preliminary portion of the 
path. 

151 At AN IV 449-51 the Venerable Ananda gives a detailed 
explanation of the verse. Readings of the aorists in padas 
b and c differ among the various eds., but without affect- 
ing the meaning. Spk explains that there are two kinds of 
confinement ( sambadha ): confinement by the five hin- 
drances and confinement by the five cords of sensual 
pleasure, the former being intended here. The opening 




2. Devaputtasamyutta: Notes 3 87 



( okasa ) is a name for jhana. In the analysis given by 
Ananda, however, confinement and the opening are 
explained sequentially: first the five cords of sensual 
pleasure are called confinement and the first jhana the 
opening; then vitakka-vicdra are confinement and the sec- 
ond jhana the opening; and so on, culminating in the 
destruction of the dsavas as the final opening. 

The withdrawn chief bull (patilinanisabho): The Buddha 
was called a chief bull at 1:38. At AN II 41,29-32 a bhikkhu 
is said to be patilina, "withdrawn," when he has aban- 
doned the conceit "I am." 

152 The "Dhamma for the attainment of Nibbana" ( dhammam 
nibbanapattiyd) is presumably the Noble Eightfold Path. 
Spk-pt: This young deva had been an obtainer of the first 
jhana in a previous existence. He spoke his verse to extol 
the Blessed One for obtaining the bliss of jhana. The 
Buddha's reply is intended to show that the first form- 
sphere jhana is a mere fragment of the infinite and 
immeasurable qualities of a Buddha. By mindfulness ( sati ) 
he refers to the mindfulness of insight and of the noble 
path. Well concentrated ( susamdhita ) signifies both mun- 
dane and supramundane concentration. 

153 Spk explains "religious sect" ( tittha ) as the sixty-two 
views (of the Brahmajala Sutta, DN No. 1). If he founded 
a sect based on one of these views, how could he have 
been reborn in heaven? Because he affirmed the doctrine 
of kamma and did many virtuous deeds. When he was 
reborn in heaven, he recognized the emancipating quality 
of the Buddha's dispensation and came into the Master's 
presence in order to recite verses in praise of energy con- 
formable with the dispensation. 

154 In pada a, parakkamma is an absolutive, not an imperative, 
and hence in sense should precede chinda sotam. 
Parakkama, the corresponding noun, is the third member 
of a set of three terms denoting successive stages in the 
development of energy: arambhadhatu, nikkamadhatu, 
parakkamadhatu; at 46:2, 46:51 they have been translated 
"the element of arousal, the element of endeavour, the ele- 
ment of exertion." 

155 Spk explains sahkassaram in pada c as sahkaya saritam, 




388 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



"remembered with suspicion": "It is subject to such doubt 
and suspicion, 'He must have done this, he must have 
done that/" 

156 Candima is a deva dwelling in the mansion of the moon; 
the word itself usually simply means the moon. Obviously 
his seizure by Rahu represents the lunar eclipse. 

157 Although both Rahu and Vepacitti are described as "lords 
of the asuras" ( asurinda ), it seems that Vepacitti is the 
overlord and Rahu a subordinate. Vepacitti is the peren- 
nial antagonist of Sakka, lord of the devas, as seen at 11:4, 
11:5, 11:23, and 35:248. 

158 Suriya (usually meaning simply the sun) is the deva 
dwelling in the mansion of the sun. Here the solar eclipse 
is being represented. Spk, after impressing us with Rahu's 
physical dimensions, offers some interesting insights into 
ancient Buddhist views about eclipses: When Rahu sees 
the sun and moon shining brightly, he becomes jealous 
and enters their orbital paths, where he stands with 
mouth agape. It then seems as if the lunar and solar man- 
sions have been plunged into the great hell, and the devas 
in those mansions all cry out simultaneously in terror. 
While Rahu can cover the mansions with his hands, jaw, 
and tongue, and can even stuff his cheeks with them, he is 
unable to obstruct their motion. If he did make such an 
attempt they would split his head and come through the 
other side or pull him along and push him down [Spk-pt: 
because their motion is determined by the law of kamma 
and is extremely hard for anyone to stop directly]. 

159 Pajam mama. Spk: It is said that on the day the Buddha 
spoke the Mahasamaya Sutta (DN No. 20) the two young 
devas Candima and Suriya attained the fruit of stream- 
entry. Hence the Blessed One says "my child," meaning 
"he is my (spiritual) son." C.Rh.D's conjecture (at KS 1:72, 
n. 2) that the Buddha speaks thus with reference to his 
own (legendary) solar descent seems unlikely. 

160 Spk glosses kacche va in pada b by kacche viya, "like an 
armpit" [Spk-pt: in the sense of a cramped place]. Spk: 
Kaccha (used metaphorically) means either a cramped 
mountain pass ( pabbatakaccha ) or a constriction in a river 
( nadikaccha ). 




2. D evaputtasamyutta: Notes 389 



161 Spk: With flaws discarded ( ranahjaha ): with defilements dis- 
carded ( kilesanjahd ). In MLDB, in the translation of MN 
No. 139, arana is rendered "nonconflict" or "without con- 
flict," and sa-rana "with conflict." However, while in both 
Pali and Sanskrit rana can mean battle or conflict, the Pali 
commentators consistently gloss it with raja-kilesa, "dust, 
defilement." Thus Ps V 32 has sa-rano ti sarajo sakileso, 
arano ti arajo tiikkileso. See too v. 585c and n. 398. 

162 I adopt Se and Ee2 Venhu over Be and Eel Vendu; the 
reading Vennu in SS may, however, be the historical form. 
The name is the Pali equivalent of Skt Visnu; perhaps this 
young deva is a prototype of the Hindu deity. 

163 The reading of pada c is uncertain: Be and Se read yuhjam 
(a modified plural participle?), Eel & 2 yuhja, and SS yajja. 
VAT suggests an absolutive yujja. 

164 The question and the reply are found, with several differ- 
ences, at Sn 173-75. I read pada a with Se, Ee2, and Sn 173 
ko sii 'dha, as against katham su in Be and Eel; the Skt cited 
at Ybhus 10:1 has ka etam ogham tarati (Enomoto, CSCS, 
p. 52). Spk explains pada c of the question: below it is 
without support (appatitthe), above it is without a hold 
(analambe in text, andlambane in gloss). The Pali words patittha 
and alambana (or arammana) have doctrinally important 
nuances; see n. 2 above and 12:38—40 and 22:53-54. 

165 In pada c, I read with Eel and SS nandibhavaparikkhino, as 
against Be, Se, and Ee2 nandiragaparikkhino (in both text 
and Spk). Spk's gloss on nandiraga here ( tayo kammabhi- 
sahkhara) corresponds so closely to its gloss on nandibhava 
in v. 2 (see n. 8) that we might well suppose the original 
text available to the commentator read -bhava- rather than 
-raga-. Sn 175 also reads -bhava-, as does the version of the 
verse cited at Nett 146,22. 

Spk: By the mention of sensual perception (kamasahha) the 
five lower fetters are implied; by the fetter of form (rupa- 
samyojana), the five higher fetters; by delight in existence, 
the three kinds of kammic volitional formations (demeri- 
torious, meritorious, imperturbable — see 12:51). Thus one 
who has abandoned the ten fetters and the three kinds of 
kammic formations does not sink in the deep, in the great 
flood. Or else: sensual perception implies sense-sphere 




390 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



existence; the fetter of form, form-sphere existence; and 
formless-sphere existence is implied by the former two. 
Delight in existence denotes the three kinds of kammic for- 
mations. Thus one who does not generate the three kinds 
of volitional formations regarding the three realms of exis- 
tence does not sink in the deep. 

166 Spk: This young dev a had been playing in the Nandana 
Grove together with his retinue of a thousand nymphs. 
Five hundred nymphs had climbed up a tree and were 
singing and throwing down flowers when they suddenly 
expired and were immediately reborn in the Avici hell. 
When the young deva realized they were missing and dis- 
covered they had been reborn in hell, he examined his 
own vital force and saw that he himself and the other five 
hundred nymphs were due to die in seven days and to 
take rebirth in hell. Hence, in utter fear, he came to the 
Buddha seeking consolation. 

The story (along with the verses) is also related in the 
two commentaries to the Satipatthana Sutta (Sv III 750,3-27; 
Ps I 235,16-236,3). Despite the commentaries, however, I 
prefer to regard the young deva's question as an expres- 
sion of the deep anxiety perpetually at the core of the 
human (and celestial) situation. 

167 In pada c, I read kicchesu with Be, Se, and Ee2, as against 
kiccesu (duties) in Eel and certain SS. Kicchesu is better 
supported by the comment in Spk: imesu uppannanuppan- 
nesu dukkhesu, "these sufferings both arisen and unarisen." 

168 I read pada a with Be: ndhhatra bojjhd tapasa. The reading 
bojjhahga-tapasd, in Se and Eel & 2, may have crept into 
the text from the commentarial paraphrase in Spk, which 
is most intelligible in the Be reading: Ndhhatra bojjhd tapasa 
ti bojjhatigabhdvanah ca tapogunah ca ahhatra muhcitva sot- 
thim na passdmi. Spk-pt lends further support to this read- 
ing by glossing bojjhd with bodhito and explaining it as an 
ablative. The Skt version cited at Ybhus 5:2 has jhdnatapaso 
(Enomoto, CSCS, p. 8). 

Spk: Even though the development of the enlighten- 
ment factors is mentioned first and restraint of the sense 
faculties afterwards, sense restraint should be understood 
first. For when this is mentioned/the fourfold purification 




2. Devaputtasamyutta: Notes 391 



of virtue is implied (see Vism 15,29-16,16; Ppn 1:42). 
Established on this, a bhikkhu undertakes the ascetic prac- 
tices, here called austerity ( tapa ), enters a forest, and by 
developing a meditation subject he develops the enlight- 
enment factors together with insight. Then the noble path 
arises in him with Nibbana as its object; the latter is what 
is meant by relinquishing all ( sabbanissagga ). [Spk-pt: For 
here everything comprised in formations is relinquished.] 
Thus the Blessed One turned the discourse into one on the 
Four Noble Truths, at the end of which the young deva 
was established in the fruit of stream-entry. 

Spk-pt: Though here only his own attainment of distinc- 
tion is mentioned, it should be understood that the five 
hundred nymphs were also established in the fruit of 
stream-entry; for that is said in the commentary to the 
Mahasatipatthana Sutta. 

Neither Spk nor Spk-pt comments on the single prose 
line that follows the verse (in Be: idatn avoca, pa, tatth' eva 
antaradhayi ti). Perhaps the young deva had acquired such 
a compelling sense of urgency that he quickly returned to 
the deva world to practise in accordance with the 
Buddha's instructions. The Skt version has an additional 
verse, which reads in translation: 

After a long time at last I see 
A brahmin who is fully quenched. 

Who has gone beyond all enmity and fear 
( sarvavairabhaydtitam ), 

Who has crossed over attachment to the world. 

(Ybhus 5:3; Enomoto, CSCS, p. 8) 

169 The texts show variations between anagho, anigho, and 
anigho in pada a of w. 305-7. Ee2 uses anigho throughout. 

1 70 The verse differs from v. 1 in pada c only. 

171 Yavatakam kho Ananda takkdya pattabbam anuppattam tam 
taya. Lit., "Whatever can be reached by reasoning, 
Ananda, that you have arrived at." Spk: The Buddha had 
spoken about the visit of the young deva without disclos- 
ing his name in order to show the great might of the Elder 
Ananda's inferential intelligence. 




392 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



172 Spk does not comment on the name of this young deva, 
who may be an early prototype of the Hindu god Siva. 

173 I follow Se, which adds a terminal ti after the third verse 
and ascribes the next three verses to the Buddha. No 
change of speaker is indicated in Be or Eel. 

174 Vv. 330-31 are quoted at Mil 66-67. In v. 330c I read with 
Be, Se, and Ee2 sakatikacintaya-, manta in pada d must be 
the nominative of the agent noun mantar. In v. 331a I fol- 
low Se and Eel & 2, which read pantham, as against Be 
mattham; Mil (Ee and Se) reads ndma (a corruption?). Spk 
glosses pada d: akkhachinno va jhdyati ti akkhachinno 
avajhayati, which suggests that va is not the emphatic inde- 
clinable but a verbal prefix. Spk, however, takes the va in 
v. 332d to represent viya. On maccumukha (in v. 332c) as 
"the mouth of Death" rather than "the face of Death," see 
Ja IV 271,7, Ja V 479,29, and Vism 233,21-22 (Ppn 8:20). 

175 Spk: koci = katthaci. Koci in this sense is probably a contrac- 
tion of kvaci. 

176 Spk: Restless ( uddhata ): of a restless temperament because 
of perceiving what is unallowable and blameworthy as 
allowable and blameless (according to the Vinaya), and 
the converse. Puffed up ( unnala ): full of hollow conceit like 
an erect (pithless) reed. Personally vain ( capala ): by adorn- 
ing their bowls and robes, etc. Mukhara = mukhakhara 
("mouth-rough"): of rough speech. Rambling in their talk 
(vikinnavdcd): of uncontrolled speech, chattering away 
pointlessly all day long. Muddle-minded ( mutthassatino ): 
with lost mindfulness, devoid of mindfulness, forgetful of 
whatever they have done. Without clear comprehension 
( asampajdnd ): without wisdom. Unconcentrated ( asamahitd ): 
devoid of access and absorption concentration, like a ship 
cast about by a fierce current. Scatter-brained ( vibbhanta - 
citta, lit. "with wandering minds"): like foolish deer on a 
road. Loose in their sense faculties ( pakatindriya ): with open 
faculties due to lack of restraint, just as when they were 
laymen. 

177 Spk: The young deva realized that his exhortation would 
not be effective if he approached each monk individually, 
and thus he approached them when they had assembled 
for the Uposatha day observance (see n. 513). 




2. Devaputtasamyutta: Notes 393 



178 Spk: Through infatuation by defilements [Spk-pt: by crav- 
ing], they are infatuated with the daughters-in-law, etc., in 
the homes of others. 

179 In pada b, I read vaddmaham, with Be, Se, and Ee2, as 
against Eel vandamaham. Eel has the former reading in the 
parallel v. 794b. 

Spk: As dead bodies, thrown into the charnel ground, 
are eaten by various predators and even their relatives do 
not protect them or guard them, so such men are rejected, 
without protector, in that they do not get any instruction or 
advice from their preceptors and teachers. They are just 
like the dead. 

180 Spk: Rohitassa posed his question about the end of the 
world with reference to the stellar world-sphere ( cakka - 
vdla-loka), but the Blessed One answered with reference to 
the world of formations (sahkhara-loka). 

181 This stock description of the archer is also at 20:6 
(II 265,27-266,2). Spk: Dalhadhammo = dalhadhanu; pos- 
sessed of a bow of the maximum size ( uttamappamanena 
dhanuna samanndgato). A plural dalhadhammino occurs 
below at v. 708b. At EV I, n. to 1210, Norman proposes 
that this form must have been borrowed from a dialect 
where -nv- > -mm- instead of -tin-. MW lists two Skt words 
meaning "with firm bows," drdhadhanvan and drdha- 
dhanvin. We might assume it is the former that appears in 
Pali as dalhadhamma, the latter as dalhadhammin ; see too 
n. 488. A similar development affected the homonym 
dhanvan (= desert); see n. 264. 

182 Spk glosses loka with dukkhasacca and each of the other 
terms by way of the other three noble truths. Thus the 
Buddha shows: "I do not make known these four truths in 
external things like grass and wood, but right here in this 
body composed of the four great elements." 

This pithy utterance of the Buddha, which may well be 
the most profound proposition in the history of human 
thought, is elucidated at 35:116 by the Venerable Ananda, 
who explains that in the Noble One's Discipline "the 
world" is "that in the world by which one is a perceiver 
and conceiver of the world," i.e., the six sense bases. From 
Ananda's explanation we can draw out the following 




394 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



implications: The world with which the Buddha's teach- 
ing is principally concerned is "the world of experience," 
and even the objective world is of interest only to the 
extent that it serves as the necessary external condition for 
experience. The world is identified with the six sense 
bases because the latter are the necessary internal condi- 
tion for experience and thus for the presence of a world. 
As long as the six sense bases persist, a world will always 
be spread out before us as the objective range of percep- 
tion and cognition. Thus one cannot reach the end of the 
world by travelling, for wherever one goes one inevitably 
brings along the six sense bases, which necessarily dis- 
close a world extended on all sides. Nevertheless, by 
reversing the direction of the search it is possible to reach 
the end of the world. For if the world ultimately stems 
from the six sense bases, then by bringing an end to the 
sense bases it is possible to arrive at the end of the world. 

Now the six sense bases are themselves conditioned, 
having arisen from a chain of conditions rooted in one's 
own ignorance and craving (see 12:44 = 35 : 107 ). Thus by 
removing ignorance and craving the re-arising of the six 
sense bases can be prevented, and therewith the manifes- 
tation of the world is terminated. This end of the world 
cannot be reached by travelling, but it can be arrived at by 
cultivating the Noble Eightfold Path. Perfect development 
of the path brings about the eradication of ignorance and 
craving, and with their removal the underlying ground is 
removed for the renewed emergence of the six senses, and 
therewith for the reappearance of a world. For a long 
philosophical commentary on this sutta by Nanananda, 
see SN-Anth 2:70-85. 

183 Spk: The Buddha asked this question because he wanted 
to speak praise of the Elder Sariputta. He chose to address 
Ananda because the two monks were close friends and 
had deep admiration for each other's virtues, and he knew 
Ananda would answer in an appropriate way. 

184 These words of praise are spoken by the Buddha himself 
of Sariputta at MN III 25,6-10. Spk explains: Wise (pandita ) 
designates one who possesses the four kinds of skilfulness 
(kosalla ) — in the elements, in the sense bases, in dependent 




2. D evaputtasamyutta: Notes 395 



origination, and in what is possible and impossible 
(MN III 62,4-6). 

The next series of definitions, which continues for sever- 
al pages, is drawn from Patis II 190-202. Here I give only 
extracts: One is of great wisdom (mahapanna) when one has 
great virtue, concentration, wisdom, liberation, etc., great 
dwellings and meditative attainments, great development 
of the thirty-seven aids to enlightenment, great paths and 
fruits, great direct knowledges, and attainment of 
Nibbana, the great ultimate goal. One is of wide wisdom 
( puthupahha ) when one's knowledge occurs regarding the 
diverse aggregates, elements, sense bases, etc. (Apparently 
Patis takes Pali puthu to be from Vedic prthak, "distinct," 
but prthu, "wide," is more likely the original sense.) One is 
of joyous wisdom ( hasapahha ) when one fulfils all the steps 
of training full of joy, inspiration, delight, and gladness. 
One is of swift wisdom ( javanapahha ) when one swiftly 
understands all the five aggregates as impermanent, suf- 
fering, and nonself. One is of sharp wisdom ( tikkhapahha ) 
when one quickly cuts off all defilements and realizes the 
four paths and fruits in one sitting. One is of penetrative 
wisdom ( nibbedhikapaiiha ) when, full of disgust and revul- 
sion towards all formations, one penetrates and splits 
apart the mass of greed, hatred, and delusion that had not 
been penetrated earlier. These terms, and other types of 
wisdom, are enumerated at 55:62-74. 

185 Spk: When the Tathagata and the Elder Ananda had 
praised the Elder Sariputta thus, the devas in 10,000 world 
systems rose up and praised him with the same sixteen 
terms. Then the young deva Susima, who had formerly 
(as a human being) been a pupil of Sariputta, decided to 
approach the Blessed One with his own retinue and recite 
the same praise of his preceptor. 

Spk does not say whether this Susima is identical with 
the protagonist of 12:70. A young deva of this name is also 
mentioned at 11:2 as a subordinate of Sakka. 

186 Spk: Elsewhere uccavaca means: ucca = excellent {panita ) + 
avaca = inferior ( hina ). But here it means diverse (nana- 
vidha), in apposition to vannanibha. For the blue young 
devas in the assembly became exceptionally blue, and so 




396 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



too the yellow, red, and white young devas became excep- 
tionally yellow, red, and white. To illustrate this the four 
similes are given. 

187 Be and Ee2 include here the phrase saradasamaye viddhe 
vigatavaldhake deve, but as this seems to be an interpolation 
based on the following paragraph I have followed Se and 
Eel, which omit it. 

188 The simile recurs at 22:102 and 45:147. Spk glosses nabham 
abbhussakkamdno (as in Be) with akasam abhilahghanto and 
says this shows the "tender time of the sun" [Spk-pt: the 
time when it is neither too low nor too high]. The verb 
abbhussakkati comes from the root sakk, and has no relation 
to the adjective sukka as Geiger supposes. 

189 I read pada d with SS thus: kdlani kahkhati bhavito sudanto. 
This reading is suggested by VAT, who writes: "The third 
word has been removed by Be and Se, no doubt in the 
belief that it is a Sloka pada (failing, however, to regular- 
ize the cadence). But if one takes it as an Aupacchandasaka 
pada there is no need to remove anything. Confirmation is 
got from Sn 516, the alteration of sa danto to sudanto being 
appropriate for the different contexts." 

Spk does not offer help with the reading but explains 
the sense: "He awaits the time of his parinibbana. For the 
arahant does not delight in death or yearn for life; he 
yearns for the time like a worker standing awaiting his 
day's wage." Spk then quotes Th 1003, which may account 
for the replacement of bhavito by bhatiko in Eel. To obtain a 
Sloka line, Ee2 retains bhavito but deletes sudanto. 

190 Spk: "These young devas were proponents of kamma; 

therefore they performed meritorious deeds and were 
reborn in heaven. Thinking that they had been reborn 
there on account of their confidence in their respective 
teachers, they came to the Buddha in order to recite verses 
in praise of those teachers." Both Purana Kassapa and 
Makkhali Gosala advocated doctrines that were opposed 
to the Buddhist teaching on kamma; their teachings are 
classified among the views that normally lead to a bad 
rebirth. ' 

191 The verse is a concise statement of Purana Kassapa's doc- 
trine of nonaction ( akiriyavdda ), for which see DN 1 52,22-53,4 




2. Devaputtasamyutta: Notes 397 



and 24:6 (in the latter source no ascription of the view to a 
teacher is made). A detailed account of the teachings of 
the six "heretical teachers" (of whom four are mentioned 
here and all six just below at 3:1) can be found in the 
Samahhaphala Sutta, DN No. 2; for a translation with 
commentary, see Bodhi, The Discourse on the Fruits of 
Recluseship, esp. pp. 6-9, 19-26, 69-86. Spk paraphrases: 
"In declaring that there is no result of evil or merit, he 
taught to beings what is trustworthy as the foundation, 
the support; therefore he deserves esteem, veneration, 
worship." 

192 Makkhali Gosala was the founder and leader of the sect of 
ascetics known as the Ajivikas. For his doctrine of non- 
causality (ahetukavada), also called "purification by wan- 
dering on" ( samsarasuddhi ), see DN I 53,25-54,21 and 24:7. 
A full account of his life and teachings can be found in 
Basham, History and Doctrines of the Ajivikas . 

193 The verse alludes to Makkhali's style of ascetic practice 
but, strangely, makes no mention of his doctrines. Spk 
explains his austerity ( tapa ) as bodily mortification and his 
scrupulousness (jiguccha ) as the loathing of evil [Spk-pt: 
the undertaking of the vow of nudity, etc., in the belief 
that this is the way to eliminate evil]. This explanation 
shows that Spk regards tapojiguccha here as a collective 
dvanda compound, "austerity and scrupulousness," and so 
I have rendered it. Sv III 834,37, however, commenting on 
DN III 40,13-52,22 (where the Buddha gives a long disqui- 
sition on how tapojiguccha is imperfect and perfect 
( aparipunna , paripunnaj), explains the compound as a tap- 
purisa meaning "scrupulousness by austerity": Tapojiguccha 
ti viriyena papajiguccha papavivajjana ; " Austerity-scrupulous- 
ness : scrupulousness in regard to evil, the avoidance of evil, 
by means of energy." Tapassi and jegucchi (the correspon- 
ding nouns of personal reference) are used to designate 
separate factors of the Bodhisatta's "fourfold holy life" 
practised before his enlightenment at MN I 77,23-27 and 
78,32-36. See too Basham, pp. 109-15, for a description of 
Ajivika asceticism. 

194 Nigantha Nataputta is identical with Mahavira, the histor- 
ical progenitor of Jainism. His discipline of restraint by the 




398 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



four controls ( catuyamasamvara ) is described at DN 1 57,25-27 
and MN I 377,1-2. At MLDB, p. 482, the formula is trans- 
lated: "(he is) curbed by all curbs, clamped by all curbs, 
cleansed by all curbs, and claimed by all curbs." It is ques- 
tionable whether either the text or its commentary 
(Sv I 168-69, Ps III 58-59) represents a genuine Jaina tra- 
dition. 

195 Pakudhaka Katiyana is an alternative spelling of Pakudha 
Kaccayana, whose doctrine of the seven bodies (sattakdya) 
is described at DN I 56,21-57,34 and at 24:8. Spk says that 
the statement that "they were not far from superior men" 
means, in effect, that they were superior men (sappurisa), 
i.e., ariyans or noble ones. 

196 In pada a. Be and Se read sahacaritena; Eel reads sagarave- 
na, corrected in Ee2 to saharavena, "along with (his) howl- 
ing." Spk-pt supports this: "By merely making a howl 
along with the roar of the lion; that is, the jackal (is not the 
lion's equal) merely by making a jackal's howl at the same 
time that the lion makes its lion's roar." The jackal and the 
lion form a classical pair of opposites in ancient Indian lit- 
erature; see Ja Nos. 143 and 335, where a jackal does him- 
self to death trying to emulate the lion's prowess in hunting, 
and especially Ja No. 172, where a jackal shames a group 
of young lions to silence by trying to imitate their roar. 

197 Spk: Mara thought, "He has spoken dispraise of the other 
teachers. I will make him speak praise of them through his 
own mouth." 

198 Namuci is a name of Mara, which Spk-pt (to 4:1) explains 
as meaning "he does not free" (na muci): vattadukkhato 
aparimuttapaccayatta namuci; "He is called Namuci because 
he does not let one get free from the suffering of the 
round." Spk paraphrases the Buddha's remark: "Just as a 
fisherman throws out bait at the end of a hook for the pur- 
pose of catching fish, so, by praising these forms, you 
throw them out in order to catch living beings." See 
35:230. 



3. Kosalasamyutta 

199 King Pasenadi was to become one of the Buddha's most 




3. Kosalasamyutta: Note s 399 



devoted lay followers, though the texts never say that he 
attained any of the stages of sanctity. This sutta, it seems, 
records his first personal encounter with the Buddha. His 
cordial (as distinct from reverential) manner of greeting 
the Blessed One indicates that he has not yet acknowl- 
edged the Buddha as his master. 

200 These are the six sectarian teachers ( cha sattharo) or "ford 
makers" ( titthakara ), of whom four are mentioned in 2:30. 
Of the two not mentioned above, Sanjaya Belatthiputta 
was a sceptic (DN I 58,23-59,7) and Ajita Kesakambali a 
materialist (DN I 55,15-56,31). 

201 Spk: Na unnatabba = na avajdnitabbd; na paribhotabba = na 
paribhavitabba. Spk distinguishes between "to despise" and 
"to disparage" with respect to each of the four things 
mentioned by the Buddha. For example: One despises a 
young prince if, when one meets him, one does not yield 
way or remove one's cloak or rise up from one's seat, etc. 
One disparages him if one says such things as, "This prince 
has a big neck (Se: big ears) and a big belly. How will he 
be able to exercise rulership?" 

202 Uccdvacehi vannehi. This line reflects the belief, widespread 
in Indian mythology, that serpents can change their 
appearance at will. As Spk testifies: "A serpent glides along 
in whatever form it finds prey, even in the form of a squir- 
rel." See Vin 1 86-87, where a naga serpent assumes the form 
of a young man in order to receive ordination as a monk. 

203 The grim consequences of despising and disparaging a 
virtuous bhikkhu do not come to pass because he har- 
bours vindictive intentions, but as natural fruits of the 
offensive deeds. Spk explains that a bhikkhu who retali- 
ates when provoked is incapable of harming anyone with 
"(his virtue's) fire" ( tejasa ); the transgressor is burned only 
when the bhikkhu bears up patiently. In this respect the 
bhikkhu contrasts with the archetypal Indian figure of the 
maligned holy man who deliberately inflicts a curse on his 
enemies (see below 11:10). 

204 Tacasaram va sam phalam. Spk: As its own fruit injures, 
destroys, the bamboo or reed, so do they injure, destroy, 
him. 

The reed family is called tacasara because its bark is hard 




400 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



like heartwood. Sam here is the reflexive pronominal 
adjective, glossed attano. See EV I, n. to 659, EV II, a to 
136, and n. 657 below. Compare the present verse with 
v. 597. 

205 Atthi nu kho bhante jatassa ahhatra jaramarana. Spk: He asks, 
"Is there anyone who is free from aging and death?" 

206 When speaking of the arahant, the Buddha does not 
describe his destiny as viewed from the outside, i.e., as 
aging and death, but in terms of the arahant's own experi- 
ence, as a mere breaking up and discarding of the body. 

207 Santo have sabbhi pavedayanti. Spk offers three interpreta- 
tions, of which only the first, which I follow, sounds plau- 
sible: "The good, together with the good, declare: The 
Dhamma of the good does not decay.' The Dhamma of the 
good is Nibbana; since that does not decay they call it 
unaging, deathless." The verse = Dhp 151, on which Dhp-a 
III 123,2-5 comments: "The ninefold Dhamma of the good — 
of the Buddhas, etc. — does not decay, does not undergo 
destruction. So the good — the Buddhas, etc. — proclaim this, 
declare it, along with the good, with the wise." The ninefold 
supramundane Dhamma is the four paths, their fruits, 
and Nibbana. Brough argues that sabbhi here must be 
understood to bear the sense of a dative, and he takes the 
point to be that "the doctrine does not wear out 'because 
good men teach it to other good men,' their disciples and 
successors" (p. 228, n. 160). I do not find his interpretation 
convincing, for the Dhamma-as-teaching must certainly 
decay, and only the supramundane Dhamma remains 
immune to aging and death. 

208 "The End-maker" ( antaka ), in pada a, is a personification of 
death; elsewhere (e.g., at v. 448) the word refers expressly 
to Mara. 

209 Spk resolves pacchdsam, in pada c, into pacchd tesam. Sam is 
from esam, a genitive plural form of the third person pro- 
noun; see Geiger, Pali Grammar, §108.1. In pada f, hissa = hi 
ssa < Skt hi sma. See E V I, nn. to 225, 705. 

210 Be: attakarana; Se and Eel & 2: atthakarana. See CPD, s.v. 
atta, for hypotheses concerning the derivation. Spk-pt 
explains attakarana as vinicchayatthdna, a place for making 
judgements (regarding litigation). 




3. Kosalasamyvida: Notes 401 



211 Spk: One day, when the king was sitting in the judgement 
hall, he saw his ministers accepting bribes and deciding 
cases in favour of their benefactors. He thought, "When 
they do such things right in front of me, the sovereign, 
what won't they do behind my back? Now it is General 
Vidudabha who will be known through his own reign. 
Why should I sit in the same place with these bribe-eating 
liars?" The exact purport of this last sentence is obscure, 
and neither Spk nor Spk-pt sheds much light on it. 
Bhadramukha, "Good Face," is a term of affection (see 
MN II 53,27, 210,11 foil.; Ja II 261,14; Vism 92,21), which 
according to Spk and Spk-pt here refers to Vidudabha, the 
king's son and commander-in-chief. However, the pro- 
logue to Ja No. 465 (Ja IV 148-50) relates that King 
Pasenadi's earlier commander-in-chief was a warrior 
named Bandhula, who assumed the role of judge when he 
learned that the official judges had become corrupt. Thus, 
despite the gloss, it is possible the king here uses the term 
with reference to Bandhula rather than his son. 

212 Mallika had been a poor flower girl whom King Pasenadi 
met by chance after a military defeat. He fell in love with 
her, married her, and appointed her his chief queen (see 
prologue to Ja No. 415). 

Spk: The king had asked her this question expecting her 
to say, "You are dearer to me than myself," and then to 
ask him the same question, to which he would have given 
the same reply, so that they would have strengthened 
their mutual love. But Mallika, being wise and learned, 
answered with complete honesty (sarasen' eva ) and the 
king too had to reply in the same way. The translation of 
attd as soul at KS 1:101 is misleading, despite the attempt 
at justification in the accompanying footnote. The sutta 
(inclusive of the verse) is at Ud 47, with the verse 
described as an "inspired utterance" ( uddna ). 

The conversation between King Pasenadi and Mallika is 
strikingly reminiscent of the discussion between the sage 
Yajnavalkya and his wife Maitreyi recorded at 
Brhadaranyaka Upanisad II.4.5 (also at IV.5.6): "Verily, a 
husband is not dear, that you may love the husband; but 
that you may love the Self, therefore a husband is dear. 




402 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 

Verily, a wife is not dear, that you may love the wife; but 
that you may love the Self, therefore a wife is dear" 
(Muller, The Upanishads, 2:109-10, 182-83). It is conceiv- 
able that the Buddhist conversation is modelled after the 
Upanisad but with a different message. Whereas 
Yajnavalkya affirms a transcendent Self — the Atman — 
which is "to be seen, to be heard, to be perceived, to be 
marked," the Buddha extracts an ethical maxim: since one 
loves oneself above all others, one should realize the same 
is true of others and treat-them with kindness and respect. 

213 Spk relates the background story, also found (in greater 
detail) at Dhp-a II 1-12; see BL 2:100-7 and Ja No. 314. In 
brief: The king had become infatuated with a married 
woman and planned to have her husband killed so that he 
could take his wife. One night, unable to sleep, he heard 
eerie cries of inexplicable origin. The next day, when he 
anxiously asked his brahmin chaplain to explain the 
meaning, the priest told him that the voices portended his 
imminent death, which he could avert only by performing 
a great sacrifice. When the king later inquired from the 
Buddha about the voices, the Buddha told him these were 
the cries of adulterers boiling in a cauldron in the great hell. 

214 The sacrifices are also referred to at It 21,12-17, and their 
origin related at Sn 299-305. Spk explains that in the times 
of the ancient kings the first four sacrifices were actually 
the four bases of beneficence (sangahavatthu) — giving, 
pleasant speech, beneficent conduct, and equality of treat- 
ment — by means of which the kings conferred benefits on 
the world. But during the time of King Okkaka the brah- 
mins reinterpreted the bases of beneficence (which they 
augmented to five) as bloody sacrifices involving slaugh- 
ter and violence. 

In pada c, I include mahayahhd, found in Se and Ee2 but 
absent from Be and Eel. Spk explains maharambhd as 
mahdkicca mahdkaraniya, "great activities, great duties," 
which Spk-pt clarifies: bahupasughatakamma, "the action of 
slaughtering many animals." 

215 Yajanti anukulam sada. Spk-pt explains anukulam as 
kulanugatam, "what has come down in the family (as fami- 
ly tradition)." Spk: The regular meal offering that was 




3. Kosalasamyuttai Notes 403 



started by people earlier — this the people give in uninter- 
rupted succession through the generations. 

216 Spk relates, as the background story, an abridged version 
of the prologue to Ja No. 92. The verses appear, however, 
also at Dhp 345-46, the commentarial background story to 
which states merely that the king had ordered the crimi- 
nals brought before him to be bound with fetters, ropes, 
and chains. See Dhp-a IV 53-55; BL 3:223-24. The same 
story is in the prologue to Ja No. 201. 

217 Spk: It is degrading ( oharina ) because it drags one down to 
the four realms of misery; supple ( sithila ), because unlike 
iron bonds it does not constrict one's physical movement 
but holds one in bondage wherever one goes; hard to 
escape ( duppamuhca ), because one cannot break free from it 
except by supramundane knowledge. 

218 The sutta is also at Ud 64-66, but with a different verse 
attached. The Eastern Park is the monastery built by 
Visakha, the Buddha's chief female patron, who was 
called "Mother" by her father-in-law Migara because she 
skilfully led him to the Dhamma. 

219 The jatilas were matted hair ascetics; the niganthas, the 
Jains, followers of Nataputta. 

220 All eds. of SN read this sentence as a declarative (ye te 
bhante loke arahanto), but Ud 65,22-23 (Ee) reads it as an 
interrogative (ye nu keci kho bhante loke arahanto). 

221 This condensed fourfold statement is expanded upon at 
AN II 187-90. 

222 Ete bhante mama purisa card (Se: card) ocaraka janapadam 
ocaritva agacchanti. Some SS read cord (= thieves) in place 
of card, and the same v.l. appears in many eds. of Ud. Ud- 
a 333,18-24, commenting on the passage, explains why the 
king's spies can be considered thieves, which indicates 
that even Dhammapala had accepted the Ud reading cord. 
Spk, however, treats ocaraka and card as synonyms, gloss- 
ing both as hetthacarakd, "undercover agents," those who 
move below the surface (for the purpose of gathering 
intelligence). Spk-pt says: "The expression 'undercover 
agents' — which is what is meant by card — refers to those 
who enter amidst (other groups) in order to investigate 
the secrets of others." The expression carapurisa occurs too 




404 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



at Dhp-a I 193,1, Ja II 404,9-18, and Ja VI 469,12, in contexts 
where it can only mean spies. 

223 Be and Eel & 2 read osapayissami, Se oyayissami. Texts of 
Ud and Ud-a record still more vv.ll., even up to nine; see 
Masefield, The Udana Commentary, 2:918, n. 195. Neither 
Spk nor Spk-pt offers any help. Ud-a 333,25 glosses pati- 
pajjissami karissami, "I will enter upon it, I will act," which 
seems a learned way of admitting uncertainty. If we 
accept Norman's reasonable suggestion (at EV I, n. to 119) 
that we should recognize in Pali a verb oseti, "to deposit" 
(< Skt *avasrayati), osapeti can then be understood as the 
causative form of this verb (< Skt *avasrayati, as pointed 
out by Norman in the same note). Here it is the first per- 
son future used metaphorically to mean "I will make them 
deposit the information with me." See too n. 542 and 
n. 657. Its absolutive, osapetva, occurs at Spk III 92,2, mean- 
ing "having put away." 

224 Spk does not identify the other four kings. The fact that 
they are designated raja does not necessarily imply they 
were rulers of independent states on a par with Pasenadi, 
though the mutual use of the address marisa suggests they 
enjoyed parity of status with him. 

225 The Pali uses the plural ekacce with each assertion, but it is 
evident from the context that each assertion was made by 
only one king. 

226 Manapapariyantam khvaham maharaja pahcasu kamagunesu 
aggan ti vadami. My rendering expands slightly on the 
compressed Pali idiom. Spk glosses manapapariyantam by 
manapanipphattim manapakotikam. Spk-pt: Whatever a per- 
son cherishes, being in his view the chief, is presented by 
him as the culmination, as the ultimate. 

227 Patibhati mam bhagava, patibhati mam sugata. The same verb 
patibhati is used by both the interlocutor and the Buddha 
(by the latter, as the imperative patibhatu), but I have var- 
ied the rendering slightly in each case as befits the speak- 
er's situation. This type of exchange occurs repeatedly at 
8:5-11 below; 8:8 (I 193,3-4), which contrasts thanaso 
patibhanti with pubbe parivitakkita, "premeditated," indi- 
cates the exact nuance of the verb in such a context; see 
too n. 143. The lay follower Candanaiigalika is not met 




3. KosalasamyuttL: Notes 405 



elsewhere in the canon. Apparently he had been inspired 
because he had seen how the Buddha's glory surpassed 
that of the five kings. 

228 Spk: Kokanada is a synonym for the red lotus ( paduma ). The 
Buddha is called Angirasa because rays issue from his 
body ( ahgato rasmiyo nikkhamanti). A parallel including the 
verse is at AN III 239-40. See too Vism 388,1-4 (Ppn 12:60) 
and Dhp-a 1 244 (BL 1:302), and cp. v. 752. 

On Angirasa Malalasekera remarks (DPPN 1:20): "It is, 
however, well known that, according to Vedic tradition, 
the Gautamas belong to the Angirasa tribe; the word, as 
applied to the Buddha, therefore is probably a 
patronymic." 

229 Be: donapakakuratti; Se and Eel: donapakasudam; Ee2: 
donapakam sudam. Spk: He ate rice cooked from a dona of 
rice grains along with suitable soups and curries. 

The dona is a measure of volume, perhaps a "bucket," 
obviously far more than the capacity of an ordinary per- 
son's stomach. 

230 The kahapana was the standard currency unit of the peri- 
od. See Singh, Life in North-Eastern India, pp. 255-57. 

231 Spk says that the nalika, which I render pint-pot (after 
Burlingame), is the proper portion for a man; I could not 
find any source specifying the relation between dona and 
nalika. Spk explains that the Buddha had instructed 
Sudassana to recite the verse, not when the king began his 
meal, but when he approached the end. In this way each 
day the king gradually left aside the last portion of food 
until he reached the proper measure. 

A more elaborate version of the story is at Dhp-a III 
264-66, where it serves as the background to Dhp 325; see 
BL 3:76-77. In this version the king's advisor is Prince 
Uttara rather than the brahmin youth Sudassana. 

232 Spk: The good pertaining to the present life was the slim- 
ming of the body; the good pertaining to the future was 
virtue ( sila ), one aspect of which is moderation in eating. 
See 3:17 below. 

233 Ajatasattu was Pasenadi's nephew, son of his sister and 
King Bimbisara, ruler of Magadha. While still a prince 
Ajatasattu was incited by Devadatta to usurp the throne 




406 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



and have his father executed; soon afterwards his mother 
died of grief. War broke out when Pasenadi and Ajata- 
sattu both laid claim to the prosperous village of Kasi, sit- 
uated between the two kingdoms, which Pasenadi's 
father. King Mahakosala, had given to his daughter when 
she married Bimbisara (see prologue to Ja No. 239). The 
four divisions of the army are elephant troops, cavalry, 
chariot troops, and infantry, enumerated in the next sutta. 

Spk explains the epithet Vedehiputta: "Vedehi means 
wise; he was so called because he was the son of a wise 
woman." This is almost certainly a fabrication. Videha 
was a country in north India, and the epithet suggests his 
ancestry was from that land. Since Ajatasattu's mother 
was from Kosala, Geiger surmises that it must have been 
his maternal grandmother who came from Videha 
(GermTr, p. 131, n. 3). See too II, n. 288. 

234 Spk says Ajatasattu has evil friends such as Devadatta, 
Pasenadi has good friends such as Sariputta. Papamitta 
and kalyanamitta are bahubbihi compounds meaning 
respectively "one with an evil friend" and "one with a 
good friend." They do not mean, as C.Rh.D translates at 
KS 1:112, "a friend of that which is wicked" and "a friend 
of that which is righteous"; nor do they mean "a friend of 
evil people" and "a friend of good people" (though this is 
entailed). The rare word ajjatafi (as in Se and Eel; Be has 
normalized the difficult reading to ajj' eva) seems to mean 
"for today, for this day," with the implication that the sit- 
uation will soon change. 

235 Spk: jayam veram pasavati ti jinanto veram pasavati, veripug- 
galam labhati; “The victorious one breeds enmity, one con- 
quering breeds enmity, begets an inimical person." Spk 
thus interprets jayam in pada a as a nominative present 
participle functioning as subject. At EV II, n. to 26, 
Norman suggests it might be a namul absolutive, i.e., a 
rare type of absolutive formed from the -am termination 
(see too EV I, n. to 22). While at v. 407 we do find jayam as 
a participle, the word also occurs as a neuter nominative 
at v. 619c, and thus there should be no reason not to inter- 
pret it in the same way here. See the discussion in Brough, 
Gandhari Dharmapada, pp. 238-39, n. to 180. 




3. Kosalasamyuttd. Notes 407 



236 I read pada d with Be and Se: so vilutto viluppati, as against 
Eel & 2 vilumpati. Spk glosses the line, in its occurrence at 
v. 407f, with a passive verb: so vilumpako vilumpiyati. To 
preserve the logic of the verse it is really necessary to 
accept the passive verb and to understand the passive past 
participle as active in sense. The BHS version at Uv 9:9 is 
more intelligible, with an agent noun in place of the past 
participle: so vilopta vilupyate. 

237 Spk glosses kammavivattena : "By the maturation of 
kamma, when the kamma of plundering yields its result." 
Spk-pt adds: "The kamma which has vanished matures 
when it gains an opportunity (to ripen) by meeting a con- 
dition (conducive to its ripening)." 

238 Spk: He was displeased thinking, "I elevated Queen 
Mallika from a poor family to the rank of queen. If she 
had given birth to a son she would have won great hon- 
our, but now she has lost that opportunity." 

This daughter was almost certainly the Princess Vajiri 
(see MN II 110,10-18), who was later married to King 
Ajatasattu of Magadha after the two kings were reconciled. 
Prince Vidudabha, the heir to the throne, was begotten 
from another wife of Pasenadi, Vasabha-khattiya, a Sakyan 
lady of mixed descent who was passed off to Pasenadi as 
a pure-bred Sakyan princess. Vidudabha later usurped the 
throne and left his father to die in exile. When he learned 
that the Sakyans had deceived his father he massacred 
them and almost decimated the entire Saykan clan. 

239 In pada b, I follow Eel & 2 in reading posa, "than a man," 
though Be and Se, as well as Spk, read posa, which Spk 
glosses as the imperative posehi, "nourish (her)." Spk sees 
the comparison with a son implicit in seyyd : "Even a 
woman may be better than a dull, stupid son." In pada d, 
sassudeva literally means "having (her) mother-in-law as a 
deva"; Spk adds father-in-law in the gloss. 

240 In pada b, it is uncertain from the text whether disampati is 
nominative or vocative, but I follow Spk, which glosses it 
with the vocative disajetthaka. With Be, Se, and Ee2, 1 read 
pada c as tadisd subhagiya putto and comply with Spk by 
translating tadisd as if it were a truncated genitive qualify- 
ing the woman. Eel reads tadiso in apposition to putto. 




408 L The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



241 Spk explains appamada as karapaka-appamada, "activating 
diligence," which Spk-pt says is diligence that motivates 
one to engage in the three bases of meritorious deeds (giv- 
ing, virtue, and meditation). Spk: Diligence, though mun- 
dane, is still the chief even among the exalted and supra- 
mundane states (i.e., the jhanas, paths, and fruits) because 
it is the cause for their attainment. 

242 In pada e, atthabhisamaya is glossed by Spk with 
atthapatildbha. The couplet is often quoted by the commen- 
taries, when commenting on the ekam samayam formula, to 
illustrate samaya as meaning patilabha. I have tried to avoid 
the tautology of translating dhiro pandito ti vuccati "the 
wise one is called a person of wisdom" by rendering dhira 
with its homonym, "steadfast"; see n. 72. 

243 Spk: Although the Dhamma is well expounded for all, just 
as medicine is effective only for one who takes it so the 
Dhamma fulfils its purpose only for a compliant and faith- 
ful person having good friends, not for the other type. 

244 The incident reported here, including the discourse on 
good friendship, is related at 45:2. The later version, how- 
ever, does not include the line "beings subject to illness 
are freed from illness" ( vyadhidhamma satta vyadhiya 
parimuccanti ), found at I 88,23. Explanatory notes to the 
embedded discourse will be found below V, nn. 5-7. 

245 The setthi were the wealthy money lenders in the large 
towns and cities of northern India. Originally guild mas- 
ters, in time they came to function as private bankers and 
often played decisive roles in political affairs. Anatha- 
pindika was said to be a setthi. See Singh, Life in North- 
Eastern India, pp. 249-51. Apparently when a wealthy man 
died intestate, the king was entitled to his fortune. 

246 A lakh is a hundred thousand. Spk explains kanajaka as 
rice with the red powder from the husk ( sakundakabhatta ); 
tipakkhavasana, as a garment made by sewing together 
three pieces of cloth. 

247 A paccekabuddha is one who attains enlightenment inde- 
pendently of a perfectly enlightened Buddha ( sammd sam- 

' buddha), but unlike a perfectly enlightened Buddha does 
not establish a sdsana, a religious "dispensation." They are 
said to arise only at times when a Buddha's dispensation 




3. Kosalasamyutta! Notes 409 



does not exist in the world. The story is elaborated in Spk 
and at Dhp-a IV 77-78; see BL 3:240. A version at Ja 
No. 390 does not mention the murder of the nephew or 
the rebirth in hell. A partly parallel story of abuse towards 
the paccekabuddha Tagarasikhi is related at Ud 50,14-19. 

248 Seen. 93. 

249 The sutta without the similes and verses is at AN II 85-86; 
see too Pp 51,21-52,23. Spk: One is in darkness (tamo) 
because one is conjoined with darkness by being reborn in 
a low family, and one is heading towards darkness 
(tamopardyana) because one is approaching the darkness of 
hell. One is in light (joti ) because one is conjoined with 
light by being reborn in a high family, and one is heading 
towards light (jotiparayana) because one is approaching the 
light of a heavenly rebirth. 

250 The candalas were the most despised of the outcasts; see 
Singh, Life in North-Eastern India, pp. 16-20. Spk glosses 
venakula as vilivakdrakula, family of basket weavers; the 
two occupations are listed separately at Mil 331. Rathakdra- 
kula is glossed as cammakdrakula, family of leather workers 
[Spk-pt: because the straps of carts are made of leather]; 
and pukkusakula as pupphachaddakakula, family of those 
who throw away wilted flowers. Perhaps the latter more 
generally included all sweepers and refuse removers. 

251 Lit., "If by means of the elephant-gem I could have it, 'Let 
my grandmother not die/ I would have given away the 
elephant-gem, (thinking), 'Let my grandmother not die.'" 

Spk: When his mother died his grandmother filled her 
place in bringing him up; hence he had such strong affec- 
tion for her. The elephant-gem was an elephant worth 
100,000 kahapana, decked with ornaments worth the same 
amount. The same explanation applies to the horse-gem 
and the prize village. 

252 Cp. with 3:2. The verses are identical. 

253 Kattha nu kho bhante danam databbam. I have translated in 
accordance with the Pali idiom, though in English we 
would normally say, "To whom should a gift be given?" 
Spk relates the background story: When the Buddha 
began his ministry, great gains and honour accrued to him 
and the Bhikkhu Saiigha, and thus the fortunes of the rival 




410 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



sects declined. The rival teachers, intent on besmirching 
his reputation, told the householders that the ascetic 
Gotama was proclaiming that gifts should be given only 
to him and his disciples, not to other teachers and their 
disciples. When the king heard this he realized it was a 
malicious falsehood, and to convince the multitude of this 
he assembled the entire populace on a festival day and 
questioned the Buddha about the matter before the whole 
assembly. 

254 Spk paraphrases: “One should give to whichever person 
one's mind has confidence in." When the Buddha spoke 
thus, the king announced to the crowd: “With one state- 
ment the sectarian teachers have been crushed." To clear 
up the ambiguity he next asked: "Lord, the mind may 
have confidence in anyone — in the Jains, the naked asce- 
tics, the wanderers, etc. — but where does a gift produce 
great fruit?" What underlies the question is a basic prem- 
ise of Indian ascetic spirituality, namely, that gifts given to 
renunciants generate "merit" (punna), which in turn yields 
fruits (phala) — mundane and spiritual benefits — in propor- 
tion to the spiritual purity of the recipients. The mecha- 
nism that governs the relationship between giving and its 
fruits is the law of kamma. For a full disquisition on giv- 
ing and its rewards, see MN No. 142. 

255 The five factors abandoned are the five hindrances (pafica 
tiivarand); the five factors possessed are the five aggregates 
of one beyond training (pafica asekhakkhandha), the asekha 
being the arahant. 

256 Spk equates patience (khanti) with forbearance ( adhivasana ) 
and gentleness ( soracca ) with arahantship [Spk-pt: because 
only the arahant is exclusively gentle (sorata)]. Dhs §1342 
defines soracca as nontransgression by body, speech, and 
mind, and as complete restraint by virtue; but see n. 462. 

257 Spk says that Pasenadi arrived after he had just finished 
impaling a band of criminals that he had arrested when 
they tried to ambush him and usurp the kingdom. The 
Buddha thought, "If I reprimand him for such a terrible 
deed, he will feel too dismayed to associate closely with 
me. Instead I will instruct him by an indirect method." I 
agree with C.Rh.D that the story does not fit well, and I 




4. Marasamyutta: MJes 411 



would add that it even detracts from the solemn dignity 
of the Buddha's discourse. 

258 Spk explains dhammacariya as the ten wholesome courses 
of kamma and says that samacariyd, righteous conduct, 
means the same. 

259 Natthi gati natthi visayo adhivattamane jaramarane. Spk 
glosses gati (= place of motion, "room") as nipphatti, success 
[Spk-pt: "The point is that there is no success to be achieved 
by battle"); visaya ("scope"), as okasa, opportunity, or 
samatthabhdva, capability; "for it is not possible to ward off 
aging and death by these battles." 



4. Marasamyutta 

260 Spk assigns this sutta to the first week after the Buddha's 
enlightenment. 

261 I translate the last sentence in accordance with the reading 
of Se and Eel & 2: sadhu thito sato bodhim samajjhagam. Be 
reads: sadhu vatamhi mutto bodhim samajjhagam. By gruelling 
asceticism ( dukkarakarika ) the Buddha refers to the rigorous 
austerities he practised for six years before he discovered 
the "middle way" to enlightenment. 

262 There is a delicate irony here in Mara the Tempter, usually 
the suave proponent of sensual indulgence, now recom- 
mending strict asceticism. This confirms the old maxim 
that the extremes are actually closer to each other than 
either is to the mean. I read pada d with Se and Eel as sud- 
dhimaggam aparaddho as against Be and Ee2 suddhimagga 
aparaddho. 

263 I read with Be and Se a mar am tapam, as against Eel & 2 
aparam tapam. The expression, a split compound, occurs 
also at Th 219d. See CPD, s.v. amaratapa. Spk: Low austeri- 
ty practised for the sake of immortality ( amarabhdvatthdya 
katam lukhatapam); that is, devotion to self-mortification 
( attakilamathanuyogo ). Spk-pt: For the most part one is 
devoted to the practice of bodily mortification for the sake 
of immortality, and when that is pursued by those who 
accept kamma it may be for the sake of becoming a deva 
(believed to be immortal). See too Sn 249d. 

264 Piyarittam va dhammani. Spk: Arahhe thale piydrittam viya; 




412 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



“like oars and rudder on high forest ground." Spk-pt- 
Dhammam vuccati vannu; so idha dhamman ti vuttam. 
Dhammani vannupadese ti attho ; "It is sand that is called 
'dhammam'; that is what is meant here by 'dhammam.' The 
meaning is: in a sandy place." PED lists dhammani but 
does not explain the derivation; but see MW, s.v. dhanvan, 
where the meanings given include dry soil, shore, desert. 

Spk: "This is meant: If a ship were placed on high 
ground, and were loaded with merchandise, and the crew 
would board it, take hold of the oars and rudder, and pull 
and push with all their might, for all their effort they 
would not be able to advance the ship even one or two 
inches; the effort would be useless, futile. So, having 
known austerities thus, I rejected them as futile." 

265 Virtue, concentration, and wisdom are the three divisions 
of the Noble Eightfold Path: virtue ( sila ) includes right 
speech, action, and livelihood; concentration ( samddhi ), 
right effort, mindfulness, and concentration; and wisdom 
(pahhd), right view and right intention. Mara is called the 
End-maker ( antaka ) because he binds beings to death. 

266 Devo ca ekam ekam phusayati. I understand this idiom 
(which recurs at 6:13 and 7:22) to mean that rain was 
falling drop by drop, not that it was falling continuously 
(the meaning ascribed to it by CPD). It would hardly seem 
sensible for the Buddha to sit out in the open if rain was 
falling heavily. 

Spk: He was sitting there reviewing his practice of striv- 
ing in order to provide a model for clansmen in the future, 
who would strive in emulation of the Teacher. 

267 In pada a we should read with Be, Se, and Ee2 samsaram 
rather than Eel samsaram. The "long course" ( digham 
addhanam) is samsara. Spk: It is said that there is no form 
that Mara had not previously assumed in order to frighten 
the Blessed One. 

268 Na te mdrassa paddhagu. The last word is read here as in 
Ee2 and Sn 1095. Be and Se have baddhagu, Eel paccagu. 
PED conjectures that paddhagu may represent Skt *prddhva- 
ga, "those who accompany one on a journey," that is, 
one's servants. Spk glosses: "They do not become your 
disciples, pupils, apprentices" ( baddhacara sissd antevdsikd 




4. Marasamyutta: Notes 413 



na honti ). The word baddhacara [Spk-pt: = patibaddhacariya ] 
occurs at v. 578a. 

269 This discourse is also at Vin I 22,24-36, set soon after the 
Buddha's first rains residence at the Deer Park in Isi- 
patana. The Buddha had already sent out his first sixty 
arahant disciples to spread the Dhamma. The present 
admonition, it seems, is addressed to the newly ordained 
bhikkhus who had come to the Buddha in response to the 
missionary work of the first disciples. 

270 Spk: Careful attention (yoniso manasikara) is attention that is 
the right means ( upayamanasikara ). Careful right striving 
(yoniso sammappadhana) is energy that is the right means, 
energy that is the causal basis (updyaviriya karanaviriya). 
Unsurpassed liberation (anuttaravimutti) is liberation of the 
fruit of arahantship. On the role of careful attention, see 
46:51. Right striving is the fourfold right effort; see 45:8, 
49:1. 

271 Spk: Mara approached and spoke, thinking: "He won't be 
satisfied that he himself put forth energy and attained ara- 
hantship. Now he is eager to get others to attain it. Let me 
stop him!" 

272 Spk: Mara's snare (marapdsa) is the snare of the defilements, 
that is, the celestial and human cords of sensual pleasure. 

273 This is the Buddha's famous injunction to his first sixty 
arahant disciples to go forth and spread the Dhamma. The 
passage also occurs at Vin I 20,36-21,16, in correct temporal 
sequence, preceding 4:4. Vv. 476-77 follow immediately, 
though here they are separated and assigned to an 
encounter in Savatthi. A BHS parallel, including the verses, 
is at Mvu III 415-16; see Jones, 3:416-17. 

Spk explains the threefold goodness of the Dhamma in 
various ways pertaining both to practice and doctrine. For 
example, virtue is the beginning; serenity, insight, and the 
path are the middle; the fruits and Nibbana are the end; or 
the opening of a sutta is good, and so too the middle por- 
tion and the conclusion. When the Buddha went to 
Uruvela he converted the thousand jatila ascetics, which 
culminated in the Fire Sermon (35:28). 

274 Spk: Mara approached and spoke, thinking: "Like one 
directing a great war, the ascetic Gotama enjoins the sixty 




414 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



men to teach the Dhamma. I am not pleased even if one 
should teach, let alone sixty. Let me stop him!" 

275 I follow Spk in dividing seyya and so and in taking seyya to 
be dative in sense (Spk = seyyatthaya), and so a pronoun 
used in apposition to muni (Spk: so buddhamuni). I also fol- 
low Spk in taking seyya to mean "lodging," though both 
C.Rh.D and Geiger interpret it as well-being. Spk explains 
vossajja careyya tattha so thus: "He should live having relin- 
quished — that is, having abandoned — desire for and 
attachment to his individual existence (i.e., his body and 
life)." 

276 Spk: Upadhi here is khandhiipadhi, "acquisitions as the 
aggregates"; see n. 21, In the last line the change of the 
subject from the singular to the plural is in the text. Spk: 
The enlightened do not resort to such a shelter because 
they have eradicated all fear. 

277 Be, Se, and Ee2 read dubbhago; Eel dubbhayo (which may 
be a misprint); SS dubbhato. Spk: Like one dead and uncon- 
scious ( mato viya visahhi viya ca). Spk-pt: A wretch is one 
who is luckless, whose fortune has been broken; he is sim- 
ilar to the dead and the unconscious. 

278 Spk: Craving is said to be entangling ( jdlini ) because it 
spreads net-like over the three realms of existence. It is 
called binding (visattika) because it latches on to sense 
objects such as forms. It leads anywhere [Spk-pt: within the 
three realms of existence]. The acquisitions that are all 
destroyed are the aggregates, defilements, volitional for- 
mations, and cords of sensual pleasure (see n. 21). Why 
should this concern you, Mara?: "Mara, why do you go 
about finding fault with this and that like small flies 
unable to settle on hot porridge?" 

This sutta might be compared with 4:13 and 9:2, which 
have a similar theme. I have translated Buddha here as 
"Awakened One" to highlight the contrast with sleep, but 
it is uncertain whether such a tension of ideas was intend- 
ed in the original. On the description of craving as "entan- 
gling and binding," see AN II 211-13. 

279 Spk paraphrases: "The good man should live like a baby 
who, after drinking milk, might lie down on a blanket and 
fall asleep, unconcerned whether life is long or short." 




4 . Marasamyutta: Notes 415 



280 The point may be that as the felly revolves around the sta- 
ble hub, so the changing forms of life revolve around the 
stable soul or life-principle. The verse seems to be allud- 
ing to a simile in the Brhadaranyaka Upanisad II. 5. 15: 
"And as all spokes are contained in the axle and in the 
felly of a wheel, all beings, and all those selves (of the 
earth, water, etc.), are contained in that Self" (Muller, The 
Upanishads, 2:116). See too Chandogya Upanisad VII. 15.1 
(The Upanishads, 1:120). 

281 Vicakkhukammaya, lit. "for making eyeless." Spk: Out of a 
desire to destroy the wisdom-eye of the people in the 
assembly. He is unable to destroy the Buddha's wisdom- 
eye, but he could do so for the people in the assembly by 
manifesting a frightening sight or noise. 

282 Spk: In the assemblies: in the eight assemblies (see 
MN I 72,18-20). Endowed with the powers: endowed with the 
ten powers of a Tathagata (see MN I 69-71). At 
MN I 69,31-34, the Buddha says that, endowed with the ten 
Tathagata powers, he roars his lion's roar in the assemblies. 

283 See 1:38 and n. 86. 

284 Spk paraphrases kaveyyamatto in pada a thus: "Do you lie 
down thinking up a poem like a poet, who lies down 
intoxicated with the composing of poetry?" The expres- 
sion recurs at v. 753a. Sampacura, glossed by bahuvo, is at 
AN II 59,12 and 61,10, also in apposition to atthd. 

285 Muhum muhutn, in pada b, is not in PED, and Spk and 
Spk-pt are silent, but see MW, s.v. muhur. The expression 
occurs at Th 125d, glossed by Th-a II 7,13-14 as 
abhikkhanam, and at Th 1129b, glossed by Th-a III 158,8-9 
as abhinhato. Both glosses mean "often," but here it seems 
the more literal sense of "moment by moment" or "con- 
stantly" is implied. The dart ( salla ) is elsewhere identified 
with craving; see w. 214c, 737c. At 35:90 (IV 64,33-34) it is 
said that the dart is the state of being stirred ( eja sail am), 
eja being a synonym for tanha ; and the Tathagata, who is 
unstirred by craving, dwells with the dart removed 
(vitasallo). See too MN II 260,17: Sallan ti kho Sunakkhatta 
tanhay' etam adhivacanam. 

286 Spk: Attraction and repulsion (anurodha-virodha): attachment 
and aversion ( raga-patigha ). For when someone gives a 




416 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



Dhamma talk, some people express appreciation, and 
towards them attachment arises; but others listen disre- 
spectfully, and towards them aversion arises. Thus a 
speaker on the Dhamma becomes caught in attraction and 
repulsion. But because theTathagata is compassionate for 
others, he is free from attraction and repulsion. 

287 At Vin I 21 this exchange of verses is set in the Deer Park 
at Isipatana and immediately follows the pair of verses at 
4:5. A BHS parallel is at Mvu III 416-17, but the first cou- 
plet is equivalent to v. 77ab. 

288 Antalikkhacaro paso yo yam carati manaso. Spk states: "The 
snare is the snare of lust ( ragapasa ), which binds even 
those who move in the sky (i.e., by psychic power)." It is 
more likely antalikkhacaro is intended to suggest the incor- 
poreal nature of lust, which can propel the mind across 
vast distances; see w. 210b, 211b. 

289 Vedayitam in pada a and sahkhatam in pada b are merely 
metrical adaptations of vedana and sahkhara, the second 
and fourth aggregates. 

290 Spk: Though they seek him everywhere — in all realms of exis- 
tence, modes of origin, destinations, stations of conscious- 
ness, and abodes of beings — they do not find him, do not see 
him. See v. 49 (= v. 105), 4:23 (1 122,1-13), 22:87 (III 124,1-13), 
and MN 1 140,3-7. It seems that both the living arahant and 
the arahant after his parinibbana are intended. 

291 Se and Eel & 2: udriyati; Be: undriyati. PED explains as a 
passive form from ud + drnoti. See MW, s.v. dri > pass. 
diryate. Spk: Ayatn mahapathavi patapatasaddam kurumana 
viya ahosi; "This great earth seemed to be making a crack- 
ling sound." Spk-pt: Undriyati ti viparivattati; '"Is splitting 
open' means: is turning over." The word recurs at 4:22 
(1 119,17 foil.). On the evolution of the word in Pali, see von 
Hiniiber, "Remarks on the Critical Pali Dictionary (II)," in 
Selected Papers, pp. 152-55. 

292 On lokamisa, "the bait of the world," see n. 10. Spk 
explains maradheyya, "Mara's realm," as the round of exis- 
tence with its three realms, which is the place for Mara to 
stand. The more usual expression is maccudheyya, “the 
realm of Death," as at v. 16d; the two are effectively syn- 
onymous. See too v. 102d and n. 70. 




4. Marasamyutta: Notes 417 



293 Se and Eel & 2 have kumarakanam as against Be kumari- 
kanam, "of the young girls." Spk explains that on this 
day — "a kind of St. Valentine's Day" (KS 1:143, n. 1) — the 
young girls send presents to their sweethearts among the 
boys, and the boys send ornaments to the girls, even a gar- 
land of flowers if they can give nothing else. 

294 Spk: Five hundred maidens were about to offer festival 
cakes to the Buddha, and the Buddha would have given 
them a discourse at the conclusion of which they would 
have been established in the fruit of stream-entry; but 
Mara, wishing to prevent this outcome, took possession of 
the girls. The expression yathd dhotena pattena, "with a 
bowl just as cleanly washed as when he entered," is a 
euphemistic way of saying that the bowl was empty. 

Spk: Mara made a false promise when he offered "to see 
to it" that the Buddha would get alms. He actually wanted 
the Buddha to expose himself to ridicule by the village 
boys (for coming for alms a second time after leaving with 
an empty bowl). 

295 Spk explains kincana, in pada b, as "the various kinds of 
defilements such as the 'something' (called) lust, etc." On 
the use of kincana to dencfte defilements, see 41:7 
(IV 297,18-19). The devas of Streaming Radiance (deva 
dbhassard) inhabit the highest plane corresponding to the 
second jhana, located in the form realm. They are said to 
subsist on rapture ( pitibhakkha ) because they are sustained 
by the nourishment of the jhana. The verse occurs at 
Dhp 200, the story at Dhp-a 257-58; see BL 3:72-73. In the 
sequel to the verse, omitted in BL, the five hundred girls 
hear the Buddha's verse and become established in the 
fruit of stream-entry. 

296 I follow Spk, which resolves cakkhusamphassavitindndyatana 
thus: cakkhuvinndnena sampayutto cakkhusamphasso pi vmndn- 
dyatanam pi-, "eye-contact associated with eye-conscious- 
ness and also the base of consciousness." Spk says that 
"eye-contact" implies all the mental phenomena associat- 
ed with consciousness; "the base of consciousness," all 
types of consciousness that have arisen in the eye door 
beginning with the adverting consciousness ( dvajjanacitta ). 
The same method applies to the ear door, etc. But in the 




418 L The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



mind door, "mind" ( mano ) is the bhavahgacitta together 
with adverting; "mental phenomena" are the mental 
objects ( arammanadhamma ); "mind-contact," the contact 
associated with bhavahga and adverting; and "the base of 
consciousness," the javanacitta and tadarammanacitta, i.e., 
the "impulsion" and "registration" consciousness. For an 
account of these types of consciousness (fundamental to 
the Pali Abhidhamma), see CMA 3:8. 

Mara's reply, and the Buddha's rejoinder, hinge on the 
practice of using Pali words for cattle metaphorically to 
signify the sense faculties. See GD, pp. 141^12, n. to 26-27. 

297 Here the Buddha is obviously referring to Nibbana. Cp. 
35:117 on the cessation of the six sense bases. 

298 A slightly more elaborate version of the incident, includ- 
ing the verses, is recorded at Dhp-a IV 31-33; see BL 
3:213-14. Spk: "The Buddha reflected thus with compas- 
sion, having seen people afflicted with punishments in 
realms ruled by unrighteous kings." 

299 At 51:10 (V 259,18-20 = DN II 103,28-26) it is said that one 
who has mastery over the four bases for spiritual power 
could, if he so desired, live on for an aeon or for the 
remainder of an aeon. Mara has made this appeal to the 
Buddha, not out of respect for his leadership ability, but 
because he wants to tempt him with lust for power and 
thereby keep him under his own control. It is interesting 
that the sutta does not offer an answer to the question 
whether righteous governance is possible, and this ambi- 
guity pervades the Pali Canon as a whole. While some 
texts admit that righteous rulers do arise (the "wheel-turn- 
ing monarchs"), the general consensus is that the exercise 
of rulership usually involves the use of violence and thus 
is hard to reconcile with perfect observance of the precepts. 
For an insightful discussion of the ambiguity, see Collins, 
Nirvana and Other Buddhist Felicities, pp. 419-36, 448-70. 

300 In pada c. Be and Se read dvittava, though the orthography 
in Eel & 2, dvitta va, is preferable. Spk: "Let alone one 
mountain, even as much as double (dvikkhattum pi tdva) a 
large golden mountain would not suffice for one person." 
BHS parallels to this verse read vittam, treasure, in place of 
dvitta (see Concordance 1 (B)). 




4. Marasamyutta: Notes 419 



301 Spk: "Suffering has its source in the five cords of sensual 
pleasure; that is 'the source whence it springs' ( yato - 
nidanam). When a person has seen this thus, for what rea- 
son should he incline to those sensual pleasures which are 
the source of suffering?" Upadhi in pada c is glossed b) 
Spk as kamaguna-upadhi; see n. 21. In place of sango, tie, the 
BHS versions read salyam (Pali: sallam), dart. 

Spk-pt: The source of suffering is craving, and the- 
source of craving is the five cords of sensual pleasure 
Therefore it is said that the five cords of sensual pleas 
ure — the condition for craving — are the source of suffer- 
ing. When one who has fully understood reality has seen 
suffering as it really is with the eye of wisdom, and seen 
the cords of sensual pleasure to be its source, there is no 
reason for him to incline to sensual pleasures. 

302 Spk: "The staff of udumbara wood, slightly crooked, was 
for the sake of showing that he was of few wishes (appiccha- 
bhava, an ascetic virtue)." In the Vedic sacrifices, udumbara 
wood was used for all kinds of ritual purposes; the sacrifi- 
cial post, ladle, and amulets were made of this wood 
(Macdonell and Keith, Vedic Index, s.v. udumbara). 

303 See 1:20. Here Mara appears as a proponent of the brah- 
manical idea that renunciation ( sannyasa ) must be post- 
poned until after one has enjoyed a full married life. On 
how young bhikkhus, lads "in the prime of life, who have 
not dallied with sensual pleasures," can live the holy life 
without being overcome by sensual desire, see 35:127. 

304 This is a gesture of frustration. Dandapani the Sakyan is 
described in the same terms at MN 1 109,1-2. 

305 Samiddhi has already appeared at 1:20. 

306 As at 4:17; see n. 291. 

307 The verse = Th 46, Samiddhi's sole stanza. I understand 
buddha in pada b to be simply a variant spelling of vuddha 
(the reading at Th 46), though Spk glosses buddha here as 
hat a, to which Spk-pt adds: Ta ariyamaggena jdnanasamat- 
thanabhavena avabuddha; "They have been comprehended 
by the noble path through its capacity for knowledge." 

308 The story of Godhika is told at Dhp-a I 431-33; see 
BL 2:90-91. Spk explains samayika cetovimutti, "temporary 
liberation of mind," as the mundane meditative attain- 




420 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



ments ( lokiya-samapatti ), i.e., the jhanas and formless 
attainments, so called because at the moments of absorp- 
tion the mind is liberated from the opposing states and is 
resolved upon its object. He fell away from this liberation 
of mind on account of illness. Being disposed to chronic 
illness due to winds, bile, and phlegm (the "three 
humours" of traditional Indian medicine), he could not 
fulfil the states conducive to concentration. Each time he 
entered upon an attainment, he soon fell away from it. 

309 Sattham ahareyyam. A euphemistic expression for suicide; 
see 22:87 (III 123,10,26), 35:87 (IV 57,6), and 54:9 
(V 320,24-25). Spk: He reflected thus: "Since the destination 
after death of one who has fallen away from jhana is 
uncertain, while one who has not fallen away is certain of 
rebirth in the brahma world, let me use the knife." On the 
Buddha's own attitude towards suicide, see 35:87 
(IV 60,1-5). 

310 Spk: Mara thought: "This ascetic desires to use the knife. 
This indicates that he is unconcerned with body and life, 
and such a one is capable of attaining arahantship. If I try 
to forbid him he will not desist, but if the Teacher forbids 
him he will." Therefore, pretending to be concerned for 
the elder's welfare, he approached the Blessed One. 

311 Spk: ]ane suta tijane vissuta ; lit. "heard among the people = 
famed among the people," i.e., widely famed. There is a 
delicious irony, in the above three verses, in the way 
Mara — who usually addresses the Buddha discourteously 
as "ascetic" — here showers him with glowing epithets. 

312 Spk: The elder, thinking, "What is the use of living?" lay 
down and slit his jugular vein with a knife. Painful feel- 
ings arose. He suppressed them, comprehended the pains 
(with insight), set up mindfulness, explored his medita- 
tion subject, and attained arahantship as a "same-header" 
(samasisi; see Pp 13,25-27, commented on at Pp-a 186-87). 
He was a jivitasamasisi, one who attains the destruction of 
defilements and the end of life simultaneously. (Another 
kind of samasisi recovers from a grave illness at the same 
time that he attains arahantship.) 

313 Spk: Vivattakkhandhan ti parivattakkhandham; "with his 




4. Mdrasamyutta: Notes 421 



shoulder turned" means with twisted shoulder. He had 
been lying on his back when he took the knife, but because 
he was accustomed to lying on his right side, he had 
turned his head towards the right and had so remained. 

314 Appatitthena ca bhikkhave vihhanena Godhiko kulaputto 
parinibbuto. Spk: Mara was searching for his rebirth-con- 
sciousness ( patisandhicitta ), but Godhika had passed away 
with rebirth-consciousness unestablished; the meaning is: 
because it was unestablished ( appatitthitakarana : or, with 
unestablished cause). 

Spk-pt: Appatitthena is an instrumental used as an indi- 
cation of modality ( itthambhutalakkhana ). The meaning is: 
with (consciousness) not subject to arising ( anuppatti - 
dhammena); for if there were an arising, consciousness 
would be called "established." But when the commentator 
says, "because it was unestablished," what is meant is that 
the cause for the nonestablishment of consciousness was 
precisely the cause for his parinibbana ( yadeva tassa 
vihhanassa appatitthanakaranam tadeva parinibbanakaranam). 

A similar case of suicide is reported of the bhikkhu 
Vakkali at 22:87. When the monk is said to attain final 
Nibbana with consciousness unestablished, this should 
not be understood to mean that after death consciousness 
survives in an "unestablished" condition (a thesis argued 
by Harvey, The Selfless Mind, pp. 208-210); for enough 
texts make it plain that with the passing away of the ara- 
hant consciousness too ceases and no longer exists (see, 
eg., 12:51). 

315 The verse (which must have been added by the redactors) 
occurs at Sn 449, where, however, it follows the verses 
that correspond to w. 504-5. In the verse Mara is spoken 
of as yakkha. 

316 Spk explains the seven years of pursuit as the Buddha's 
six years (of striving) before the enlightenment and the 
first year after. However, the next sutta, which apparently 
follows in immediate temporal sequence, is the tempta- 
tion by Mara's daughters, which other sources clearly 
place right after the enlightenment (see n. 322). The pres- 
ent sutta seems to confirm this by locating the dialogue 




422 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



with Mara at the foot of the Goatherd's Banyan Tree, in 
the vicinity of the Bodhi Tree. The commentaries generally 
assign the Buddha's stay under this tree to the fifth week 
after the enlightenment (see Ja I 78,9-11). 

Seeking to gain access ( otarapekkho ). Spk: He thought: "If I 
see anything improper ( ananucchavikam ) in the ascetic 
Gotama's conduct through the body door, etc., I will 
reprove him." But he could not find even a dust mote (of 
misconduct) to be washed away. On otara (= vivara, Spk) 
see 35:240 (IV 178,13-16, 33), 35:243 (IV 185,11-15; 186,27-30), 
47:6 (V 147,17-18, 27-28), 47:7 (V 149,7, 16). 

317 Spk Bhavalobhajappan ti bhavalobhasankhatani tanham ; 'The 
greedy urge for existence is craving consisting in greed for 
existence." 

318 I read pada d with Be, Se, and Ee2: yam saccam tani 
nirupadhim (Eel: yarn sabbantam nirupadhim). Nibbana, the 
supreme truth ( paramasacca ), is often described as 
sabbupadhipatinissagga, "the relinquishing of all acquisi- 
tions," and here as niriipadhi. See n. 21. 

319 The same simile occurs in a very different context at 
MN I 234,7-18. 

320 Nibbejaniya gatha. Spk glosses nibbejaniya as ukkanthaniya 
(dissatisfaction) but does not explain the derivation. It is 
likely the word is related to nibbida, though employed in a 
different sense; see MW, s.v. nirvid. 

321 This passage, as far as "unable to speak," is the stock 
description of the defeated contestant; also at 
MN I 132,28-30, 234,1-2, 258,28-30. Se and Eel make this 
paragraph the last of the preceding sutta, but I follow Be 
and Ee2. As the two suttas form a single narrative, the 
division between them is arbitrary. 

322 Their names mean craving, discontent, and lusting. Spk 
explains that they saw their father in a despondent mood 
and approached to find out the reason. The story of the 
Buddha's encounter with Mara's daughters is also record- 
ed at Ja I 78-79 and Dhp-a III 195-98; see BL 3:33-34. 
There it is clearly set in the fifth week after the enlighten- 
ment. The BHS parallel at Mvu III 281-86 is also assigned 
to this period; see Jones, 3:269-74. 

323 Spk's explanation shows that there is more to the simile 




4. Mdrasamyutta: Notes 423 



than meets the eye: "They capture an elephant and lead 
him out of the forest by sending a female decoy, who 
entices him by displaying her feminine wiles." 

324 On the idiom pdde te samana paricarema, Geiger remarks: 
"In courteous speech one uses pdda, feet, for the person. 
The meaning is: 'We want to be at your command like 
slave-women'" (GermTr, p. 193, n. 5). A sexual innuendo 
is unmistakable. Spk, strangely, does not offer any expla- 
nation here of anuttare upadhisahkhaye vimutto, but see 
n. 356. 

325 Spk glosses senam as kilesasenam, "the army of defile- 
ments," and paraphrases: "Having conquered the army of 
the pleasant and agreeable, meditating alone, I discovered 
the bliss of arahantship, which is called 'the attainment of 
the goal, the peace of the heart' ( atthassa pattim hadayassa 
santim)." Mahakaccana provides a long commentary on 
this verse at AN V 47,3-48,4. On piyarupam satarupam, "the 
pleasant and agreeable," see 12:66 (II 109-12), DN II 
308-11. 

326 Both the BHS version of these verses (at Mvu III 283-84) 
and the Skt (cited at Ybhus 4:1-3; Enomoto, CSCS, 
pp. 25-26) have the present tense tarati in pada b, as 
against the aorist atari in the Pali; while the present makes 
better sense, I translate following the Pali. 

Spk: Five floods crossed ( pahcoghatinno ): one who has 
crossed the flood of defilements in the five sense doors. 
The sixth: he has crossed the sixth flood of defilements, 
that pertaining to the mind door. Or alternatively: by the 
mention of five floods, the five lower fetters are meant; by 
the sixth, the five higher fetters. 

327 Spk: Tranquil in body ( passaddhikayo ): this comes about with 
the tranquillizing of the in-and-out breathing by the 
fourth jhana (see AN II 41,21-28). In mind well liberated 
( suvimuttacitto ): well liberated by the liberation of the fruit 
of arahantship. Not generating ( asahkharano ): not generat- 
ing the three types of volitional formations (see 12:51; also 
n. 165). Meditating thought-free in the fourth jhana. He does 
not erupt, etc.: He does not erupt (na kuppati) because of 
hatred, or drift ( sarati ) because of lust, or stiffen (na thino) 
because of delusion. Or alternatively: by the first term the 




424 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



hindrance of ill will is intended; by the second, the hin- 
drance of sensual desire; by the third, the remaining hin- 
drances (see 46:2). 

328 In pada a, I read acchejji with Se, an aorist of chindati, to 
cut. The finite verb seems to me preferable to the absolu- 
tive acchejja of Be and Eel & 2; the variant acchecchi sug- 
gested by PED may also be acceptable. This verb should 
be distinguished from acchejja (or acchijja, Eel) in pada d, 
an absolutive of acchindati, to rob, to snatch away. The Be 
and Eel reading of pada a may have arisen through a con- 
fusion of the two forms. 

I read pada b: addha tarissanti bahu ca satta. Be, Ee2, and 
SS read the last word as saddha, but the gloss in Spk sup- 
ports satta: addha ahhe pi bahujand ekamsena tarissanti. The 
BHT version of Mvu is too different to be of help and may 
be corrupt, but Jones (at 3:273, n. 4) suggests replacing 
raktd with sattvd, which would then support the reading I 
have adopted. Tarissanti is certainly preferable to the vJL 
carissanti, found in Be, Se, and Eel. 

329 The verse occurs in a different context at Vin I 43,27-28. I 
follow Be and Se in reading, in pada c, the active 
nayamananam, the prevalent reading of Vin. Eel & 2, on 
the basis of SS, read the passive niyamdndnam/niyyamananam. 
BHS versions at Uv 21:8 and Mvu III 90 also have the 
active form, while the Prakrit at G-Dhp 267 is ambiguous. 

330 In the BHS version w. 516-17 are ascribed to the Buddha. 
The concluding verse was apparently added by the 
redactors. 

5. Bhikkhunisamyutta 

331 Thi does not ascribe any verses to a bhikkhuni named 
Alavika, but two of the verses in this sutta are to be found 
among Sela's verses: v. 519 = Thi 57 and v. 521 = Thi 58. 
Thi-a 60 confirms the identity of the two bhikkhunis, 
explaining that Sela was called Alavika because she was 
the daughter of the king of Alavaka. She heard the 
Buddha preach and became a lay follower. Later she took 
ordination as a nun and attained arahantship. See Pruitt, 
Commentary on the Verses of the Theris, pp. 83-87. 




5. Bhikkhunisamyutta: Notes 425 



332 Spk explains the origin of the name: After the parinibbana 
of the Buddha Kassapa a lay disciple named Yasodhara, 
while bringing money to build the cetiya for the relics, 
was ambushed there and blinded by five hundred thieves. 
Because Yasodhara was a noble disciple, the thieves 
straightaway lost their own vision as an immediate kammic 
result. They continued to dwell there and thus it became 
known as the Blind Men's Grove. Bhikkhus and bhikkhunis 
went there for seclusion. It vvas about three kilometres 
south of Savatthi and was protected by royal guards. 

333 Strangely, this verse, the appropriate response to Mara's 
taunt, is not found in Thi. Spk: The escape ( nissarana ) is 
Nibbana. With wisdom ( pahhd ): with reviewing knowledge. 
Spk-pt: The intention is: "How much more, then, with the 
knowledge of the path and fruit?" 

334 In pada b, khandhasam should be resolved khandha esam. 
Spk glosses khandha tesam. See above n. 209 and EV II, n. 
to 58. 

335 Thi-a 64 identifies her as the daughter of King Bimbisara's 
chaplain. Two verses here = Thi 60-61, also ascribed to 
Soma, but the third verse differs in the two sources. For 
the background, see Commentary on the Verses, pp. 87-90. 

336 Spk: That state ( thana ): arahantship. With her two-fingered 
wisdom ( dvahgulapahhaya ): with limited wisdom (paritta- 
pahhaya); or else this is said of women because they cut 
the thread while holding the cotton ball between two fin- 
gers. Spk-pt and Thi-a 65 offer a different explanation: 
"From the age of seven on they are always testing 
whether the rice is cooked by taking grains out from the 
pot and pressing them between two fingers. Therefore 
they are said to have 'two-fingered wisdom.'" It should be 
noted that it is Mara who voices this ancient bias. See too 
Mvu III 391,19, where we find dvahgulaprajhaye strimatraye. 

337 Spk: When knowledge flows on steadily ( hanamhi 
vattamdnamhi ): while the knowledge of the attainment of 
fruition is occurring ( phalasamapattihane pavattamane). As 
one sees correctly into Dhamma ( sammd dhammam vipassato ): 
seeing into the Dhamma of the four truths, or into the five 
aggregates that form the object of insight in the prelimi- 
nary phase of practice. 




4 26 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 

Spk-pt: By mentioning the occurrence of the knowledge 
of fruition attainment, the commentator shows that she 
has been dwelling in nondelusion regarding the four 
truths ( catusu saccesu asammohaviharo). Seeing into ( vipas - 
santassa; or, "seeing with insight"): for one seeing distinct- 
ly by the penetration of nondelusion; for one seeing into 
the five aggregates themselves in the preliminary portion 
(of the practice) prior to the breakthrough to the truths 
( asammohapativedhato visesena passantassa khandhapahcakam 
eva saccdbhisamayato pubbabhdge vipassantassa). 

Spk explains in terms of the knowledge of fruition 
attainment because Soma, being already an arahant, 
would have been dwelling in the concentration of fruition. 
In elucidating vipassantassa, Spk-pt, in the first clause, con- 
nects the word with the realization of the Four Noble 
Truths on the occasion of the supramundane path; in the 
second, it takes the word as signifying vipassand in the 
technical sense of the preparatory work of insight medita- 
tion that leads to the path and fruition. 

338 Spk says one entertains such thoughts on account of crav- 
ing, conceit, and views. In pada c, I read with Eel & 2 asmi 
ti, as against Be and Se ahhasmim. Strangely, though it 
delivers the coup de grace to Mara, this verse is without a 
parallel in Thi. 

339 Spk recapitulates the popular story of her search for the 
mustard seeds to bring her dead son back to life, told in 
greater detail at Dhp-a II 270-75; see BL 2:257-60 and 
Commentary on the Verses, pp. 222-24. Her verses at 
Thi 213-23 do not correspond to the verses here. 

340 Padas ab read: Accantam mataputtamhi/Purisa etadantikd. A 
pun seems to be intended between two senses of being 
"past the death of sons." I translate in accordance with the 
paraphrase of Spk: "I have 'gotten past the death of sons' 
as one for whom the death of a son is over and done with. 
Now I will never again undergo the death of a son.... The 
ending of the death of sons is itself the ending of men. 
Now it is impossible for me to seek a man." Etadantikd 
occurs too at Thi 138b. 

341 The first couplet is common in Thi, found at w. 59, 142, 
195, 203, 235, etc. Spk elaborates: "The delight of craving 




5. Bhikkhunisamyutta: Notes 427 



has been destroyed for me in regard to all the aggregates, 
sense bases, elements, kinds of existence, modes of origin, 
destinations, stations, and abodes. The mass of ignorance 
has been broken up by knowledge." 

342 Thi-a 156 says that in lay life she had been a friend of 
Khema, the chief consort of King Bimbisara. When she 
heard that Khema had gone forth under the Buddha, she 
visited her and was so inspired by their conversation that 
she too decided to take ordination. Khema became her 
preceptor. See Commentary on the Verses, pp. 204-6. Her 
verses are at Thi 169-74. While the verses here are not 
among them, interestingly w. 528 and 530 (with minor 
differences) are found among Khema s verses, Thi 139 and 
140. 

343 Spk enumerates the five instruments: atata, vitata, atata- 
vitata, susira, ghana. Spk-pt explains atata as an instrument 
with one surface covered by skin, such as a kettle drum 
(kumbha); vitata, an instrument with two surfaces covered 
with skins, such as the bheri and mudihga drums; atata- 
vitata, an instrument with a head covered with skin and 
bound with strings, such as a lute ( vind ); susira, wind 
instruments, include flutes, conches, and horns; and ghana 
is the class of percussion instruments (excluding drums), 
such as cymbals, tambourines, and gongs. 

344 Though three eds. read in pada c bhindanena, Ee2 and SS 
have bhindarena, which perhaps points to an historical 
reading bhidurena. The Thi counterpart, v. 140, has aturena, 
but Thi 35a contains the phrase bhiduro kayo. Both bhindana 
and bhidura are glossed identically in their respective com- 
mentaries as bhijjanasabhdva, "subject to breaking up." 

345 Spk: Pada a refers to the form realm, pada b to the form- 
less realm, and pada c to the eight mundane meditative 
attainments. By the mention of the two higher realms, the 
sensory realm is also implied. Hence she says, "every- 
where the darkness of ignorance has been dispelled." 

346 She was the foremost among the bhikkhunis in the exer- 
cise of supernormal powers (iddhi), to which she testifies 
in w. 534-35. Her verses are at Thi 224-35. Vv. 532-35 cor- 
respond to Thi 230-33, but with significant differences. 
Thi 234 is identical with v. 521 here ascribed to Alavika. 




428 I. The Book with Verses (Sagdthavagga) 



347 Pada c: Na c' atthi te dutiya vannadhatu. I translate freely in 
accordance with the gloss of Spk: "There is no second 
beauty element like your beauty element; there is no other 
bhikkhuni similar to you." A pun on the bhikkhuni's 
name is probably intended. Se and Eel & 2 include an 
additional pada between padas c and d, idh' agata tadisika 
bhaveyyum, absent in Be and Thi 230. This seems to me a 
scribal error, as it is identical with pada b of the next 
verse, where it fits. 

348 Spk explains padas ab as if they meant: "Though a hun- 
dred thousand rogues might come here, they would be 
treated just like you in that they would get no intimacy or 
affection." I translate, however, in accordance with the 
apparent sense, which also can claim support from the 
gloss of Thi-a on Thi 231. 

349 The iddhipada, "bases for spiritual power," are the sup- 
porting conditions for the exercise of the iddhi or super- 
normal powers described in the previous verse. See 51:11. 

350 Cala, Upacala, and Sisupacala — whose verses appear in 
5:6-8 respectively — were the younger sisters of Sariputta, 
in descending order of age. Their verses are at Thi 182-88, 
189-95, and 196-203. However, not only is the correspon- 
dence between the two collections fragmentary, but the 
ascriptions of authorship also differ. Cala's v. 537 corre- 
sponds to Thi 191, and v. 538 is reflected obscurely in 
Thi 192, both of which are there ascribed to Upacala. 
Upacala's w. 540-43 correspond to Thi 197, 198, 200, and 
201, there ascribed to Sisupacala. And Sisupacala's 
vv. 544-46 correspond to Thi 183-85, but there are 
ascribed to Cala. 

351 In pada b I read phussati with Be, Se, and Ee2, as against 
Eel passati. 

352 On padas ab, see n. 345. 

353 This verse alludes to five of the six sense-sphere heavens. 
Only the lowest plane, the heaven of the Four Great 
Kings, is not mentioned. 

354 In pada a, I read ajalitam with Se. Be apajjalitam, though 
hypermetrical, gives the same sense. Eel & 2 acalitam, 
apparently derived from SS, would mean "unshaken." 

355 Pasanda, in pada c, refers to the "heretical" systems out- 




5. Bhikkhunisamyutta: Notes 429 



side the Buddha's dispensation. I render it, inadequately, 
as "creed." Spk explains the word derivation by way of 
"folk etymology": "They are called pasandas because they 
lay out a snare (Be: pasam denti ; Se: pasam oddenti ); the 
meaning is that they throw out the snare of views among 
the minds of beings. But the Buddha's dispensation frees 
one from the snare, so it is not called a pasanda; the 
pasandas are found only outside the dispensation." MW 
defines pasanda as "a heretic ... anyone who falsely 
assumes the characteristics of an orthodox Hindu, a Jaina, 
a Buddhist, etc.; a false doctrine, heresy." 

356 Spk explains vimutto upadhisankhaye in pada d thus: "He is 
liberated into Nibbana, known as the extinction of acquisi- 
tions, as object." The expression is also at MN I 454,3^4 and 
II 260,22-23. Spk-pt defines "the end of all kamma" (sabba- 
kammakkhaya) as arahantship and "the extinction of acqui- 
sitions" as Nibbana. See too 4:25 and n. 324. 

357 There is no way to determine whether this bhikkhuni is 
identical with Alavika; see n. 331. The verses do not 
appear in Thi. 

358 Spk: Both puppet ( bimba ) here, and misery ( agha ) at v. 549b, 
refer to individual existence (attabhdva), in the latter case 
because individual existence is a foundation for suffering. 

The philosophers of the Buddha's time were divided on 
the question whether suffering is created by oneself 
( attakata ) or by another ( parakata ). The former was the 
position of the etemalists, who held there is a permanent 
self which transmigrates from life to life reaping the fruits 
of its own deeds. The latter was the position of the annihi- 
lationists, who held that a being is annihilated at death 
and nothing survives, so that one's share of suffering and 
happiness is due entirely to external conditions. See the 
debates recorded at 12:17, 18, 24, 25. 

359 One key to the interpretation of Sela's reply is AN I 
223-24, where it is said that kamma is the field, conscious- 
ness the seed, and craving the moisture, for the production 
of future renewed existence. The cause ( hetu ), then, is the 
kammically formative consciousness accompanied by 
ignorance and craving. When that dissolves through the 
elimination of ignorance and craving,there is no production 




430 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



of aggregates, elements, and sense bases in a future life. 
The imagery of seeds and vegetation recurs at 22:54, 
which also helps to illuminate these verses. 

360 Spk provides no personal identification, and no verses in 
her name have come down in Thi. 

361 The simile of the chariot is elaborated at Mil 27-28, which 
quotes the previous verse. Vism 593,18-19 (Ppn 18:28) also 
quotes these two verses to confirm that "there is no being 
apart from name-and-form." Vv. 553-54 are quoted at 
Abhidh-k-bh pp. 465-66, ascribed to the arahant nun Saila 
(= Sela); see Enomoto, CSCS, p. 42. 

In v. 555 suffering signifies the inherent unsatisfactori- 
ness of the five aggregates ( pahcakkhandhadukkha ), which is 
identical with the heap of sheer formations ( suddhasahkhara - 
puhja) in v. 553c. See too 12:15: "What arises is only suffer- 
ing arising, what ceases is only suffering ceasing." 



6, Brahmasamyutta 

362 The incident is also recorded at Vin I 4-7 and 
MN I 167-169, and at DN II 36-40 with the Buddha 
Vipassi and Mahabrahma as the speakers. Spk assigns the 
incident to the eighth week after the enlightenment. A 
BHS parallel at Mvu III 314-19, considerably more ornate, 
records several variant traditions of the encounter, more 
or less corresponding with the Pali version; see Jones, 
3:302-9. 

363 Spk explains alaya objectively as the five cords of sensual 
pleasure, called "adhesions" because it is these to which 
beings adhere; and again, subjectively, as the 108 mental 
examinations driven by craving ( tanhavicaritani ; see 
AN II 212,8-213,2), since it is these that adhere to their 
objects. 

364 Spk: All these terms are synonyms for Nibbana. For con- 
tingent upon that (tam agamma), all the vacillations of for- 
mations become still and calm down; all acquisitions are 
relinquished; all cravings are destroyed; all lustful defile- 
ments fade away; and all suffering ceases. Spk-pt: 
Contingent upon that: in dependence upon that, because it 
is the object condition for the noble path. 




6.Brahmasamyutta:Notes 431 



365 The exact meaning of anacchariya is uncertain. Spk (along 
with other commentaries) offers only a verbal resolution, 
which is hardly a semantic solution: Anacchariya ti anu- 
acchariya ("repeatedly (or according to) acchariya"). Most 
translators render it "spontaneously," apparently taking 
the stem to be acchara = "moment"; but the commentators 
seem to understand the stem to be acchariya = "wonder- 
ful." 

Spk-pt proposes an additional etymology which entails 
the same meaning: Vuddhippatta va acchariya anacchariya; 
vuddhi-attho pi hi a-karo hoti yatha asekkha dhamma ti; "Or 
non-wonderful is the wonderful that has increased, for the 
syllable a (the negative prefix) also signifies what has 
increased, as in 'qualities of a non-trainee' (i.e., of an ara- 
hant, 'one beyond training')." Though the derivation is 
problematic, from lack of an alternative I conform to cur- 
rent practice and use "astounding" as the intensification. 

Spk-pt says: "The verses have the quality of 'astound- 
ingness' because they indicate that after having fulfilled 
the perfections (parami) for four incalculables and 100,000 
aeons for the sake of sharing the Dhamma with the world 
and its devas, now that he has achieved kingship of the 
Dhamma he wishes to live at ease. It is this 'astounding- 
ness' that is intensified [by the negative prefix an-)." 

Von Hinuber contends that anacchariya represents Skt 
*an-aksar-ika (see "Anacchariya pubbe assutapubba," in 
Selected Papers, pp. 17-24), but his argument rests on the 
assumption that pubbe assutapubba would be a redundancy 
and therefore pubbe must be taken in apposition to the 
preceding anacchariya. This assumption, however, is con- 
tradicted by DN I 184,27-29, where we find pubbe . . . suta- 
pubba as one block. Interestingly, no corresponding word 
is to be found in the Mvu and Lalitavistara versions of the 
same incident. 

366 Spk: Living at ease ( appossukkata , lit. "little zeal") means 
lack of desire to teach. But why did his mind so incline 
after he had made the aspiration to Buddhahood, fulfilled 
the perfections, and attained omniscience? Because as he 
reflected, the density of the defilements of beings and the 
profundity of the Dhamma became manifest to him. Also, 




432 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



he knew that if he inclined to living at ease, Brahma 
would request him to teach, and since beings esteem 
Brahma, this would instill in them a desire to hear the 
Dhamma. On ussukka, see n. 54. 

367 Brahma Sahampati appears in dramatic roles at key points 
in the Buddha's ministry and also utters the first verse at 
his parinibbana (v. 608 below). See 48:57 for his own 
account of how he become a prominent deity in the 
brahma world. His other appearances in SN are at: 6:2, 3, 
10, 12, 13; 11:17; 22:80; 47:18, 43. In the Mvu version the 
deity who arrives is referred to simply as Mahabrahma, 
without a personal name. He comes accompanied by 
many other gods including Sakka. 

In this chapter (and elsewhere in this translation), I use 
"Brahma" when the word is part of a proper name and 
"brahma" when it refers more generally to a being or class 
of beings. Sometimes there is no hard and fast boundary 
between the two. 

368 Spk identifies the door to the Deathless ( amatassa dvara ) 
with the noble path, "the door to the deathless Nibbana." 
Although the text here uses the singular dvara, just below 
it has the plural dvara. 

369 I translate pada c in accordance with the reading in Be, Se, 
and Ee2, desassu bhagava dhammam, found consistently in 
the Sinhalese texts. Eel desetu (found also in the DN and 
Vin parallels) seems to be a normalization influenced by 
the preceding prose passage. The verse is recited again by 
Brahma Sahampati at v. 919. The Buddha is called the 
"unsurpassed caravan leader" at v. 736b; see n. 517. 

370 Spk: The eye of a Buddha ( buddhacakkhu ) is a name for the 
knowledge of the degrees of maturity in the faculties of 
beings ( indriyaparopariyattanana ) and the knowledge of the 
dispositions and underlying tendencies of beings 
(asayanusayanana). The knowledge of omniscience is called 
the universal eye ( samantacakkhu , at v. 559d). The knowl- 
edge of the three lower paths is called the Dhamma eye 
(or "vision of Dhamma," dhammacakkhu). Together with 
the divine eye ( dibbacakkhu : see 6:5, 12:70) and the fleshly 
eye ( mamsacakkhu ), these make up the "five eyes" of a 
Buddha. 




6. Brahmasamyutta: Notes 433 



371 Paralokavajjabhayadassavino. At MLDB, p. 261, the ambigu- 
ous compound is rendered "seeing fear in blame and in 
the other world." This agrees well enough with the com- 
mentaries, which resolve it: paralokafi c' eva vajjafi ca bhaya- 
to passanti. At Dhp 317-18, however, bhaya and vajja are 
treated as parallel terms, which suggests that the com- 
pound should be resolved: paraloke vajjafi d eva bhayafi ca 
passanti. 

372 Katavakaso kho 'mhi bhagavata dhammadesanaya. Eel bhaga- 
vato here must be an error. At MLDB, p. 262, in accor- 
dance with prevalent practice this phrase was rendered, "I 
have created the opportunity for the Blessed One to teach 
the Dhamma." CPD (s.v. katavakasa) remarks that this con- 
strual "is both grammatically impossible and contextually 
unlikely." The rendering here, based on a suggestion of 
VAT, uses the active voice in place of an awkward passive 
construction imitative of the Pali. 

373 Spk assigns this sutta to the fifth week after the enlighten- 
ment. The sutta is also at AN II 20-21 with an additional 
paragraph. 

374 Spk: The first four qualities — virtue, etc. — are both mundane 
and supramundane. The knowledge and vision of liberation 
is mundane only, for this is reviewing knowledge ( pac - 
cavekkhanahana). On this last term, see n. 376 just below. 

375 In pada a, Se and Eel read atthakamena, also at AN II 21,23, 
as against Be and Ee2 attakamena, also at AN IV 91,1. Spk 
glosses abhikahkhata in pada c as patthayamanena. Saram in 
pada d is probably a truncated instrumental, glossed by 
Spk as sarantena ; Norman, however, suggests it could be a 
namul absolutive (see n. 235 above and EV II, n. to 26). 

376 This is the stock canonical description of the attainment of 
arahantship. The sentence beginning "He directly knew," 
according to Spk, shows "the plane of reviewing" ( pac - 
cavekkhanabhumi). 

The commentaries propose two ways of interpreting 
naparam itthattaya, depending on whether the last word is 
taken as dative or ablative. Spk: "Now there is no develop- 
ment of the path again done ‘for this state' ( itthabhavaya = 
itthattaya as dative), that is, for the state of the sixteen tasks 
or for the destruction of the defilements. (The 'sixteen 




434 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



tasks' are the four tasks of the path — full understanding, 
abandonment, realization, and development (as at 56:11; 
V 422,3-30) — taken in conjunction with each of the four 
supramundane paths.) Or alternatively: itthattaya = 
itthabhavato (the ablative, foeyond thisness'). Now there is 
no further continuum of aggregates beyond this present 
continuum of aggregates. These five aggregates stand fully 
understood like a tree cut down at the root." 

I take itthattaya as a dative meaning "for this state of 
being," i.e., for existence in any state of being, so that the 
phrase conveys the same sense as the alternative "roar of 
liberation," natthi dani punabbhavo, "Now there is no 
renewed existence" (see 22:27 (III 29,30), etc.). Elsewhere 
(e.g., at DN I 17,33; MN II 130,16 foil.; AN I 63,30-64,18) 
itthatta signifies the human state (or perhaps the entire 
sensory realm) as contrasted with higher states of being. 
As the stem form itthatta is clearly neuter, it is difficult to 
accept the commentarial explanation of itthattaya as an 
ablative. 

377 Walking on continuous alms round (sapadanam pindaya 
caramano) is the ascetic practice of going for alms to each 
house along the route, without discriminating between 
those who regularly give and those who do not; see 
Vism 60,19-24 (Ppn 2:6), 67-68 (Ppn 2:31). 

378 Ahutim niccam pagganhdti. From the detailed description in 
Spk, this seems to have been an elaborate ceremony in 
which sweetened milk-rice was offered to Brahma with 
accompanying invocations. 

379 Spk: " The path to Brahma ( brahmapatha ) is a name for the 
four wholesome jhanas; the resultant jhanas are called 
their path of living (jivitapatha ). Ignorant of this path, why 
do you mumble and mutter? For the brahmas subsist on 
the rapturous jhanas; they do not eat curdled milk 
flavoured with herbs and seeds." Usually the four brahma- 
viharas are called the path to the company of Brahma, as at 
DN 1 250,32-251,21 and MN II 207,14-208,8. 

380 Spk explains nirupadhika in pada b as one devoid of the 
upadhi of defilements, volitional formations, and sensual 
pleasures. Spk-pt: The upadhi of the aggregates is not men- 
tioned because the aggregates still exist. Has surpassed the 




6. Brahmasamyutta: Notes 435 



devas (atidevapatto). Spk: He has attained the state of a 
deva beyond the devas, the state of a brahma beyond the 
brahmas. (There is an evident pun here on the bhikkhu's 
name.) On akihcana, "owning nothing," see n. 73. 
Nourishing no other (anahhaposi). Spk: This is said because 
he does not maintain a wife and children, or because he 
will not maintain another body after the present one. 

381 Spk: What is behind ( pacchd ) is the past, what is in front 
(purattham) is the future. He has nothing behind or in 
front because he is devoid of desire and lust for past and 
future aggregates. He is smokeless (vidhumo) with the van- 
ishing of the smoke of anger. On the "front-behind" 
dichotomy, see Dhp 348, 421; Sn 949; Th 537. 

382 Spk explains visenibhfito in pada a as "disarmed, without 
the army of defilements" ( kilesasenaya viseno jato). Here, 
however, I follow Norman's suggestion (at GD, pp. 307-8, 
n. to 793) that viseni corresponds to BHS visreni, meaning 
"without association." At Uv 11:12, we find visenikrtva 
(translated into Tibetan by an expression meaning "free 
from the crowd"). 

383 On oghatinnam see n. 2. 

384 Spk: This verse was added by the redactors. 

385 The prose opening of this sutta is identical with that of 
MN No. 49, except that the latter is set at Ukkattha. The 
episode and verses make up the Brahma Baka Jataka (Ja 
No. 405). This brahma's name means "crane," in Indian 
tradition regarded as a bird of cunning and deceit. 

386 Spk glosses kevalam as akandam sakalam, "unbroken, 
whole," and explains the background thus: In an earlier 
human birth this brahma had developed the jhanas and 
was reborn in the Vehapphala brahma world, a fourth 
jhana plane with a life span of five hundred aeons. 
Thereafter he was reborn in the Subhakinha brahma 
world, a third jhana plane with a life span of sixty-four 
aeons. Next he was reborn in the Abhassara brahma 
world, a second jhana plane with a life span of eight 
aeons. Then he was reborn in the first jhana plane with a 
life span of one aeon. At first he knew his own past 
kamma and planes of rebirth, but as time passed he forgot 
both and adopted an etemalist view. 




436 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



387 Pada a reads: Dvasattati Gotama punnakamma. I translate in 
accordance with the paraphrase of Spk: "Master Gotama, 
we seventy-two men of meritorious kamma [Spk-pt: i.e., 
doers of meritorious deeds] have been reborn here 
through that meritorious kamma ( bho Gotama mayam 
dvasattati jana punnakamma [Spk-pt: puhhakdrino] tena 
puhhakammena idha nibbatta)." Neither Spk nor Spk-pt 
offers any further clue as to what the seventy-two refers 
to. I read pada c with Ee2 as having brahmapatti rather 
than brahmuppatti or brahmupapatti as in the other eds. 

Spk glosses abhijappanti in pada d with patthenti pihenti, 
"yearn for, desire." Ja III 359,25-29 employs three verbs: 
"Many people, with their hands joined in reverence, wor- 
ship us, yearn for us, desire us ( namassanti patthenti 
pihayanti), saying, 'He is the Lord Brahma, Mahabrahma,' 
and so forth. They wish, 'Oh, that we too might become 
thus.'" 

388 For nirabbuda, see n. 409. Spk says that this is the extent of 
the life span that remains. 

389 I follow Spk in ascribing the statement "I am the one of 
infinite vision ..." to the Buddha. If the text is read with- 
out the commentary, the words would have to be attrib- 
uted to Baka. The request that follows, however, seems to 
confirm Spk's interpretation. 

Spk glosses: Vatasilavattan ti vuccati silam eva ("It is 
virtue alone that is referred to as 'practice of vow and 
virtue"'). Spk-pt: "It is a vow ( vatabhutam ) because it is 
formally undertaken, and a practice of virtue ( silavattam ) 
because it is practised by way of virtuous conduct, but the 
two terms actually refer to one thing; thus the commen- 
tary says, 'It is virtue alone."' 

390 Spk relates detailed stories behind each of the incidents 
referred to in vv. 575-77. See too DPPN, 2:259-60. 
Malalasekera errs, however, in stating that all the inci- 
dents occurred during his incarnation as Kesava. It seems 
Spk ascribes v. 578 alone to the life as Kesava. 

391 This verse refers to the Kesava Jataka (Ja No. 346; see too 
Dhp-a 1 342 — 44). In pada a, baddhacara is glossed by Spk as 
antevasika; see n. 268. I read the verb in pada b with Be as 
amahhi (or amahha in Ee2) as against amahhim = I 




6. Brahmasamyutta: Notes 437 



thought" in Se and Eel. Though Spk takes the line to 
mean that Kappa thought thus of his teacher, I follow the 
Jataka, in which the teacher Kesava esteems his pupil 
Kappa as intelligent and devout while Kesava himself 
appears almost maudlin. 

392 Spk: He did the preparatory work on the fir e-kasina, 
emerged from the basic jhana, and made a determination: 
"Let flames come forth from my body." By the power of 
his determination, flames came out from his entire body. 

391 I translate padas cd in accordance with Spk's paraphrase: 
"Do you see the radiance, the aura, of the Buddha, the 
Blessed One, surpassing the other auras of the brahma's 
bodies, mansions, and ornaments in this brahma world?" 

394 According to Spk, this brahma had held two views: first, 
the view that no ascetics could come to his world; and sec- 
ond, an etemalist view. The first was abandoned when he 
saw the Buddha and his disciples arrive in his realm. 
Thereafter the Buddha gave him a discourse at the conclu- 
sion of which he was established in the fruit of stream- 
entry, and thus, through the path of stream-entry, he 
abandoned his etemalist view. 

395 The three knowledges implied by "triple-knowledge bear- 
ers" (tevijjd) are: the knowledge of the recollection of past 
abodes, the divine eye (also called the knowledge of the 
passing away and rebirth of beings), and the knowledge 
of the destruction of the taints. Together with spiritual 
powers ( iddhi ) and the capacity for reading others' minds, 
these make five of the six abhinnds or direct knowledges. 
Spk says that the sixth, the divine ear, is also implied. 

396 Spk-pt: A paccekabrahmd is a brahma who moves about 
alone, without a retinue. Spk: They stood outside the door 
like sentries. 

397 Spk says that sata in pada b should also be connected with 
tayo and caturo in pada a; the numbers can be interpreted 
by way of either individual figures (rupa) or rows ( panti ). 
The supanna is identical with the garuda, the giant eagle of 
Indian mythology; see 30:1. Spk explains byagghitiisd as 
beasts similar to tigers ( byagghasadisa ), but the word 
occurs at Ja VI 538,9 in a list of birds; it is there glossed as 
sena, a hawk or falcon. It seems that all these figures are 




438 L The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



illusory creations of the brahma's meditative power. Spk: 
"He shows, 'This is the splendour of the palace belonging 
to me, the meditator.'" 

398 Pada c reads: rupe ranam disva s add pavedhitam. Spk: Having 
seen form's flaw — the fault ( dosa ) consisting in birth, aging, 
and dissolution; having seen its chronic trembling — that 
form is always trembling, shaken, stricken by cold, etc. 
The wise one is the Teacher (the Buddha). 

While the deity is proud of the forms — the figures that 
ornament his palace — Subrahma reproves him by taking 
up "form" in its technical sense, as the first of the five 
aggregates, and then exposing its dangers. 

399 The story of Kokalika is related below at 6:10. 

400 Spk: The immeasurable one ( appameyyam ) is the arahant; one 
takes his measure by determining, "He has this much 
virtue, this much concentration, this much wisdom." Spk- 
pt: The states that make for measurement ( pamanakara ) are 
lust, hatred, and delusion, and with their removal it is 
impossible "to measure" the arahant by way of lust, etc. In 
this connection see 41:7 (IV 297,11-14 = MN 1 298,8-11). 

401 In Be and Eel & 2 the monk's name is spelt "-modaka-." 
He was one of the renegades who joined Devadatta in his 
plot to create a schism in the Saiigha. Spk explains 
akissava, in pada d, as nippahha, kissava being equivalent to 
pahha. Spk-pt derives kissava, perhaps by "folk etymology," 
from "that by which one hears what" (kind sundti etaya ti), 
i.e., learns what is wholesome and unwholesome, etc. 

402 In Be the deity's name is Turu. Spk explains that in his 
previous birth he had been Kokalika's preceptor; he 
passed away as a nonretumer and had been reborn in the 
brahma world. He heard about Kokalika's attempt to 
malign Sariputta and Moggallana and came to advise him 
to abandon this misguided behaviour. 

403 Since the Buddha had declared Tudu a nonreturner, 
Kokalika reproves him for reappearing in the human 
world. A nonretuming brahma does not, of course, take 
rebirth into the human world, but he may manifest him- 
self to humans. Spk paraphrases: "He does not see the boil 
on his own forehead, yet he thinks he should reproach me 
for a pimple the size of a mustard seed." Tudu then real- 




6. Brahmasamyutta: Notes 439 



ized the wretch was incorrigible and spoke the following 
verses. 

404 In v. 589 I have translated pada c a little freely in order to 
make more apparent the connection with v. 590. Literally 
it should be rendered: "The fool collects a disaster with his 
mouth." Kali means both the losing throw at dice and a 
disaster. 

405 Spk paraphrases padas a-c: "This misfortune is trifling, 
that is, the loss of wealth at dice along with all that one 
owns too, including oneself." Spk glosses sugatesu, "fortu- 
nate ones," in pada e as sammaggatesu puggalesu, "persons 
who have rightly attained"; thus here the term refers more 
widely to all arahants, not only to the Buddha. The verse 
is also at Uv 8:4, minus pada c (which Norman considers a 
later addition), and at P-Dhp 301, which includes pada c 
but with saddhammam pi in place of SN's sabbassa pi. For a 
theory regarding the historical evolution of the verse, see 
GD, p. 268, n. to 659. 

406 The relationship of the figures here will be clarified in 
n. 409. 

407 This sutta is also at Sn III, 10 (pp. 123-31), with the name 
spelt Kokaliya. The prose portions are identical, but 
Sn 661-78 gives detailed descriptions of the torments in 
hell not included here. AN V 170-74 combines 6:9 and 
6:10. The background to Kokalika's animosity towards the 
two chief disciples is related in the prologue to Ja No. 480; 
see too Dhp-a IV 90-93; BL 3:247-49. 

408 Spk: The Paduma hell is not a separate hell realm but a 
particular place in the great Avici hell where the duration 
of the torment is measured by paduma units. The same 
applies to the Abbuda hell, etc., mentioned below. 

409 Spk explains the scale for measuring time as follows: one 
koti = ten million years; a koti of kotis = one pakoti; a koti 
of pakotis = one kotipakoti; a koti of kotipakotis = one 
nahuta; a koti of nahutas = one ninnahuta; a koti of nin- 
nahutas = one abbuda; twenty abbudas = one nirabbuda. 

410 Spk: When he was the youth Pancasikha he developed 
jhana and was reborn in the brahma world. Because he 
retained the appearance of a youth they knew him as 
Kumara, but because of his great age he was called 




440 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



Sanankumara, "Forever Youthful." He makes a dramatic 
appearance at DN II 210-19. At MN I 358,28-29 Ananda 
utters the verse after he has given a detailed analysis of 
the two terms knowledge ( vijja ) and conduct ( carana ). 

411 Spk says this took place not long after Devadatta had cre- 
ated a schism and had gone from the Bamboo Grove to 
Gaya's Head; see Vin II 199. In the Vin version, however, 
the Buddha pronounces this verse, not after Devadatta 
creates a schism, but when he wins the patronage of the 
parricide King Ajatasattu; see Vin II 188. 

412 The similes are elaborated at 17:35, followed by the same 
verse. Cp. v. 383. 

413 In pada b, -vippamokkha can be understood as a truncated 
dative (Spk = -vippamokkhatthaya). 

414 Spk: Though one has entered into the midst of the Saiigha, 
one should not dwell there socializing with one's lay sup- 
porters. Having made the mind proficient, having suf- 
fused it with joy and contentment, one should again resort 
to a remote lodging. Pada d is explained: "Freed from the 
fear of samsara, one should dwell liberated in ( vimutto ) — 
that is, resolved upon ( adhimutto hutva) — the fearless, 
Nibbana." 

415 Spk: By this he explains: "Blessed One, just as you are 
now sitting without attending to the fearful objects situat- 
ed there, or to the serpents, or to the lightning and thunder, 
just so do bhikkhus sit when they are intent on striving." 

416 Spk explains itihitam in pada b as if it meant deduced by 
reasoning or logic or inferred from scripture ( idam itiha 
itiha ti na takkahetu va nayahetu va pitakasampadanena va 
ahatn vadami). The use of the expression elsewhere, however, 
indicates that it is specifically connected with oral tradi- 
tion, e.g., at MN I 520,4: so anussavena itihitihaparamparaya 
pitakasampadaya dhammam deseti; "he teaches a doctrine by 
oral tradition, by transmission of hearsay, by what has 
come down in scriptures." See too MN II 169,12. 

In pada d, the thousand who have left Death behind (sahassam 
maccuhayinam) are the arahants. 

417 I interpret the numbers in v. 602 with the aid of Spk, even 
though this leads to the unlikely conclusion that the num- 
ber of stream-enterers is not significantly higher than the 




6. Brahmasamyutta: Notes 441 



number of arahants (cp. 55:5, V 406,11-30). I read pada b 
with Be, Se, and Ee2 as dasa ca dasadha dasa rather than 
with Eel dasa ca dasadha satam. Though the latter gives a 
ten times higher figure, it does not agree with the com- 
mentary, which glosses: dasadha dasa ti satam. It is not clear 
to me whether the "five hundred more trainees" (bhiyyo 
pahcasatd sekkha) means that there are fifteen hundred 
trainees between the arahant and stream-enterer stages 
plus an additional thousand stream-enterers, or fifteen 
hundred trainees who are stream-enterers. V. 603 is also at 
DN II 218,6-9, uttered by Brahma Sanankumara after he 
has said that twenty-four hundred thousand (not twenty- 
four hundred, as Walshe has it at LDB, p. 299) Magadhan 
followers had passed away as stream-enterers and once- 
returners. According to Spk-pt, "the other people who 
partake of merit" (itard pajd puhhabhaga) are those who 
have partaken of merit aimed at the ending of the round 
(but who, presumably, have not yet reached any path or 
fruit). 

418 Sikhi was the fifth Buddha of antiquity counting back 
from Gotama. He arose thirty-one aeons ago (see DN II 
2,14-16). 

419 For a more detailed account of Abhibhu's power of trans- 
formation (vikubbana-iddhi) see Patis II 210,14-30. 

420 This incident is referred to elsewhere by Ananda, and in 
response the Buddha describes the structure of the world 
system (AN I 227-28). There the Buddha claims that he 
himself is capable of making his voice heard throughout a 
three-thousand great thousandfold world system. 

Spk: The elder first asked himself what kind of 
Dhamma discourse would be pleasing and agreeable to 
everyone, and he then realized that all devas and humans 
praise manly effort. Thus he taught a discourse concern- 
ing energy ( viriya-patisamyutta ). The two verses are 
ascribed to an Abhibhuta Thera at Th 256-57; perhaps the 
similarity of names has resulted from a garbled transmis- 
sion. See Homer's trans. of Mil, Milinda’s Questions, 2:51, 
n. 5, for ascriptions of the first verse in Pali and Skt 
Buddhist literature. 

421 This sutta corresponds to the portion of the Mahapari- 




442 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 

nibbana Sutta that reports the actual passing away of the 
Buddha (DN II 156,1-157,19). A few discrepancies between 
the two versions are noticeable. The omission of the 
attainment of cessation of perception and feeling, noted 
by C.Rh.D, seems to be peculiar to Eel; the passage is in 
Be, Se, and Ee2 as well as in the lemma of Spk. All four 
eds., however, omit Ananda's assertion that the Blessed 
One (while still in cessation) has attained parinibbana and 
Anuruddha's correction. The SN version also omits the 
earthquake and thundering, mentioned at DN II 156,35-37. 

422 Spk: Here there are two kinds of "immediately after" 
(samanantara): immediately after jhana and immediately 
after reviewing. In the former case one emerges from the 
fourth jhana, descends into the bhavariga, and attains 
parinibbana. In the latter case, one emerges from the 
fourth jhana, reviews the jhana factors again, then 
descends into the bhavariga, and attains parinibbana. In the 
case of the Blessed One, the parinibbana occurred in the 
second way. But all beings whatsoever, from Buddhas 
down to ants and termites, pass away with a kammically 
indeterminate bhavariga consciousness. 

423 On Brahma Sahampati, see n. 367. The powers ( bala ) are the 
ten Tathagata's powers, enumerated at MN 1 69-71. 

424 At v. 21, we have the same verse with a reading sabba- 
sarikhara in place of vata sarikhara in pada a. See n. 20. 

425 In the DN version Anuruddha's verses precede Ananda's. 

426 VAT remarks: "The absence of in-and-out breathing (in 
pada a) refers to the state in the fourth jhana, where 
breathing ceases, from which the Buddha passed away. 
This is not the ordinary cessation of breathing that sets in 
when anyone dies. The verse states something remark- 
able: that already before 'dying' there was no breathing." 
On "the Stable One" ( tadi ), see below n. 435. On the ceas- 
ing of the breath in the fourth jhana, see 36:11 (IV 217,8-9). 

Spk: Bent on peace ( santim arabbha ): bent upon, depend- 
ing upon, leaning towards Nibbana without residue. The 
One with Vision — he with the five eyes — attained final 
Nibbana through the full quenching of the aggregates 
( khandhaparinibbana ). On the five eyes, see n. 370; on the 
two kinds of parinibbana, see General Introduction, p. 50. 




7. Brahmanasamyutta: Notes 443 



At DN II 157,13 this pada reads: yam kalam akari muni; 
"when the Sage passed away." 

427 Padas cd read: Pajjotasseva nibbanam/Vimokkho cetaso ahu. 
The word nibbana is used here in its literal sense but with 
doctrinal overtones that fit the context. Spk: His deliver- 
ance, not obstructed by anything, his approaching the 
completely indescribable state ( sabbaso apahhatti- 
bhavupagamo), resembled the quenching of a lamp. 
Anuruddha's verses on the Buddha's parinibbana in Th 
include an additional verse, Th 907. 



7. Brahmanasamyutta 

428 The story related here is also at Dhp-a IV,161-63; see 
BL 3:288-89. The opening is similar to that of MN No. 100 
(II 209,21 foil.), which concerns a brahmin lady of the same 
name, there spelt Dhananjani. 

Spk: The Dhananjani clan was reputed to be the highest 
clan of brahmins. They believed that while other brahmins 
had been born from Brahma's mouth, they themselves 
had issued from the top of his head. This woman was a 
noble disciple, a stream-enterer, but her husband was 
staunchly opposed to the Buddha's dispensation and 
would block his ears whenever she spoke in praise of the 
Triple Gem. 

429 Spk: The brahmin had invited five hundred fellow brah- 
mins to a banquet. The previous day he had pleaded with 
his wife not to disgrace him by praising the Buddha 
before his peers. When she stumbled over a stack of fire- 
wood while serving food to the brahmins, she knelt down 
and paid homage to the Buddha. Scandalized by this, the 
brahmins reviled her husband and walked out without 
even finishing their meal. 

430 Vasali, here rendered "wretched woman," is a term of severe 
contempt, used by the brahmins to address outcasts. 

431 The verses have already appeared at 1:71 and 2:3, with 
different narrative settings. This illustrates once again 
how the "floating mass" of didactic verses could be freely 
drawn upon to suit different pedagogical requirements. 

Spk: He formulated his question with the following 




444 I- The Book with Verses ( Sagdthavagga ) 



intent: "If he says, 'I approve of the killing of such and 
such,' then I'll call him a killer and challenge his claim to 
be an ascetic; but if he says he doesn't approve of any 
killing. I'll say, 'Then you don't desire the killing of lust, 
etc., so why do you wander about as an ascetic?' Thus the 
ascetic Gotama will be caught on the horns of this dilem- 
ma, unable either to swallow it or to cough it up." He 
greeted the Buddha cordially in order to hide his anger. 

432 See n. 376. 

433 I give the sobriquet both in Pali and in English. Spk, 
which identifies him as the younger brother of the first 
Bharadvaja brahmin, says that the epithet was added by 
the redactors of the canon because he came abusing 
( akkosanto ) the Tathagata with five hundred verses. 

434 Spk: He had heard that seers (isi) inflict a curse when they 
become angry, so when the Buddha said, "It still belongs 
to you, brahmin!" he was frightened, thinking, "The asce- 
tic Gotama, it seems, is putting a curse on me." Therefore 
he spoke thus. 

435 I have translated tadi as "the Stable One" in accordance 
with the commentarial gloss, tddilakkhanam pattassa, which 
alludes to the explanation of tadi at Nidd I 114-16: "The 
arahant is tadi because he is 'stable' (tadi) in the face of 
gain and loss, etc.; he is tadi because he has given up all 
defilements, etc.; he is tadi because he has crossed the four 
floods, etc.; he is tadi because his mind is free from all 
defilements; and he is tadi as a description of him in terms 
of his qualities" (condensed). A similar but slightly differ- 
ent definition of tadi in relation to the Buddha occurs at 
Nidd 1 459-61. 

436 Be and Eel & 2 read pada a: ubhinnam tikicchantanam, 
which Spk (Be) includes in the lemma and glosses ubhinnam 
tikicchantam, adding: "Or the latter is itself the reading." In 
Se and Spk (Se) the readings are exactly the reverse. As 
the sense requires an accusative singular, the reading 
ubhinnam tikicchantam tarn, found at Th 444a, offends 
against neither grammar nor metre. Ee2 has adopted this 
reading for the exact parallel v. 882 below, but strangely 
reverts to ubhinnam tikicchantanam in the third parallel, 
v. 891. 




7. Brahmanasamyutta: Notes 445 



437 He was the youngest of the Bharadvaja brothers. 

438 Spk: "For one who understands the excellence of 
endurance, this victory — patient endurance — is his alone 
(yd titikkhd vijdnato adhivasanaya gunam vijanantassa titikkha 
adhivasana, ayam tassa vijdnato va jayo)." Note that neuter 
jayam is here nominative. 

439 Spk: He was another of the Bharadvaja brothers. The 
name Bilangika was assigned to him by the redactors 
because he became rich by selling delicious conjee ( kanjika , 
a synonym for bilanga). 

440 Spk: He was so angry his three brothers had been 
ordained as monks that he could not speak. 

441 Spk says that the name Ahimsaka may have been 
assigned to him by the redactors because he "asked a 
question" (i.e., made an assertion) about harmlessness; or, 
alternatively, Ahimsaka may have been his given name. 
From his opening statement and the Buddha's reply the 
second alternative seems more likely. 

442 Spk-pt explains the sila referred to in pada b as paficavidha- 
niyama, an obvious allusion to the second limb of 
Patanjali's Yoga system. 

Spk: By knowledge ( vijjd ) he means the Three Vedas, by 
conduct ( carana ) the conduct of one's clan (gottacarana; 
Spk-pt: the clan itself, called conduct). 

As vijjdcaranasampanna is one of the nine chief epithets 
of the Buddha and is also used to describe the arahant 
(see v. 596), the second couplet, if read apart from the 
commentarial explanation, expresses the Buddhistic 
rather than the brahmanical point of view. See too the 
Buddha's argument with the brahmin youth Ambattha at 
DN 1 99,19-100,16. 

443 A brahmin of this name is encountered in the Vasala Sutta 
(Sn I, 7; p. 21), but he seems to be a different person. 
According to Spk, this brahmin was given the soubriquet 
"Aggika" because he tended the sacred fire. 

444 Spk: He speaks of one endowed "with the triple knowl- 
edge" (tihi vijjdhij with reference to the Three Vedas. By 
"proper birth" ( jdtima ) he means one of pure birth through 
seven generations. 

445 The Buddha's reply refers to the tevijja of his own system 




446 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



of training: pada a, to knowledge of the recollection of 
past abodes; pada b, to the divine eye, i.e., the knowledge 
of the passing away and rebirth of beings; and pada c, to 
the knowledge of the destruction of the taints. 

446 Spk paraphrases the idea behind vv. 636-37 thus: 
“Though I stood for such a long time waiting for alms, 
you would not give me even a spoonful; but now, after I 
have revealed all the Buddha-qualities to you as though 
spreading out sesamum seeds on a mat, (you wish to 
give). This food has been gained, as it were, by chanting a 
song; therefore, because it has been 'chanted over with 
verses' (gathabhigita ) it is not fit to be eaten by me. As such 
a principle exists (dhamme sat'i), out of regard for the 
Dhamma, established on the Dhamma, the Buddhas sus- 
tain their life. This is their rule of conduct; this is their way 
of livelihood ( esd vutti ayam ajivo). Such food is to be dis- 
carded and only what is righteously gained is to be 
eaten." 

The Buddha's practice is discussed at Mil 228-32. CPD 
(s.v. abhigita) suggests that the reason the Buddha rejects 
such food is because it has been "spoken over with 
mantras" — by the brahmin while chanting the sacrificial 
hymns — but to me it is doubtful the Buddha would reject 
food for such a reason. Further, according to MW, gatha is 
not used with reference to the verses of the Vedas, and 
thus here the word more likely refers to the Buddha's own 
verses. 

Spk does not comment on kevalinarn, "the consummate 
one," in pada a, but Pj II 153,9-10 (to Sn 82) says: Kevalinan 
ti sabbagunaparipunnam sabbayogavisamyuttam va; "a con- 
summate one is one complete in all excellent qualities or 
one detached from all bonds." Spk II 276,32-277,1 (to 
SN III 59,34) explains: Kevalino ti sakalino katasabbakicca; 
"the consummate ones are entire, they have completed all 
their tasks." For a further selection of relevant passages, 
see GD, p. 161, n. to 82. For reflections on the implications 
of the term, see Nanananda, SN-Anth 2:100-1. 

Spk explains kukkuccavupasantam thus: hatthakukkucca- 
ditiam vasena vupasatitakukkuccam; "one in whom remorse 
has been stilled by the stilling of fidgety behaviour with 




7. Brahmanasamyutta: Notes 447 



the hands, etc." Here kukkucca is understood in the literal 
sense of "bad activity" or "fidgety behaviour" rather than 
in the extended sense of remorse or worry, one of the five 
hindrances. 

447 Spk: This was his thought: "The portion of milk-rice 
placed in the fire has been eaten by Mahabrahma. If this 
remainder is given to a brahmin, one bom from the mouth 
of Brahma, my father and son would be pleased and I will 
clear the path to the brahma world." See Deussen, Sixty 
Upanisads of the Veda, 1:148: "The residue ( ucchistam ) of the 
offering, i.e., what remains in the ladle, in the saucepan, or 
vessel, is to be eaten only by a brahmana, not in his own 
house; no ksatriya or vaisya is to eat it." This explains 
why the brahmin, just below, is so concerned about the 
Buddha's caste. 

448 Fire is indeed produced from any wood (kattha have jdyati 
jatavedo). Spk: This is the purport: "It is not the case that 
only fire produced from a pure type of wood, such as sal- 
tree logs, can perform the work of fire, but not fire pro- 
duced from the wood of a dog's trough, etc. Rather, by 
reason of its flame, etc., fire produced from any kind of 
wood can do the work of fire. So you should not think 
that only one born in a brahmin family is worthy of offer- 
ings, but not one bom in a candala family, etc. Whether 
from a low family or a high family, an arahant sage is a 
thoroughbred — resolute, restrained by a sense of shame." 
See in this connection the arguments at MN II 129-30, 
151-53. 

449 Spk explains one who has reached the end of knowledge 
(vedantagu) in pada b thus: "one gone to the end of the 
four path knowledges, or one gone to the end of defile- 
ments by the four path knowledges" ( catunnam magga- 
vedanam antam, catiihi vd maggavedehi kilesdnam antam gato). 
Evidently, the Buddha is here deliberately using brahman- 
ical terminology in order to adjust the Dhamma to the 
mental disposition of the brahmin. 

450 Spk: Why does he say this? It is said that when the brah- 
min presented the food to the Buddha, the devas from the 
four world-regions, etc., suffused the food with nutritive 
essence ( ojd ) produced by their celestial power. Thus it 




448 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



became extremely subtle. It was too subtle for the coarse 
digestive systems of ordinary human beings to digest 
properly; yet, because the food had a base of coarse mate- 
rial food, it was too coarse for the devas to digest. Even 
dry-insight arahants could not digest it. Only arahants 
who obtain the eight meditative attainments could digest 
it by the power of their attainment, while the Blessed One 
could digest it by his own natural digestive power. 

451 Spk: This did not occur through the power of the food 
itself but through the Buddha's power. The Buddha had 
made such a determination so that the brahmin would be 
favourably disposed to hear the Dhamma. 

452 Khdribhara, "shoulder-load," is a carrying device common- 
ly used in South Asia, consisting of two trays at each end 
of a pole borne across the shoulder. 

Spk: "Conceit, O brahmin, is your shoulder-load: When a 
shoulder-load is being carried, with each step the weight 
of the load brings the trays into contact with the ground; 
similarly, though conceit props one up on account of 
birth, clan, family, etc., it causes envy to arise and thereby 
pulls one down to the four realms of misery. Anger the 
smoke: because the fire of knowledge does not shine when 
defiled by the smoke of anger. False speech the ashes: 
because the fire of knowledge does not bum when cov- 
ered by false speech. The tongue is the ladle: my [the 
Buddha's] tongue is a ladle offering the Dhamma sacrifice. 
The heart the altar: the hearts of beings are the altar, the 
fireplace, for my offering of the Dhamma sacrifice. The self 
(i attd ) is the mind." 

453 Spk: "Just as, after you have worshipped the fire, you 
enter the Sundarika River and wash the ashes, soot, and 
sweat from your body, so for me the Dhamma of the 
eightfold path is the lake where I bathe thousands of liv- 
ing beings. The lake is limpid ( andvila ) because, unlike 
your river which becomes muddy when four or five bathe 
in it at the same time, the lake of the Dhamma remains 
limpid and clear even when hundreds of thousands enter 
it to bathe." On "the bath without water," see v. 198ef and 
n. 119. 

454 Spk suggests several alternative schemes by which the 




7. Brahmanasamyutta: Notes 449 



three terms in pada a — sacca, dhamma, and samyama — can 
be correlated with the eightfold path: e.g., sacca = right 
speech; samyama = right action and right livelihood; dhamma 
= the other five factors. Spk explains brahmacariya as if it 
were equivalent to the entire eightfold path ( magga - 
brahmacariya), but it seems more likely that here the term 
was originally intended in the specific sense of celibacy, to 
be understood as a fourth item alongside the preceding 
three and not as an umbrella term comprising them. 

In pada b, the attainment of Brahma ( brahmapatti ): the 
attainment of the best (setthapafti). Based on the middle 
(majjhesita): avoiding the extremes of etemalism and anni- 
hilationism. [Spk-pt: That is, based on the development of 
the middle way by avoiding all extremes such as sluggish- 
ness and restlessness, of which the pair eternalism and 
annihilationism is merely one instance.] 

In pada c, the upright ones (ujjubhiitesu): the arahants. 
Spk explains that the sat here represents tvam, the -t- being 
a mere conjunct consonant ( padasandhi ). Though not as 
common as its use to convey a first person meaning, the 
third person demonstrative pronoun is occasionally used 
with a second person sense. 

455 In pada c, ajjasatthim na dissanti is glossed by Spk, "they 
are not seen for six days from today," indicating that satthi 
here is an alternative form of chattha, sixth. Spk-pt: 
Ajjasatthim is an accusative used to indicate a continuing 
passage of time ( accantasamyoge c etam upayogavacanam). 

456 Spk: As long as the brahmin was affluent, even though his 
daughters were widows, their parents-in-law allowed 
them to stay in their husbands' homes. But when he 
became poor their parents-in-law sent them to their 
father's home. Then, when he would take his meals, their 
children would put their hands in his plate and he would 
not find sufficient room for his own hand. 

457 Spk appends a story which relates how the Buddha took 
the brahmin (after his novice ordination) to King 
Pasenadi. The king repaid his debts, provided for the wel- 
fare of his daughters, and placed his wife in the position 
of his own grandmother, thereby removing the obstacles 
to his higher ordination as a bhikkhu. 




450 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



458 This sutta is also found at Sn I, 4 (pp. 12-16), but the prose 
portion adds the wonder of the sizzling cake described in 
7:9. It also has the brahmin request ordination as a 
bhikkhu and attain arahantship. It must have been a com- 
mon subject for sermons, as the commentary to it is long 
and elaborate. It is also included in the Maha Pirit Pota, 
“The Great Book of Protection," the standard collection of 
protective suttas used in Sri Lanka. 

459 Spk: He was called thus because he earned his living by 
ploughing. This occasion was not an ordinary work day 
but a special festival which marked the inception of the 
light-soil sowing (pamsuvappa). Spk gives a detailed 
account of the preparations and the festival activities. 

460 Spk: At the food distribution ( parivesana ) five hundred 
ploughmen had taken silver vessels, etc., and were sitting 
while the food was being distributed to them. Then the 
Buddha arrived and stood in a high place within range of 
the brahmin, close enough so that they could easily converse. 

461 Spk: Why did the Blessed One begin with faith? Because 
this brahmin was reputed to be intelligent ( panfiava ) but 
was deficient in faith. Thus a talk on faith would be help- 
ful to him. Why is faith called the seed (saddha bijam)? 
Because it is the foundation of all wholesome qualities. 
When a seed is planted in the ground, it becomes estab- 
lished by its root and sends up a sprout. Through the root 
it absorbs the soil's nutrients and water, and it grows 
through the stalk in order to yield the grain. Coming to 
growth and maturity, it finally produces a head bearing 
many rice grains. So faith becomes established with the 
root of virtue and sends up the sprout of serenity and 
insight. Absorbing the nutrients of serenity and insight 
through the root of virtue, it grows through the stalk of 
the noble path to yield the crop of the noble fruits. Finally, 
after coming to growth through six stages of purification, 
and producing the sap of purification by knowledge and 
vision, it culminates in the fruit of arahantship bearing 
many discriminating knowledges and direct knowledges 
(anekapatisambhidabhinm). Therefore it is said, "Faith is the 
seed." 

On austerity ( tapa ), see n. 119. Spk: Here sense restraint 




7. Brahmanasamyutta: Notes 451 



is intended. Wisdom (panna) is insight together with path- 
wisdom. Just as the brahmin has a yoke and plough, so the 
Blessed One has the twofold insight and (path-)wisdom. 

Spk devotes several pages to the analogy between path 
factors and ploughing implements. I adopt the renderings 
of ploughing terms from GD, p. 9. 

462 Spk: In some places gentleness ( soracca ) denotes bodily 
and verbal nontransgression, but this is not intended here. 
Here the fruit of arahantship is intended, for that is called 
soracca (the abstract noun of su + rata) because it finds 
delight in the good Nibbana ( sundare nibbane ratatta). 
What he is saying is this: "By attaining arahantship at the 
foot of the Bodhi Tree, I am released, and never again 
must I come under the yoke." 

463 Spk explains yogakkhema as Nibbana "because it is secure 
from the bonds" (yogehi khematta). The four bonds are iden- 
tical with the four floods, on which see n. 1. For a discus- 
sion of the literary history of yogakkhema, see EV I, n. to 32. 

To where, having gone, one does not sorrow ( yattha gantva na 
socati). Spk: It goes to the unconditioned state known as 
Nibbana, which is the extraction of all the darts of sorrow. 

464 Spk explains that the phrases "a second time" and "a third 
time" mean the next day and the day after that. Although 
the text itself conveys the impression that the Buddha 
went to the same house for alms three times on the same 
morning, this would be contrary to proper monastic eti- 
quette, so Spk must be reliable on this point. 

465 Pakatthaka < Skt prakarsaka, "harasser, disquieter," from 
prakrs, to trouble, to disturb (SED). Spk glosses with 
rasagiddha, "greedy for tastes." Spk-pt explains: "He is 
dragged forward by craving for tastes" ( rasatanhaya 

' pakattho). 

466 That is, he was afflicted by an illness arisen from the wind 
humour, one of the three bodily humours according to the 
ancient Indian system of ayurvedic medicine; on wind as 
one of the eight causes of illness, see 36:21. 

Spk: The Buddha was prone to occasional gastric ail- 
ments as a consequence of his six years of ascetic practices 
before his enlightenment. 

467 For a full analysis of the two questions, see 3:24 and 




452 I. The Book with Verses (Sagalhavagga) 



nn. 253, 254. I take katham in pada d here, and evam in 
v. 678d, to be mere metrical fillers. 

468 A much more elaborate version of the same encounter is 
found at Dhp-a IV 7-15, where it forms the background 
story to Dhp 324; see BL 3:201-5. The story is incorporated 
into Spk. 

469 Th-a II 179-80 relates exactly the same story about the 
elder Jenta (Th 423-28), the son of the king of Kosala's 
chaplain. In his youth he was stiff with conceit ( manatthad - 
dha, used as a description, not a name), but was humbled 
by the Buddha with exactly the same exchange of verses 
as is related here. He became a stream-enterer on hearing 
the Buddha's verses, went forth as a bhikkhu, and 
attained arahantship. 

470 Spk: He thought, "When a brahmin of high birth like 
myself has arrived, this ascetic does not show me any spe- 
cial courtesy; therefore he does not know anything." 

471 In pada a, it seems better to read manabruhana, with Se and 
Ee2, as against manam brahmana in Be and Eel. The version 
at Th-a reads brahmana in all three eds. available to me. 

472 Evarupam paramanipaccakaram karoti. The expression occurs 
at MN II 120,6, referring to the same kind of action (shown 
by King Pasenadi towards the Buddha); see too 48:58, 
which discusses the reason an arahant shows "supreme 
honour" towards the Buddha and his teaching. 

473 Spk: He was called Navakammika ("New Works") 
because he earned his living by felling timber in the forest, 
seasoning the wood for construction work, and selling it 
in the city. 

474 In pada b, ucchinnamulam appears often in a stock formula 
describing the arahant's liberation from defilements (e.g., 
12:35 (II 62,20-63,11); 22:3 (III 10,27, 33); 35:104 (IV 85,9, 14); 
54:12 (V 327,26-328,6)); thus the allusion, already obvious, 
is made explicit by Spk: "The woods of defilements is cut 
down at its root." In pada b, I follow the SS reading 
visukkham, "dried up," also adopted by Ee2, over Be and 
Se visukam and Eel visukam. 

Spk glosses nibbanatho in pada c with nikkilesavano. This 
involves a pun difficult to reproduce in translation. 
Literally, vanatha means a woods, but the word is often 




7. Brahmanasamyutta: Notes 453 



used to signify, metaphorically, "the woods of defile- 
ments," particularly craving. Here I have translated nib- 
banatha as "woodless" to preserve the pun. At v. 712, how- 
ever, where the literal meaning has little bearing on the 
verse as a whole, I have rendered nibbanatha by way of its 
metaphorical meaning. Analogous puns on vatia and 
vanatha are at 14:16 (see too II, n. 245), and also at 
Dhp 283-84 and 344 (which, incidentally, answer 
Norman's puzzling observation at EV I, n. to 338, that the 
canon seems not to include any example of a pun on the 
double meaning of vanatha to match the puns upon vana). 
The Buddha is "dartless" ( visallo ) because he has extracted 
the dart of craving (see v. 214c). 

475 In the third line I supply "body" in deference to Spk, 
which explains the instrumentals as qualifying the body 
(kayavisesanani). Spk glosses sucaruriipam with atisundaram. 

476 Spk: The world’s divine lord ( lokddhipati ) is Mahabrahma, the 
supreme triple heaven ( tidivam anuttaram) is said with refer- 
ence to the brahma world. I translate padas cd as an asser- 
tion based on the v.l. tasma found in some SS and adopted 
by Ee2 rather than as a question signalled by kasma, the 
reading in Be, Se, and Eel. 

477 Spk explains desires (kahkha), delights ( abhinandana ), and 
longings ( pajappita ) as modes of craving ( tanha ). The root of 
unknowing ( ahhanamula ) is ignorance (avijja). A parallel to 
this verse is at Nett 24 and Pet 17, but with pada a reading 
asa pihd ca abhinandana ca. 

478 In pada a, I read asito with Be, Se, and Ee2, as against Eel 
apiho, "without envy." Spk takes "my purified vision of all 
things" to be an allusion to the knowledge of omniscience. 
In pada c, it glosses sivatn with settham, and sambodhim 
anuttaram with arahat t a. 

479 "Mendicant" is a rendering of bhikkhaka, which is of course 
related to bhikkhu, a fully ordained Buddhist monk. 

480 Eel bhikkhavo in pada b should be amended to bhikkhate. 
Spk explains vissam dhammam in the next pada as dug- 
gandham akusaladhammam, "a foul smelling unwholesome 
state," assuming that vissa < Skt visra, raw meat. Spk-pt 
adds: "It produces a putrid smell, thus it is vissa, i.e., foul 
smelling" (virupam gandham pasavati ti visso duggandho). 




454 I- The Book with Verses ( Sagathdvagga ) 



Dhp-a III 393,2 (commenting on the verse at Dhp 266) 
says: “Vissa is an uneven doctrine ( visamam dhammam ); or 
else, a putrid-smelling state of bodily action, etc. ( vissa - 
gandham va kayakammadikam dhammam), having undertak- 
en which one is not called a bhikkhu." As Brough points 
out, however, the original Pali term is probably derived 
from Vedic vesman, domestic ( Gandhari Dharmapada, 
pp. 191-92, n. to 67). Vesma occurs in Pali at Ja V 84,17. 
Uv 32:18, the Skt parallel to the present verse, has vesmam 
dharmam. 

In the next verse, in pada b, I read brahmacariyavd, with 
Se and SS, as against brahmacariyam in the other eds. The 
latter does not seem to fit into the syntax, as it is neither 
subject nor object of the verb. Since the Buddha here 
defines a bhikkhu as one who has expelled both merit and 
evil (puhhah ca papah ca bahitva), this means he is equating 
the real monk solely with the arahant. 

481 Seen. 453. 

482 The name Khomadussa means "linen cloth." Spk says that 
the town was given this name because of the prevalence 
of linen there. From what follows it seems the town was a 
brahmin enclave in the predominantly khattiya Sakyan 
republic. In the irate reaction of the brahmins to the 
Buddha's arrival on the scene we can detect a note of hos- 
tility rooted in caste prejudice. 

483 My rendering is not strictly literal but is intended to con- 
vey the sense of indignation. Spk: The "rule of order" 
(sabhadhammam, lit. "rule of the council") was that late- 
comers should enter through a side entrance so as not to 
disturb those comfortably settled in their seats. But the 
Buddha entered from the front, so the brahmins spoke 
scornfully. 

The Buddha picks up on the the word dhamma, in the 
sense of rule, and speaks with reference to the true doc- 
trine. There is also a pun on sabha as council (or meeting 
hall) and santo as the good ones. According to Spk, the 
Buddha had caused the rain to fall by an act of will to give 
himself a reason for entering the meeting hall. A clearer 
example of rain created by psychic power is at 41:4- 




8. Vahgisasamyutta: Notes 455 



8. Vangisasamyutta 

484 His verses are at Th 1209-79. Vv. 707-57 are parallel to 
Th 1209-62, but with variant readings and major differ- 
ences especially in the verses corresponding to w. 753-57. 
The verses are collected and translated in Ireland, Vangisa: 
An Early Buddhist Poet. For the resolution of philological 
problems posed by these verses I have relied largely upon 
Norman's notes in EV I. 

485 Cetiyas are memorial shrines, similar to stupas, originally 
made from mounds of earth. 

Spk: Before the Buddhas arise the shrines such as 
Aggalava and Gotamaka are the haunts of yakkhas and 
nagas, etc., but when Buddhas arise people drive the spir- 
its away and build monasteries there. 

486 I translate anabhirati as "dissatisfaction," and the nearly 
synonymous arati as "discontent." Although the meanings 
of the two words overlap, arati is often glossed in the com- 
mentaries as discontent with remote lodgings and with 
meditation (pantasenasanesu c' eva bhavanaya ca 
ukkanthitam: Spk I 264,29-31 [to 7:17]) or discontent with 
the Buddha's Teaching ( sdsane aratim: Spk I 269,23-24 [to 
8:2]). Anabhirati usually implies distress caused by sensual 
passion, often inducing a wish to give up the celibate life 
and return to the enjoyment of sensual pleasures. In the 
expression sabbaloke anabhiratasahha, "the perception of 
nondelight in the entire world," anabhirata is used in a 
positive sense as the designation for a particular topic of 
insight meditation (see AN V 111,3-7). The delight 
(abhirati) that Vangisa will arouse in himself is, of course, 
delight in the holy life, not the unwholesome delight in 
the five sense objects, a mode of craving. 

487 From the Dark One ( kanhato ). Spk: "From the dark faction, 
the faction of Mara." Mara is addressed as Kanha in the 
refrain of the verses at MN 1 337-38. 

488 Spk explains uggaputta in pada a as the powerful and 
royal sons of aristocrats ( uggatanam putta mahesakkhd 
rajahhabhuta). CPD, s.v. ugga, says they are members of the 
ugga caste, a mixed caste sprung from a ksatriya father 
and a sudra mother. Members of this caste, it seems. 




456 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



served as police, guards, and professional soldiers. Spk 
glosses dalhadhammino as "those of firm bows bearing a 
teacher's bow of the maximum size" ( dalhadhanuno uttama- 
pamanam acariyadhanum dharayamana); see n. 181 above, II, 
n. 365, and EV I, n. to 1210. With Spk, I take apaldyinam as 
a metrically shortened genitive plural used in apposition 
to sahassam, not as an accusative singular. Spk paraphrases 
pada d: te samanta sarehi parikireyyum-, "they might surround 
(me) with arrows on all sides." Although Spk-pt glosses 
parikireyyum with vijjheyyum, "they might shoot," the use of 
the expression samanta parikirimsu at Ja VI 592,11-15 clearly 
shows that parikireyyum does not imply shooting. (The 
wrong spelling parikaramsu in Ee of Ja should be corrected 
to parikirimsu as in Be: Ja II 372, vv. 2431-35.) The com- 
mentary (Ja VI 589,5) glosses the word with parivarayinisu, 
"to accompany (as members of a retinue)." 

489 I read pada d with Eel as dhamme s' amhi patitthito and 
take s' amhi to be a conjunct of so amhi, with so functioning 
as the first person pronoun, a common enough form in 
Pali. Ee2 supports this with its reading dhamme sv amhi 
patitthito. The whole expression dhamme s' amhi patitthito 
would then be a nominative periphrastic construction, 
with the word order inverted in compliance with the 
metre. Th 1211 can also support this interpretation if read, 
as Norman suggests, as dhamme svamhi. Be and Se, how- 
ever, have the accusative patitthitam, apparently in apposi- 
tion to mam in pada c. Commenting on the basis of this 
reading, Spk explains dhamme samhi as meaning sake 
sasanadhamme, "in my own Dhamma teaching," with samhi 
understood as the locative singular of sa < Skt sva. While 
this interpretation at first sight seems strained, we do find 
sehi dhammehi at Sn 298, glossed by Pj II 319,16 as sakehi 
carittehi. This shows that the reading accepted by Spk is 
feasible, though less plausible than the alternative. 

Spk connects the simile with this verse thus: "If a thou- 
sand archers were to shoot arrows all around, a trained 
person might take a staff and knock down all the arrows 
in flight before they strike him, bringing them to his feet. 
One archer cannot shoot more than one arrow at a time, 
but these women each shoot five arrows at a time, by way 




8. Vahgisasamyutta: Notes 4 57 



of form and the other sense objects. If more than a thou- 
sand of these were to shoot in such a way, still they would 
not be able to shake me." «. 

490 Spk explains maggatn in pada c as a transformation of case 
( lihgavipallasa ). Spk: "This statement refers to insight 
(vipassana); for that is the preliminary phase of the path 
leading to Nibbana. His mind delights in his own tender 
insight called the path leading to Nibbana." 

491 Spk: "I will so act that you will not even see the path I 
have gone along among the realms of existence, modes of 
origin, etc." See w. 49 (= 105), 479, 494. 

492 Spk: Discontent and delight ( aratih ca ratih ca ): discontent 
with the dispensation [Spk-pt: dissatisfaction with the ful- 
filment of virtue and the development of serenity and 
insight] and delight in the cords of sensual pleasure. 
Household thoughts ( gehasitah ca vitakkam ): having aban- 
doned in all ways evil thoughts connected with "the 
household," i.e., with the five cords of sensual pleasure. 

The next couplet plays upon the double meaning of 
vanatha; see n. 474. Spk glosses vanatham as kilesamahd- 
vanam, "the great woods of defilements," and nibbanatho 
as nikkilesavano, "without the woods of defilements." The 
last word in pada d is read arato in Be, Se, and Ee2, but in 
Eel as anato, "uninclined." Spk (both Be and Se) reads 
arato in the lemma and glosses tanharatirahito, "devoid of 
delight on account of craving," but anato and nati would 
also fit the lemma and gloss respectively, as nati too is a 
synonym for tanhd. The reading at Th 1214 is avanatho, 
which expresses virtually the same idea as nibbanatho. 

493 Kind should be brought into pada b (as at Th 1215) and 
connected semantically with yam in pada a. Spk explains 
jagatogadham in pada b as what exists within the earth, e.g., 
in the realm of the nagas, but I take the expression in a 
wider sense, supported by Th-a III 190,4-5, which glosses: 
"Whatever is mundane, conditioned, included in the three 
realms of existence." "Everything impermanent decays 
( parijiyati s abbam aniccam )" — this, says Spk, was "the 
elder's great insight" ( mahavipassand ). 

494 Spk identifies the upadhi in pada a as the "acquisitions" of 
the aggregates, defilements, and volitional formations; see 




458 I. The Book with Verses (Sagdthavagga) 

n. 21. No explanation is given for the exclusion of "acqui- 
sitions as sensual pleasures" ( kamupadhi ) which the con- 
text seems to allow, indeed even to require. In comment- 
ing on pada b, Spk says patigha, "the sensed," comprises 
odour and taste, while muta, "the felt," denotes the tactile 
object. Th-a III 190,15-20 inverts the explanation: patigha is 
glossed as photthabba, and muta as gandha-rasa. The famil- 
iar tetrad is dittha, suta, muta, and vinhdta (see 35:95; 
IV 73,4-7); the commentaries explain muta as comprising 
odour, taste, and the tactile object, and vinhdta as mental 
objects. Norman translates muta as thought (its original 
sense), implying that this tetrad corresponds to the more 
familiar one, with patigha assuming the usual role of muta 
and the latter serving in place of vihhata. In deference to 
Spk and Th-a, I prefer to translate the present tetrad in a 
way that comprises only the five external sense bases and 
thus as signifying the five cords of sensual pleasure. 

495 The readings of pada ab vary among the different eds. I 
prefer that of Ee2: Atha satthisitd savitakkd/Puthu janatdya 
adhammanivittha. The metre is irregular Vegavati. 

The verse is obscure and evidently challenged the inge- 
nuity of the commentators. Spk paraphrases: "Then many 
unrighteous thoughts attached to the six sense objects 
have settled upon the people" ( atha cha drammananissita 
puthu adhammavitakkd janatdya nivittha). This explanation is 
flawed in two respects: (i) it construes the subject as 
vitakkd, thoughts, when the Pali reads savitakkd, a bahubbihi 
compound denoting persons with thoughts; if we take sa 
here to represent Skt sva rather than saha, savitakkd means 
those who are led by (or full of) their own thoughts; (ii) it 
explains satthi as cha, six, when it properly means sixty. 
Th-a III 190,28-31 mentions the opinion held by some com- 
mentators that satthisitd is an allusion to the sixty- two 
views of the Brahmajala Sutta, and the verse does in fact 
echo the closing simile of that sutta (DN I 45,25-27): "Just 
as all large sea creatures are caught in the fisherman's net, 
so all these speculative thinkers are trapped within this 
net of sixty- two cases; here they are caught whenever they 
emerge" (te imeh' eva dvasatthiya vatthuhi antojdlikatd ettha 
sita va ummujjamdnd ummujjanti). 




8. Vangisasamyutta: Notes 459 



In pada c, vaggagatassa should be resolved vaggagato 
assa. Spk takes the line to mean that one should not join 
the faction of defilements ( kilesavagga ), but I understand it 
literally. In fact, at Sn 371b we find vaggagatesu na 
vaggasdri dhiro, "Among those who are factious, the wise 
one does not follow a faction." Pj II 365,20-24 explains this 
by reference to the sixty-two speculative views, thus link- 
ing it to the present verse. See in this connection GD, 
p. 217, n. to 371. 

Pada d reads no pana dutthullabhani sa bhikkhu, which 
Spk-pt explains as an injunction not to speak words con- 
nected with sensuality ( kamapatisamyuttakatha ). Th 1217 
reads here dutthullagahi, "one should not grasp what is 
corrupt," which Th-a explains as referring to the grasping 
of corrupt views. 

496 Spk identifies "the peaceful state" (of pada c) with 
Nibbana and paraphrases pada d thus: "Fully quenched 
by the full quenching of defilements in dependence on 
Nibbana, he awaits the time of his parinibbana [Spk-pt: 
the time of the Nibbana element without residue]" 
(nibbdnam paticca kilesaparinibbanena parinibbuto pari- 
nibbanakalam [anupadisesanibbanakalam] agameti ). 

497 Spk states that he prided himself on his learning; however, 
patibhdna is used to mean skill in verbal expression and thus 
probably refers here specifically to Vangisa's poetic talent. 

498 Asesatn should be moved from pada c into pada b. Spk 
explains "pathway of conceit" ( mdnapatham ) as the object 
of conceit and the states coexistent with conceit, but it may 
be just a metaphorical expression for conduct governed by 
conceit. Spk says he addressed himself as "Gotama" (the 
Buddha's clan name) because he is a disciple of the 
Buddha Gotama, but this is hard to accept; see v. 721 just 
below where Ananda is so addressed because he actually 
was a member of the Gotama clan. I do not know of any 
other instance of monks addressing themselves (or others) 
as "Gotama" simply on the ground that they are disciples 
of the Buddha Gotama. 

In the next verse we should twice read manahatd in place 
of Eel mdnagata. Th-a glosses mdnena hataguna, "with good 
qualities destroyed by conceit." 




460 I- The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



499 Spk explains maggajino in pada b as a "path-conqueror," 
i.e., "one who has conquered defilements by the path," 
but I follow Norman's suggestion (at GD, p. 164, n. to 84) 
that the word is a variant of maggannu (< Skt margajna), 
formed by resolution with an epenthetic ( svarabhakti ) 
vowel rather than by assimilation. 

500 Th-a glosses akhilo in pada a with paficacetokhilarahito, 
"devoid of the five kinds of mental barrenness," with ref- 
erence to MN 1 101,9-27. The five are doubt and perplexity 
about the Buddha, Dhamma, Sahgha, and training, and 
anger towards one's co-religionists. This seems preferable 
to interpreting the word by way of the three khila — greed, 
hatred, and delusion (see n. 84) — as the five cetokhila are 
said to be obstacles to "ardour, exertion, persistence, and 
striving" and their elimination is thus a prerequisite for 
strenuous effort. 

In pada d, vijjayantakaro is a syntactical compound, here 
with the first member an instrumental or ablative; see 
n. 68. The verse lacks a finite verb, but Th-a says that the 
verse was spoken by way of self-admonition, and I have 
therefore supplied imperatives to convey this effect. The 
verse can be seen as describing a progression: "First be rid 
of the five obstacles to striving, then be strenuous. By 
effort abandon the five hindrances and attain purity of 
mind through concentration. On this basis, develop 
insight into nonself and abandon conceit. Thereby you 
will eradicate the taints by knowledge, make an end to 
suffering, and dwell in the peace of Nibbana." 

501 Spk: Once, when the Venerable Ananda was invited to the 
royal palace to teach the Dhamma to the womenfolk, he 
brought along Vangisa, then newly ordained, as his com- 
panion. When Vangisa saw the women, beautifully attired 
in their best ornaments, lust infested his mind, and at the 
first opportunity he revealed his distress to Ananda. 
Vism 38 (Ppn 1:103), which cites the verses (though in a 
different sequence), relates that Vangisa had become over- 
powered by lust when he caught sight of a woman on his 
alms round soon after going forth. A Skt version of the 
same story, with the verses, is cited in Enomoto, CSCS, 
pp. 44-45. 




8. Vangisasamyutta: Notes 461 



502 He addresses Ananda as "Gotama" because Ananda was 
a member of the Gotama clan. Here there is surely a word 
play on nibbdpana (and on nibbdpehi in v. 723c) as meaning 
both the extinguishing of a fire and the attainment of 
Nibbana. 

503 Vv. 722 and 724-25, though spoken by Ananda, are 
included among Vahgisa's verses as Th 1224-26. The 
"inversion of perception" ( sanndya vipariyesa) is fourfold: 
perceiving permanence, happiness, selfhood, and beauty 
in what is actually impermanent, suffering, nonself, and 
foul; see AN II 52,4-7. 

504 The verse is not found in Th proper, but occurs in the text 
of Th cited in ThA, though without comment. The idea 
expressed in padas ab is at Th 1160-61, ascribed to 
Mahamoggallana. 

505 At Sn II, 11 (pp. 58-59) both this verse and the next are 
included in the Buddha's advice to his son Rahula. The 
meditation on foulness ( asubha ) is the contemplation of the 
parts of the body, as at 51:20 (V 278,6-14), or the cemetery 
meditations, as at 46:57-61. 

506 The signless ( animitta ), according to Spk, is insight (vipas- 
satid), so called because it strips away the "signs" of per- 
manence, etc. 

507 The entire sutta is at Sn III, 3 (pp. 78-79). 

508 The Buddha's statement seems partly redundant by mak- 
ing well spoken ( subhdsita ) one among four factors of well- 
spoken speech. Spk proposes a solution by first defining 
well-spoken speech in the wider sense as speech that 
brings benefit, and by then correlating the four factors of 
well-spoken speech with the four aspects of right 
speech — being truthful, conducive to harmony, gentle, 
and meaningful. Well-spoken speech in the narrower 
sense is identified with speech that promotes harmony. At 
AN III 243,27-244,6 well-spoken speech is defined by way 
of five different factors all external to itself: it is spoken at 
the proper time, is truthful, gently stated, beneficial, and 
spoken with a mind of lovingkindness. 

509 Seen. 227. 

510 Spk: "'Truth, indeed, is deathless speech' ( saccam ve amatd 
vaca) means that the Buddha's speech is similar to the 




462 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



Deathless because of its goodness (sadhubhavena, Be; or its 
sweetness, if we read sadubhavena with Se and Ee); or it is 
deathless because it is a condition for attaining Nibbana 
the Deathless." The former explanation indicates that the 
text is playing upon the two meanings of amata, "death- 
less" (= Nibbana) and "ambrosia," in Vedic mythology the 
drink of the immortal gods. 

Spk remarks on padas cd: "Being established in truth 
they were established in the goal (or the good) of oneself 
and others; being established in the goal (the good), they 
were established in the Dhamma. Or else, sacca is to be 
taken as an adjective (= true) qualifying the goal and the 
Dhamma." 

Spk's explanation presupposes that the three nouns — 
sacce, atthe, and dhamme — are proper locatives and ahu an 
aorist of honti (= ahu). Based on the work of Lfiders, 
Norman suggests (at EV I, n. to 1229) that atthe and 
dhamme were originally nominatives in an Eastern dialect 
that had the nominative singular in -e, and were then mis- 
taken for locatives in the process of "translation" into Pali. 
I follow Norman in my rendering of the line. In the BHS 
version (Uv 8:14) the translation went in the opposite 
direction: into satyam as a nominative and arthe and 
dharme as locatives. 

511 Spk-pt: "Since the Buddha speaks for the sake of security 
(khemdya), his speech is 'secure/ as it is the cause for the 
arising of security. Thus it is the foremost speech." 

512 Spk paraphrases pada c as if it contained an implicit verb 
hoti and treats pada d as an independent sentence with 
patibhanam as subject. It seems more fitting, however, to 
take nigghoso in pada c as the subject of udirayi and 
patibhanam as its object, and I translate accordingly. Spk 
explains the simile: "The elder's sweet voice, as he teaches 
the Dhamma, is like the voice of a myna bird when, hav- 
ing tasted a sweet ripe mango, it strikes up a breeze with 
its wings and emits a sweet sound." Spk glosses the verb 
with utthahati, and paraphrases with an intransitive sense: 
"Inspired discourse rises up (from him) endlessly, like 
waves from the ocean." This implies that Spk reads udiy- 
yati, the Be reading of Th 1232. 




8. Varigisasamyutta: Notes 4 63 



513 The Uposatha is the Buddhist "observance day," held in 
accordance with the phases of the moon. The major 
Uposathas occur on the full-moon and new-moon days, 
the fifteenth of the fortnight (except six times per year — 
two for each of the three seasons of the Indian calendar — 
when the Uposatha falls on the new-moon day of a short- 
er, fourteen -day fortnight). On these days the bhikkhus 
normally gather to recite the Patimokkha, the code of 
monastic rules. At the end of the annual rains residence 
(vassdvdsa), however, the recital of the rules is replaced by 
a ceremony called the Pavarana, the Invitation, at which 
each bhikkhu in order of seniority invites ( pavareti ) the 
other bhikkhus in his fraternity to point out any miscon- 
duct on his part. 

514 On the Buddha as the originator of the path, see 22:58. 

515 The eulogy of Sariputta is at 2:29; see too n. 184. The 
wheel-turning monarch ( raja cakkavatti) is the ideal world- 
ruler of Buddhist tradition; see DN III 59-63 and 
MN III 172-77. 

516 On the triple knowledge ( tevijja ) and the six direct knowl- 
edges ( chalabhihhd ), see n. 395. Those liberated in both 
ways ( ubhatobhagavimutta ) are arahants who attain ara- 
hantship along with mastery over the formless meditative 
attainments. Those liberated by wisdom ( pahhdvimutta ) 
are arahants who attain the goal without mastering the 
formless meditations; for formal definitions see MN I 
477,25-478,1, and 12:70 (II 123,26-124,2). 

517 On the wheel-turning monarch see n. 515. Spk explains 
that the Buddha is the victor in battle ( vijitasahgamam ) 
because he has won the battle against lust, hatred, and 
delusion, and because he has triumphed over the army of 
Mara. He is the caravan leader ( satthavaha ) because he leads 
beings across the desert of samsara on the chariot of the 
Noble Eightfold Path. 

518 Spk: Nibbana is called "inaccessible to fear" (akutobhayam, 
lit. "no fear from anywhere") because there is no fear from 
any quarter in Nibbana, or because there is no fear from 
any quarter for one who has attained Nibbana. More typical- 
ly, akutobhaya is used as a personal epithet of the Buddha 
or an arahant, as at Dhp 196, Th 289, and Thi 333; see EV I, 




464 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



n. to 289. Even in the present case we cannot be certain 
that the expression is not used in apposition to the 
Buddha rather than to Nibbana, as both are accusative sin- 
gulars, but I follow Spk. 

519 On naga see n. 84. Spk explains the ambiguous expression 
isinam isisattamo as "the seventh seer of the seers begin- 
ning with Vipassi," referring to the lineage of the seven 
Buddhas. Spk-pt offers, besides this explanation, an alter- 
native based on sattama as the superlative of sant: "He is 
the best, the highest, the supreme (sattamo uttaro [sic: read 
uttamo ?] settho ) of seers including paccekabuddhas, 
Buddhist disciples, and outside seers." I agree with 
Norman that this second alternative is more likely to be 
correct; see EV I, n. to 1240. 

520 The contrast is between pubbe parivitakkita and thanaso 
patibhanti. Spk explains that the Buddha asked this ques- 
tion because other bhikkhus had been criticizing Vangisa, 
thinking that he neglected study and meditation and 
passed all his time composing verses. The Master wanted 
to make them recognize the excellence of his spontaneous 
ingenuity (patibhdnasampa tti). 

521 Spk: The deviant course of Mara's path (ummaggapatham 
Mdrassa) refers to the emergence of the hundreds of defile- 
ments, called a path because they are the path into the 
round of existence. 

On barrenness of mind ( khila ) see n. 500. In pada d, I 
read asitapi bhdgaso pavibhajjapi, with Se and Eel & 2. Be 
reads pavibhajam. Spk glosses as vibhajantam, an accusative 
present participle, but Norman suggests pavibhajjam may 
be an absolutive with -pi added, and Spk mentions a v.l. 
pavibhajja, a clear absolutive. Spk paraphrases: "who 
analyses the Dhamma by way of such groups as the estab- 
lishments of mindfulness," etc. The explanation sounds 
contrived, but it is difficult to determine the original 
meaning. 

522 In pada c. Be reads tasmipi ce in text, while Ee2 has tasmipi 
ca, which Spk (Be) reads in the lemma (but not in the text); 
the latter is the reading at Th 1243. Norman, on metrical 
grounds, suggests amending the latter to tamhi ca or 
tasmi[pi] ca. Se and Eel have tasmipi te, which Spk (Se) has 




8. V angisasarnyutta: Notes 465 



in the lemma. Spk glosses with tasmim tena akkhate amate 
(Be and Se concur). Since here the aorist akkhasi can be 
taken as either second person or third person, I translate 
on the supposition that the second person is intended, 
which is consistent with carasi in the previous verse. 
Th 1242 has carati, which justifies the translation of the 
parallel verse in that work as a third person. I also take te 
to be the enclitic for taya rather than tena. I understand the 
clause to be a true locative rather than a locative absolute 
and take “the Deathless" here to be a contraction of “the 
path to the Deathless," alluded to in pada b. This has the 
support of Spk-pt, which says: amate akkhate ti amatavahe 
dhamme desite, “'In that Deathless declared' means in that 
Dhamma taught (by you) which brings the Deathless." 

523 [He] saw the transcendence of all stations ( sabbatthitlnam 
atikkamam addasa). Spk: “He saw Nibbana, the transcen- 
dence of all the standpoints of views and of all the stations 
of consciousness." Six standpoints of views ( ditthitthana ) 
are mentioned at MN 1 135,27-136,2; eight at Pahs 1 138,14-26). 
Four stations of consciousness ( vihhanatthiti ) are at 
DN III 228,6-13, seven at DN III 253,9-20; see too 22:54. 

Spk: The chief matter ( agga ) is the supreme Dhamma; or if 
the v.l. agge is adopted, the meaning is: at the beginning, 
first of all. The five ( dasaddhanam , lit. “half of ten") are the 
bhikkhus of the group of five (i.e., the first five disciples). 
Thus the meaning is: He taught the chief Dhamma to the 
five bhikkhus, or he taught the five bhikkhus at the begin- 
ning (of his ministry). 

524 The elder's first name is spelled Annasi in Be and Eel; 
here I follow Se and Ee2. He was one of the first five disci- 
ples and the very first to obtain comprehension of the 
Dhamma; it was for this reason that he was given the 
name "Anna" (or "Annasi"), which means "understand- 
ing" (or "understood"). See 56:11 (V 424,8-11). According 
to Spk, the "very long absence" was twelve years, during 
which he dwelt on the bank of the Mandakini Lotus Pond 
in the Chaddanta Forest in the Himalayas, a dwelling 
place favoured by paccekabuddhas. He was fond of seclu 
sion and thus rarely joined the community. 

525 Enlightened in succession to the Buddha ( buddhanubuddho ) 




466 I. The Bo ok with Verses (Sagdthavagga) 



Spk: First the Teacher awakened to the Four Noble Truths 
and after him the Elder Kondanna awakened to them. The 
pleasant dwellings ( sukhavihdrd ) are the "pleasant 
dwellings in this present life" (dittthadhammasukhavihdra), 
i.e., the jhanas and fruition attainment; the seclusions 
(vivekd) are the three seclusions (of body through physical 
solitude, of mind through jhana, and seclusion from the 
acquisitions by destruction of all defilements). 
Buddhanubuddhasavaka is used in a more general sense in 
16:5 (II 203,7) with reference to the old generation of 
enlightened monks. 

526 In pada c we should read buddhadayado with Be, Se, and 
Ee2, as against Eel buddhasavako. Spk states that although 
only four abhihhas are mentioned, the elder possessed all 
six. He had come to take leave of the Buddha as he real- 
ized the time for his parinibbana was approaching. After 
this meeting he returned to the Himalayas and passed 
away in his hut. The elephants were the first to mourn his 
death and honoured him by escorting his body in proces- 
sion across the Himalayas. Then the devas built a casket 
for the body and passed it up through the various celestial 
realms so the devas and brahmas could pay final homage 
to him, after which the casket was returned to earth for 
the cremation. The remains were brought to the Buddha, 
who placed them in a cetiya, "and even today, it is said, 
that cetiya still stands." 

527 In all eds. of SN and Th 1251 the text here reads sabbahga- 
sampannam in pada a and anekakarasamp annum in pada c, 
both accusative singulars set in apposition to the Buddha. 
This reading is doubtlessly ancient, for it is commented on 
as such by both Spk and Th-a. It is puzzling, however, 
that after having been described as "perfect in all 
respects" the Buddha should then be described as "perfect 
in many qualities" — almost as if his excellence is being 
diminished. I have accepted VAT's ingenious solution to 
this problem: amending the compound in pada c to a 
nominative plural, anekakarasampanna, which then 
becomes a description, altogether apt, of the triple-knowl- 
edge arahants attending on the Buddha. These are the 
subject of payirupdsanti, while Gotamam remains the object. 




8. Varigisasamyutta: Notes 467 



still qualified as s abbarigasampannam. Note that at Th 1158c 
anekakarasampanne is used with reference to Sariputta on 
the occasion of his parinibbana; significantly, that verse 
mirrors v. 610 (SN I 158 = DN II 157), recited at the 
Buddha's parinibbana, extolling the Master as sabbakara- 
varupete, "perfect in all excellent qualities." 

528 Vv. 753-57 are considerably more compressed than the 
partly parallel verses at Th 1253-67. For a concise compar- 
ison of the two versions, see Ireland, Vangisa, pp. 7-8. 

529 Kdveyyamatta, "drunk on poetry," occurs at v. 470a. Spk 
relates here the story of Vangisa's first meeting with the 
Buddha, also found at Dhp-a IV 226-28; see BL 3:334-36. 
According to this story, Vangisa had been a wandering 
brahmin who earned his living by tapping the skulls of 
dead men and declaring their place of rebirth. When he 
met the Buddha, the Master presented him with several 
skulls, including the skull of an arahant. Vangisa could 
guess correctly the rebirth of the deceased owners of the 
other skulls, but when he came to the arahant he was baf- 
fled. He entered the Sahgha for the purpose of learning 
how to determine an arahant's realm of rebirth, but soon 
thereafter discarded this aim when he realized the holy 
life was lived for a nobler purpose. 

530 If this verse seems narrowly monastic in focus, its counter- 
part Th 1256-57 corrects the imbalance by mentioning all 
four classes of disciples: 

Indeed, for the good of many 
The Tathagatas arise. 

For the women and men 
Who practise their teaching. 

For their sake indeed 

The sage attained enlightenment. 

For the bhikkhus and bhikkhunis 

Who have reached and seen the fixed course. 

Pada d reads: ye niyamagataddasa. Spk glosses: ye 
niyamagata c' eva niyamadasa ca ; "who have reached the 
fixed course and seen the fixed course." Spk-pt: "The 




468 I. The Book with Verses (Sagdthavagga) 



bhikkhus and bhikkhunis who are noble disciples of the 
Buddha have 'reached the fixed course' by abiding in the 
fruit and have 'seen the fixed course' by abiding in the 
path." Niyama here no doubt represents sammattaniyama, 
"the fixed course of rightness," i.e., the supramundane 
path; see 25:1-10 and III, n. 268. 

531 Spk: Although the divine ear is not mentioned it should 
be included. Thus he was a great disciple who had 
attained the six abhihhas. 



9. Vanasamyutta 

532 In pada c, since vinayassu is a middle voice, second person 
imperative, jano, though nominative, may function as a 
vocative lengthened to fit the metre. Spk seems to support 
this with its gloss: tvam jano ahhasmim jane chandaragam 
vinayassu; "you, a person, remove desire and lust for other 
people." The sentiment of this verse is echoed by Th 149-50. 

533 I read padas ab with Eel: Aratim pajahasi so sato/Bhavasi 
satam tam sarayamase. Norman understands the metre as 
irregular Vaitaliya (personal communication). Be has the 
same but without the so in pada a. The so is probably a 
third person demonstrative used with a second person 
verb, a construction already encountered at v. 647c; see 
n. 454. VAT prefers a reading found among SS, Aratim 
pajahasi sato bhavdsi /Bhavatam satam tam sarayamase, but 
since Spk and Spk-pt do not comment on bhavatam it 
seems this word was not in the texts available to the com- 
mentators; Ee2 reads as above but omits bhavatam. The 
verbs pajahasi and bhavasi, which Spk glosses with the 
imperatives pajaha and bhava, conform to the criteria of the 
subjunctive, rare and archaic in Pali (see Geiger, Pali 
Grammar, §123). Se reads the last verb as sddaydmase, but 
sarayamase in the other eds. makes better sense as the sub- 
junctive causative of sarati, to remember > to remind (see 
Geiger, Pali Grammar, §126). 

Pada b is particularly obscure and the commentators 
seem to have been unsure how to handle it. Spk offers two 
alternative interpretations of satam tam sarayamase'. "'Let 




9. Vanasamyutta: Notes 469 



us also remind you, a mindful one, a wise one [Spk-pt: tc 
dispel worldly thoughts whenever they arise]'; or, 'Let us 
remind you of the Dhamma of the good ones [Spk-pt: of 
the Dhamma of the good persons for the removal of 
defilements]' (satimantam panditam tam mayam pi [yatha- 
uppannam vitakkam vinodanaya] sdrayama, satam va dham- 
mam [sappurisanam kilesavigamanadhammam ] may am tam 
sarayama)." I have bypassed both alternatives and adopted 
VAT's suggestion that "you" is implicit and tam is "that," 
representing the way of the good. In pada c we should 
read duttaro over Eel duruttamo. 

534 Spk: It is said that this bhikkhu was an arahant. After 
returning from a distant alms round he was fatigued and 
lay down to rest, but he did not actually fall asleep (even 
though the text says he did!). Thinking that he was lethar- 
gic and was neglecting his meditation practice, the devata 
came to reprove him. 

535 Spk is unsure whether to ascribe the verses that follow to 
the devata or to the bhikkhu and therefore proposes two 
alternative interpretations. All four printed eds. indicate a 
change of voice before this verse, and thus I translate on 
the assumption that the bhikkhu is the speaker. Further, 
Spk takes the implicit subject of tape to be divasoppam, and 
explains the sense, "Why should sleeping by day trouble 
an arahant bhikkhu?"; but as the optative tape can be 
either second or third person singular, it seems more fit- 
ting to take the implicit subject to be the devata, 
addressed by the elder in the second person, "Why 
(should you) trouble...?" 

536 Spk: "That knowledge" ( tam nanam) is the knowledge of 
the Four Noble Truths. In pada a of the next verse I read 
bhetva with Se and Eel & 2, as against chetva in Be. 

537 It seems that while the preceding two verses describe the 
arahant, this verse describes the sekha, the trainee, who is 
still striving to attain Nibbana. 

538 Spk glosses cheta with migaluddaka, a deer-hunter. He had 
gone out that morning to hunt and was pursuing a deer 
when he came upon the elder meditating in the woods. 
The elder set about teaching him the Dhamma, but though 




470 L The Book with Verses ( Sagathdvagga ) 



the hunter looked with his eyes and listened with his ears 
his mind still ran in pursuit of the deer. 

539 Geiger has caught the sense: "It seemed to the devata that 
discontent with the monastic life had overcome the 
bhikkhus and they had given it up" (GermTr, p. 311, n. 2). 
On arati see n. 486. 

540 Spk: Just as deer, wandering in the foothills or woodland 
thickets, wander wherever they find pleasant pastureland 
and dangers are absent, and have no attachment to their 
parents' property or a family heirloom, so the homeless 
bhikkhus, without fixed abode, wander wherever they can 
easily find suitable climate, food, companionship, lodg- 
ings, and Dhamma-teachings, and have no attachment to 
the property of their teacher and preceptor or to a family 
heirloom. 

541 Spk: This sutta takes place shortly after the Buddha's 
parinibbana. The Venerable Mahakassapa had enjoined 
Ananda to attain arahantship before the first Buddhist 
council convened, scheduled to begin during the rains 
retreat. Ananda had gone to the Kosala country and 
entered a forest abode to meditate, but when the people 
found out he was there they continually came to him 
lamenting over the demise of the Master. Thus Ananda 
constantly had to instruct them in the law of imperma- 
nence. The devata, aware that the council could succeed 
only if Ananda attended as an arahant, came to incite him 
to resume his meditation. 

542 At Th 119 the verse is ascribed to one Vajjiputtaka Thera 
but is not found among Ananda's own verses in Th. 

All four eds. read pada b: Nibbanam hadayasmim opiya. At 
Th 119 the last word is read osiya, and we should adopt this 
reading here. I take it as absolutive of the verb oseti pro- 
posed by Norman at EV I, n. to 119; see too n. 223 above. 
Spk supports this with its gloss pakkhipitva, "having placed." 
Spk explains that one deposits Nibbana in one's heart by 
way of function ( kiccato ) and by way of object ( arammanato ): 
by way of function when one arouses energy with the 
thought, "I will attain Nibbana"; by way of object when one 
sits absorbed in a meditative attainment having Nibbana as 
its object (i.e., in phalasamdpatti, the attainment of fruition). 




9. Vanasamyutta: Notes 471 



In pada d, bilibilika is explained by Spk-pt as purpose- 
less activity ( atthavirahitd pavattd kiriyd). The devata refers 
thus to Ananda's talk with the lay people because it does 
not conduce to his attainment of the goal of the holy life. 

543 Her name Jalini, "Ensnarer," is used as an epithet for tanha 
at v. 460a; see too n. 278 and AN II 211,31. According to 
Spk, she had been his chief consort in their immediately 
preceding existence in the Tavatimsa heaven. 

544 Spk: They are not duggata in the sense that they live in a 
miserable realm ( duggati ), for they dwell in a fortunate 
realm enjoying their success. They are miserable because 
of their conduct, for when they expire they might be 
reborn even in hell. 

In pada b, sakkdya, "identity," is the compound of the 
five aggregates of clinging, which are all suffering ( dukkha ) 
because of their impermanence. Spk explains that the 
celestial maidens are "established in identity" 
(sakkdyasmim patitthitd) for eight reasons: because of lust, 
hatred, delusion, views, the underlying tendencies, con- 
ceit, doubt, and restlessness. These are the same as the 
eight ways beings are "established in what can be 
expressed"; see n. 35. On sakkdya see 22:105, and on the 
devas being included in sakkdya, 22:78 (III 85 , 26 - 28 ). 

In pada d. Be, Se, and Ee2 read devakannahi patthitd, 
"desired by celestial maidens," and Eel devakannabhipat- 
tikd. Since p/s confusion is not uncommon in the texts (see 
EV I, n. to 49), we can infer that the original reading is the 
one found in SS, devakannabhisattika, the reading also pre- 
ferred by CPD. Abhisattika is an adjective formed from the 
past participle of abhisajjati, "to be attached to." I am 
thankful to VAT for pointing this out to me. 

545 He is not identified in Spk, and DPPN records nothing 
about him except what is found in the present sutta. 

546 I follow the reading of this verse and the next proposed by 
Alsdorf (in Die Arya-Strophen des Pali-Kanons, pp. 319-20), 
but with modifications suggested by VAT (namely, chang- 
ing Alsdorf's long vocative Nagadatta to the nominative, 
and the four long vocatives in the second verse to 
accusatives, as in the printed eds.): 




472 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathdvagga) 



Kale pavissa gamam/Nagadatto diva ca agantva 
ativelacdri samsattho/gahatthehi samanasukhadukkho. 
Bhayami Nagadattam/suppagabbham kulesu vinibaddham, 
md W eva maccuranno/ balavato antakassa vasam esi! 

"Entering the village too early and returning too late in 
the day" and "associating closely with lay people and 
monks in a worldly way" are two of five factors said to 
lead to a bhikkhu's falling away from the higher training 
(AN III 116,27-117,7). The meaning of the compound 
samanasukhadukkha is explained at 22:3 (III 11,5-6), though 
the compound itself does not occur there. The same com- 
pound is used at DN III 187,11-15 in a positive sense as a 
characteristic of a true friend. 

547 Spk: He had received a meditation subject from the 
Buddha and entered a woodland thicket. The next day a 
family gave him alms and offered to provide him with 
regular support. Thereby he attained arahantship and 
continued to dwell in the same place enjoying the bliss of 
fruition attainment. The devata (a female) was not aware 
of the elder's attainment and thought he had formed an 
intimate relationship with the mistress of the family. 
Therefore she came in order to reproach him. Neither Spk 
nor Spk-pt comments on the rare expression kulagharani. 

548 The antelope (vatamiga, lit. "wind-deer") is the subject of 
Ja No. 14. Spk: As an antelope in the woods becomes 
frightened by the sound of the wind rustling the leaves, so 
is it with one frightened by sounds (i.e., by rumours). The 
practice ( vata ) of one who is fickle-minded (lahucitta, lit. 
"light-minded") does not succeed; but this elder, being an 
arahant, was one with a successful practice. 

549 An expanded version of this sutta is found at Dhp-a 
III 460-62; see BL 3:182-83. 

Spk: The clamour (nigghosasadda) of instruments ( turiya ; 
Spk-pt: of drums, conch shells, cymbals, lutes, etc.); of 
gongs (tdlita; Spk-pt: of things that are struck in rhythm); 
and of music ( vadita ; Spk-pt: of lutes, flutes, horns, etc.)- 
See too n. 343. 

550 Spk: "Many are those who yearn for your state — a forest- 
dwelling elder clad in rag-robes, subsisting on almsfood. 




9. Vanasamyutta: Notes 473 



going on uninterrupted alms round, with few wishes, con- 
tent, etc." Spk glosses saggagaminam as "those going to 
heaven and those (already) gone there." 

551 Appossukko tunhlbhuto sankasayati. The expression occurs 
also at 21:4 (II 277,12) and 35:240 (IV 178,1-2); see above 
n. 54. Spk: He attained arahantship and reflected, "I have 
attained the goal for the sake of which I did the recitation, 
so why continue with it?" Then he passed the time in the 
bliss of fruition attainment. 

552 The five -pada verse is unusual. The sense requires that in 
pada b we read na samdgamimha ; though the printed eds. 
do not include na, the suggested reading is found in 
Burmese mss referred to in the notes of Eel & 2. Spk 
explains virdgena, dispassion, as the noble path. In pada d ; 
annayanikkhepanam is a syntactical compound; see n. 68 
Spk takes annaya as absolutive (= janitvd), but it could also 
be instrumental. 

553 In pada a, I read the verb as khajjasi with Be, Se, and Ee2, 
as against Eel majjasi, "intoxicated with." Careless atten- 
tion ( ayoniso manasikara) is traditionally explained as 
attending to things as permanent, pleasurable, self, and 
beautiful; careful attention ( yoniso manasikara), as attend- 
ing to their true characteristics— impermanence, suffering, 
nonself, and foulness. 

554 An identical story, including the verses, is at Ja No. 392 
(III 307-10), with the Bodhisatta in the role of the bhikkhu. 

Spk: When she saw the bhikkhu sniff the lotus, the 
devata thought: "Having received a meditation subject 
from the Buddha and entered the forest to meditate, this 
bhikkhu is instead meditating on the scent of flowers. If 
his craving for scent increases it will destroy his welfare. 
Let me draw near and reproach him." 

555 Spk: Vannena (in pada c): karanena. See PED, s.v. vanna 
(11), and v. 806a below. 

556 All four eds. read, in pada c, dkinnakammanto, which Spk 
glosses aparisuddhakammanto, "of impure deed." But SS 
read akhina-, akhina-, and akkhina-, which is acknowledged 
by Spk as a v.l. and glossed kakkhalakammanto, "of rough 
deed." Spk (Be) reads akhinakammanto, Spk (Se) akkhina- 
kammanto, which represents more correctly initial a + kh. 




474 I. The Book with Verses (Sagdthavagga) 



That this reading is to be preferred to akinna- is confirmed 
by v. 798a, where akhinaluddo would certainly make much 
better sense than the given reading akinnaluddho. See 
Norman, "Two Pali Etymologies," Collected Papers, 2:78-79. 

557 In pada b we should read bhatakdmhase, as in Be, Se, and 
Ee2. Spk: The devata, it is said, thought: "This bhikkhu 
might become negligent, thinking he has a deity looking 
after his welfare. I won't accept his proposal." 



10. Y akkhasamyutta 

558 Spk: This was the yakkha who dwelt on Inda's Peak. 
Sometimes a peak is named after a yakkha, sometimes a 
yakkha after a peak. 

559 Spk glosses sajjati in pada d with laggati titthati, "sticks, 
persists," apparently taking sajjati as equivalent to Skt 
sajyate (see MW, s.v. safij (2)). But the word may be a pas- 
sive representing Skt srjyati for which MW (s.v. srj) lists as 
meanings "to create, procreate, beget, produce." I trans- 
late on the assumption that this is the original derivation. 
See too PED, s.v. sajati(l). 

Spk says that this yakkha was a personalist (puggalavadi) 
who held the view that a being is produced in the womb 
at a single stroke ( ekappaharen eva satto matukucchismim 
nibbattati ). The Buddha's answer is intended to refute the 
yakkha's belief by showing that a being develops gradu- 
ally ( anupubbena pana vaddhati). 

560 The Pali terms refer to the different stages in the formation 
of the embryo. Spk: The kalala is the size of a drop of oil 
placed on the tip of a thread made from three strands of 
wool. After a week from the kalala comes the abbuda, which 
is the colour of meat-washing water. After another week, 
from the abbuda the pesi is produced, which is similar to 
molten tin [Spk-pt: in shape, but in colour it is pink]. After 
still another week, from the pesi the ghana arises, which has 
the shape of a chicken egg. In the fifth week, from the ghana 
emerge the limbs: five pimples appear, the rudiments of the 
arms, legs, and head. But the head-hairs, body-hairs, and 
nails are not produced until the forty-second week. 

561 Spk: This yakkha, it is said, belonged to Mara's faction 




10 . Yakkha s amyutta: No tes 475 



(marapakkhika-yakkha). His verse parallels Mara's reproach 
to the Buddha at v. 474, and the Buddha's reply echoes 
v. 475. Spk-pt explains the purport to be that the wise 
man's compassion and sympathy are not tainted by 
worldly affection. 

562 Spk glosses vannena with kdranena (as in v. 796c; see 
n. 555), and Spk-pt glosses yena kena ci with gahatthena vd 
pabbajitena va, "with a householder or one gone forth," 
thus separating it from vannena and treating it as an 
expression of personal reference. The purport of the 
Buddha's verses is that a wise man should not take to 
instructing others if he is at risk of becoming attached, but 
he may do so out of compassion when his mind is puri- 
fied and his sympathy is not tainted by worldly affection. 

563 This sutta is also at Sn II, 5 (pp. 47-49) and commented on 
at Pj II 301-5. The name of this yakkha means "Needle- 
hair"; he was called thus because his body was covered 
with needle-like hairs. According to Spk, he had been a 
bhikkhu under the Buddha Kassapa but was unable to 
attain any distinction. During the time of the Buddha 
Gotama he was reborn as a yakkha in the rubbish dump at 
the entrance to Gaya village. The Buddha saw that he had 
the potential for attaining the path of stream-entry and 
went to his haunt in order to teach him. His haunt, the 
Tankita Bed, was made of a stone slab mounted on four 
other stones. 

564 Spk; He spoke thus thinking, "One who gets frightened 
and flees when he sees me is a sham ascetic (samanaka); 
one who does not get frightened and flee is an ascetic 
(samana). This one, having seen me, will get frightened 
and flee." 

565 Spk; The yakkha assumed a frightful manifestation, 
opened his mouth wide, and raised his needle-like hairs 
all over his body. His touch is "evil" (papaka) and should 
be avoided like excrement, fire, or a poisonous snake. 
When the Buddha said this, Suciloma became angry and 
spoke as follows. 

566 In all eds. of SN, and most eds. of Sn, as well as their 
respective commentaries, w. 808d, 809d read: Kumarakd 
dhankam iv' ossajanti. A v.l. vankam (in place of dhankam) is 




476 L The Book with Verses (Sagdthdvagga) 



found in several mss of Sn (vv. 270-71) and has been 
incorporated into Sn (Eel). Dhankam (< Skt dvahksam ) was 
certainly the reading known to the commentators, for both 
Spk and Pj II 303,22 foil, gloss the word with kdkatn, crow 
which they would not have done if varikam was the read- 
ing. Spk glosses ossajanti with khipanti, and explains the 
simile: "Little boys bind a crow by its feet with a long 
cord, tie one end of the cord around their fingers, and 
release the crow.. After the crow has gone some distance, it 
falls down again at their feet." 

Spk paraphrases the question thus: "Whence do evil 
thoughts rise up and toss the mind?" ( papavitakka kuto 
samutthaya cittam ossajanti). This seems to separate mano 
and vitakka and to treat mano as accusative. I prefer to 
retain manovitakkd as a compound (as is clearly the case at 
v. 34b) and to see the object of ossajanti as merely implicit, 
namely, oneself, the very source from which the thoughts 
arise, as v. 810a asserts with the expression attasambhiita. 

Norman, who also accepts dhankam, discusses the prob- 
lem at GD, p. 200, n. to 270-71. For an alternative render- 
ing based on the reading vahkam, see Nanananda, SN- 
Anth 2:13, 89-90. The Skt version cited at Ybhus 11.1 reads 
kumdrakd dhatrim ivasrayante, "as little boys depend on a 
wet-nurse" (Enomoto, CSCS, p. 59). 

567 Itonidana. Spk: "This individual existence ( attabhava ) is 
their source; they have sprung up from this individual 
existence. As boys at play toss up a crow, so do evil 
thoughts rise up from this individual existence and toss 
the mind [Spk-pt: by not giving an opening for whole- 
some states of mind to occur]." 

Spk-pt: In the application of the simile, the evil thoughts 
are like the boys at play; this world of our individual exis- 
tence is like the world in which the boys have arisen; the 
mind is like the crow; and the fetter ( samyojana ) which fol- 
lows one to a distance is like the long thread tied around 
the crow's feet. 

568 Like the trunk-born shoots of the banyan tree (nigrodhasseva 
khandhaja). The banyan tree, and other related species of 
fig trees, "develop from their branches aerial roots that 
may reach the ground and thicken into 'pillar-roots' or 




10. Yakkhasamyutta: Notes 477 



subsidiary trunks. The continually expanding system ol 
new trunks, all connected through the branches, may sup- 
port a crown up to 2,000 feet in circumference" (Emeneau, 
"The Strangling Figs in Sanskrit Literature," p. 346). 
Emeneau quotes Milton's Paradise Lost, IX, 1100-11, "the 
locus classicus on these trees in English literature": 

The Figtree ... spreds her Armes 

Braunching so broad and long, that in the ground 

The bended Twigs take root, and Daughters grow 

About the Mother Tree, a Pillard shade 

High overarch't, and echoing Walks between.... 

Like a maluvd creeper stretched across the woods (maluvd va 
vitata vane). Spk: "When the maluvd creeper grows by sup- 
porting itself against a particular tree, it weaves itself 
around that tree again and again and spreads over it from 
bottom to top and from top to bottom, so that it stands 
suspended and stretched out. In a similar way the mani- 
fold defilements of sensual desire cling to the objects of 
sensual desire, or the manifold beings cling to the objects 
of sensual desire on account of those defilements of sen- 
sual desire." The point, rather, seems to be that sensual 
desire spreads from object to object just as the creeper 
stretches itself out in the woods by spreading from tree to 
tree. For more on the maluvd creeper, see MN I 306-7, 
AN 1 202,32-34 and 204,23-205,4, and Dhp 162, 334. 

569 Spk paraphrases: "Those who understand their source of this 
individual existence dispel it, that is, with the truth of the 
path, they dispel the truth of the origin (= craving), which 
is the source of the truth of suffering that consists in this 
individual existence. By driving away the truth of the ori- 
gin, they cross this hard-to-cross flood of defilements, 
uncrossed before in this beginningless samsara even in a 
dream, for no renewed existence, for the sake of the truth of 
cessation (= Nibbana), which is called 'no renewed exis- 
tence' (apunabbhavdya). Thus with this verse the Master 
reveals the Four Noble Truths, bringing the discourse to 
its climax in arahantship. At its conclusion, Suciloma was 
established in the fruit of stream-entry. And since stream- 




478 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathdvagga) 



enterers do not live on in monstrous bodies, simultane- 
ously with his attainment his needle-hairs all fell out and 
he obtained the appearance of an earth-deity (bhumma- 
devataparihara).” 

570 Spk glosses sukham edhati in pada a as sukham patilabhati, 
"obtains happiness." CPD points out (s.v. edhati) that this 
interpretation is probably a misunderstanding stemming 
from the supposition that sukham is a direct object of the 
verb rather than an adverbial accusative. The original 
meaning appears in the commentarial gloss on the expres- 
sion sukhedhito as sukhasamvaddhito. See too EV I, n. to 475. 

Spk glosses suve seyyo in pada c as suve suve seyyo, niccam 
eva seyyo ; "It is better morrow upon morrow, it is always 
better." 

571 Spk: Ahimsaya, "in harmlessness," means "in compassion 
and in the preliminary stage of compassion" [Spk-pt: that 
is, the access to the first jhana produced by the meditation 
on compassion], Mettam so, "who has lovingkindness," 
means "he (so) develops lovingkindness ( mettam ) and the 
preliminary stage of lovingkindness." [Spk-pt: He (so) is 
the person developing meditation on compassion.] 

Evidently Spk and Spk-pt take so in pada c to be the 
demonstrative counterpart of yassa in pada a, with an 
implicit transitive verb bhdveti understood. While the 
exact meaning of mettam so (or mettamso) is problematic, I 
prefer to take pada c as an additional relative clause, the 
relatives being resolved only in pada d by the clearly 
demonstrative tassa. Spk offers an alternative interpreta- 
tion of mettamso as a compound of mettd and amsa, glossed 
as kotthdsa, "portion": mettd amso etassa ti mettamso; "one 
for whom lovingkindness is a portion (of his character) is 
mettamso." Mp IV 71,9 glosses mettamso: mettayamdnacitta- 
kotthdso hutvd ; "having become one for whom a loving 
mind is a portion"; see too It-a I 95,13-15. Brough remarks 
that mitrisa (in G-Dhp 198) "appears to have been inter- 
preted by the Prakrit translator as equivalent to [Skt] 
maitri asya" ( Gandhari Dharmapada, p. 242, n. 198). 

Spk-pt: Because of his own hating mind someone might 
nurture enmity even towards an arahant who lacks medi- 
tation on lovingkindness and compassion. But no one 




10. Yakkhasamyutta: Notes 47S 



could nurture enmity towards one who is endowed with 
liberation of mind through lovingkindness and compas- 
sion. So powerful is the meditation on the divine abodes 
(evam mahiddhika brahmavihara-bhdvana). 

572 The background story, related in Spk, is also found al 
Dhp-a IV 18-25, which includes the verses as well; see 
BL 3:207-11. In brief: Sanu was a devout novice who, on 
reaching maturity, had become dissatisfied with the 
monk's life and had returned to his mother's house 
intending to disrobe. His mother, after pleading with him 
to reconsider his decision, went to prepare a meal for him, 
and just then a female yakkha — his mother from the pre- 
vious life, who was also anxious to prevent him from dis- 
robing — took possession of him and threw him down to 
the ground, where he lay quivering with rolling eyes and 
foaming mouth. When his present mother returned to the 
room, she found him in this condition. 

573 I follow the reading in Be. Eel & Ee2 insert another verse 
here (v. 815 in Ee2), but since this verse seems to be the 
product of a scribal error I do not translate it. The Be read- 
ing is supported by the Dhp-a version. Se reads as in Be, 
but with yfi va in place of yd ca in the second pada of both 
the exclamation and the reply. In order to translate in 
accordance with natural English syntax, I have had to 
invert lines of the Pali in a way which crosses over the 
division of verses in the Pali text. 

The Uposatha complete in eight factors ( atthasusamdgatam 
uposatham): On the Uposatha, see n. 513. Besides the two 
major Uposathas falling on the full-moon and new-moon 
days (respectively either the fourteenth or fifteenth, and 
the first, of the fortnight), minor Uposathas fall on the 
half -moon days, the eighths of the fortnight. Lay people 
observe the Uposatha by taking upon themselves the 
Eight Precepts (atthahga-slla), a stricter discipline than the 
Five Precepts of daily observance. These entail abstaining 
from: (1) taking life, (2) stealing, (3) all sexual activity, (4) 
false speech, (5) taking intoxicants, (6) eating past noon, 

(7) dancing, singing, listening to music, seeing improper 
shows, and using personal ornaments and cosmetics, and 

(8) using high and luxurious beds and seats. For more on 




480 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathdvagga) 



the Uposatha duties for the laity, see AN IV 248-62. 

And during special periods ( pdtihdriyapakkhafi ca). Spk 
explains this as if it meant the days proximate to the 
Uposatha: "This is said with reference to those who 
undertake the Uposatha observances on the seventh and 
ninth of the fortnight too (in addition to the eighth), and 
who also undertake the practices on the days preceding 
and following the Uposatha on the fourteenth or fifteenth 
(the full-moon and new-moon observance days). Further, 
following the Pavarana day (see n. 513) they observe the 
Uposatha duties continuously for a fortnight [Spk-pt: that 
is, during the waning fortnight]." Different explanations 
of the expression patihariyapakkha are given at Mp II 234 
and Pj II 378. 

574 Spk glosses uppacca pi as uppatitva pi, and paraphrases: 
"Even if you fly up like a bird and flee, there will still be 
no freedom for you." The same verse is at Thi 247c-248b, 
Pv 236, Ud 51,17-18, Pet 44,20-21, and Nett 131,19-20. These 
versions (except Pv) read the absolutive as upecca, with a 
strange gloss sancicca in their commentaries; Pv follows 
SN, but its commentary recognizes upecca as a v.l. A paral- 
lel is at Uv 9:4, with the absolutive utplutya. See von 
Hiniiber, "On the Tradition of Pali Texts in India, Ceylon, 
and Burma," pp. 51-53. 

575 At this point the yakkha has released Sanu and he has re- 
gained consciousness, unaware of what had just occurred. 

576 See 20:10 (II 271,13-14): "For this is death in the Noble 
One's Discipline: that one gives up the training and 
returns to the lower life." 

577 Spk: She says this to show the danger in household life; 
for household life is called "hot embers" ( kukkula ) in the 
sense of being hot. Kukkula is also at 22:136. 

578 Spk paraphrases kassa ujjhapayamase, in pada b, thus: 
"When you were intent on disrobing and had been pos- 
sessed by the yakkha, to whom could we have voiced our 
grief (complained), to whom could we have appealed and 
reported this ( kassa may am ujjhdpayama nijihdpayama 
arocayama)?" On pada cd: "When you went forth into the 
Buddha's Teaching, drawn out from the household, you 
were like an item rescued from a blazing house. But now 




10. Yakkhasamyutta: Notes 481 



you wish to be burnt again in the household life, which is 
like a great conflagration." According to Spk, the yakkha's 
intervention proved effective. After listening to his mother, 
Sanu gave up his idea of disrobing, received the higher 
ordination, mastered the Buddha's teachings, and quickly 
attained arahantship. He became a great preacher who 
lived to the age of 120. 

579 Spk: She had taken her son Piyankara on her hip and was 
searching for food behind Jeta's Grove when she heard 
the sweet sound of the elder's recitation. The sound went 
straight to her heart and, transfixed, she stood there listen- 
ing to the Dhamma, her interest in food gone. But her little 
son was too young to appreciate the recitation and kept 
complaining to his mother about his hunger. 

580 Spk: She was carrying her daughter on her hip and lead- 
ing her son by the hand. When she heard the Dhamma she 
stood transfixed, but her children clamoured for food. 

581 Spk explains that paninam in pada d may be understood as 
either a genitive plural or an accusative singular repre- 
senting the plural (= panine): Paiunan ti yatha paninam 
dukkha moceti. Ke moceti ti? Paiiine ti aharitva vattabbam. 

582 I follow VAT's perspicacious suggestion that pada d 
should be read: yam dhammam abhisambudha, taking the 
verb as a root aorist (see Geiger, Pali Grammar, §159, 
161.1). Be and Ee2 read abhisambudham, Se and Eel 
abhisambuddham, accusative past participles which seem 
syntactically out of place. The accusative yam dhammam 
requires an active transitive verb, yet the only solution 
Spk can propose is to turn the passive accusative partici- 
ple into a nominative with active force, a role it is ill- 
designed to play. Since verb forms from abhisambudh 
always refer to the Buddha, I have made explicit the 
verb's subject, not mentioned as such in the text. 

583 Spk: Having listened to the Buddha's discourse, the 
yakkha and her son were established in the fruit of 
stream-entry. Though the daughter had good supporting 
conditions, she was too young to understand the dis- 
course. 

584 The story of Anathapindika's first meeting with the 
Buddha is told in greater detail at Yin II 154-59; see too 




482 I- The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



Nanamoli, Life of the Buddha, pp. 87-91. His given name 
was Sudatta, "Anathapindika" being a nickname meaning 
"(giver) of alms to the helpless"; he was so called because 
of his generosity. 

585 Spk: After the first watch of the night had passed he woke 
up thinking of the Buddha, full of confidence and joy so 
intense that light became manifest and drove away the 
darkness. Hence he thought it was already dawn and set 
out for the monastery, realizing his error only when he 
went outside. The same thing happened at the end of the 
middle watch. 

From Spk's account, it seems that the Cool Grove was 
located near the cremation ground (sivathikd) and thus 
Anathapindika had to pass through the cemetery to reach 
the monastery. It was for this reason that he became 
frightened. The fluctuation in the intensity of the light, 
Spk says, reflects his inward battle between faith and fear. 

586 Spk: The word sahassa (thousand), found only in conjunc- 
tion with kahha, should be conjoined with each of the pre- 
ceding three terms as well. All this is "not worth a six- 
teenth part of a single step forward" because, when he 
arrives at the monastery, he will be established in the fruit 
of stream-entry. 

587 Spk: While he was approaching, Anathapindika won- 
dered how he could determine for himself whether or not 
the Teacher was a genuine Buddha. He then resolved that 
if the Teacher was a Buddha he would address him by his 
given name, Sudatta, known only to himself. 

588 The words in brackets render hattho udaggo, found in Be 
only. 

589 I prefer Se and Ee2 cetaso to Be and Eel cetasa. The parallel 
at AN I 138,3-6 also has cetaso. In the Vinaya version the 
Buddha next delivers a graduated sermon to Anatha- 
pindika at the conclusion of which he attains stream- 
entry. 

590 This verse and the next are found, with several variations, 
at Thi 54-55. Spk glosses kim me kata, in pada a, with kim 
ime kata, kim karonti, but I think it more likely that we have 
here a split bahubbihi compound kimkata, and I translate 
accordingly. 




10. Yakkhasamyutta: Notes 483 



Be reads pada b: madhuplta va seyare (Se and Ee2^ seyyare; 
Eel and Thi 54: acchare). Spk: They sleep as if they have 
been drinking sweet mead (Be: gandhamadhupana; Se: 
gandamadhupana)-, for it is said that one who drinks this is 
unable to lift up his head but just lies there unconscious. 
Spk-pt: Gandhamadhu is a particular type of honey that is 
extremely sweet and intoxicating. 

Spk I 338,13-14 (to 11:1) mentions a drink called gandha- 
pdna (in Be; gandapana in Se and Ee), an intoxicating bever- 
age (surd) used by the older generation of devas in the 
Tavatimsa heaven but rejected by Sakka after he assumed 
rulership over that world. At Dhp-a I 272,9 the drink is 
called dibbapana. MW lists gandhapana, defined as a fra- 
grant beverage. "Madhu denotes anything sweet used as 
food and especially drink, 'mead/ a sense often found in 
the Rigveda" (Macdonell and Keith, Vedic Index, s.v. 
madhu). 

591 Spk explains appativaniyam ("irresistible"), in pada a, thus: 
"Whereas ordinary food, even though very delicious, fails 
to give pleasure when one eats it again and again and 
becomes something to be rejected and removed, this 
Dhamma is different. The wise can listen to this Dhamma 
for a hundred or a thousand years without becoming sati- 
ated." Spk glosses asecanakam ojavam, in pada b, as andsit- 
takam ojavantam, "unadulterated, nourishing," and 
explains that unlike material food, which becomes tasty 
by the addition of condiments, this Dhamma is sweet and 
nutritious by its own nature. 

While Spk thus takes asecanaka to be derived from 
sincati, to sprinkle, Brough maintains that the word is 
derived from a different root sek, meaning "to satiate." He 
renders it "never causing surfeit" (Gdndhdri Dharmapada, 
p. 193, n. to 72). See too CPD, s.v. asecanaka, which quotes 
the traditional Skt explanation from the Amarakosa: trpter 
nasty anto yasya darsanat ; "that the sight of which gives 
endless satisfaction." In Pali the word is used more in con- 
nection with the senses of smell and taste (e.g., at 
AN III 237,22 and 238,l). My rendering "ambrosial" is 
intended to suggest the same idea as the Skt definition, 
but more concisely so that it can also be incorporated into 




484 I. The Book with Verses ( Sagathavagga ) 



the description of mindfulness of breathing at 54:9 
(V 321,22 and 322,l,ll). 

Pada d reads: valahakam iva panthagu (in Be and Eel; Se 
and Thi 55 end with addhagu). Spk: "Like travellers 
( pathikd ) oppressed by the heat (who drink) the water 
released from within a cloud." 

592 This verse and the next resemble Thi 111, which contains 
features of both. In pada d, I prefer vippamuttdya in Se and 
SS, as against vippamuttiya in Be and Eel & 2. At EV II, n. 
to 111, Norman suggests, on metrical grounds, inverting 
padas c and d, but the resultant meaning seems to under- 
mine the cogency of this suggestion. 

593 This sutta, also found at Sn 1, 10 (pp. 31-33), is included in 
the Sri Lankan Maha Pirit Pota. Spk relates the long back- 
ground story, of which I sketch only the highlights: 

One day King Alavaka of Alavi, while on a hunt, was 
captured by the ferocious yakkha Alavaka, who threat- 
ened to eat him. The king could obtain release only by 
promising the demon that he would provide him daily 
with a human victim. First the king sent the criminals 
from the prison, but when there were no more prisoners 
he required every family to provide a child. All the fami- 
lies with children eventually fled to other lands and it 
became incumbent on the king to offer his own son, the 
Alavaka prince. The Buddha, aware of the impending sac- 
rifice, went to the yakkha's haunt on the day before the 
offering was to take place in order to convert the demon 
from his evil ways. At that time the yakkha was attending 
a meeting in the Himalayas, but the Buddha entered his 
cave, sat down on the yakkha's throne, and preached the 
Dhamma to his harem ladies. When the yakkha heard 
about this, he hastened back to Alavi in a fury and 
demanded that the Blessed One leave. 

594 Spk: The Buddha complied with the yakkha's demands 
three times because he knew that compliance was the 
most effective way to soften his mind. But when the 
yakkha thought to send the Buddha in and out all night 
long, the Master refused to obey. 

595 Spk: It is said that when he was a child his parents had 
taught him eight questions and answers which they had 




10. Yakkhasamyutta: Notes 485 



learnt from the Buddha Kassapa. As time passed he forgot 
the answers, but he had preserved the questions written 
in Vermillion on a golden scroll, which he kept in his cave. 

596 Api ca tvatn avuso puccha yad akahkhasi. Spk: With these 
words the Buddha extended to him the invitation of an 
Omniscient One (sabbannupavaranam pavaresi), which can- 
not be extended by any paccekabuddhas, chief disciples, 
or great disciples. 

597 Spk: Faith is a man's best treasure because it brings mun- 
dane and supramundane happiness as its result; it allevi- 
ates the suffering of birth and aging; it allays poverty with 
respect to excellent qualities; and it is the means of obtain- 
ing the gems of the enlightenment factors, etc. Dhamma 
here is the ten wholesome qualities, or giving, virtue, and 
meditation. This brings human happiness, celestial happi- 
ness, and in the end the happiness of Nibbana. By truth 
here truthful speech is intended, with Nibbana as the ulti- 
mate truth (paramatthasacca) and truth as abstinence (from 
falsehood; viratisacca) comprised within that. Of the various 
kinds of tastes, truth is really the sweetest of tastes, truth 
alone is the sweetest ( sadutaram ). Or it is the best 
(sadhutaram), the supreme, the highest. For such tastes as 
that of roots, etc., nourish only the body and bring a 
defiled happiness, but the taste of truth nourishes the 
mind with serenity and insight and brings an undefiled 
happiness. 

One living by wisdom (pahhajivim jivitam): A householder 
lives by wisdom when he works at an honourable occupa- 
tion, goes for refuge, gives alms, observes the precepts, 
and fulfils the Uposatha duties, etc. One gone forth as a 
monk lives by wisdom when he undertakes pure virtue 
and the superior practices beginning with purification of 
mind. 

598 Spk distributes the four "floods" ( ogha ) over the four lines 
of the reply and sees each line as implying a particular 
path and fruit; on the four floods, see n. 1. Since the faith 
faculty is the basis for the four factors of stream-entry (see 
55:1), the first line shows the stream-enterer, who has 
crossed the flood of views; the second line shows the 
once-retumer, who by means of diligence has crossed the 




486 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



flood of existence except for one more existence in the 
sense-sphere world; the third line shows the nonretumer, 
who has overcome the flood of sensuality, a mass of suf- 
fering; and the fourth line shows the path of arahantship, 
which includes the fully purified wisdom by means of 
which one crosses over the flood of ignorance. 

This completes the eight questions that the yakkha had 
learnt from his parents. When the Buddha finished speak- 
ing, bringing his verse to a climax in arahantship, the 
yakkha was established in the fruit of stream-entry. 

599 Spk: When the Buddha said, "By wisdom one is purified," 
the yakkha picked up on the word "wisdom" and, 
through his own ingenuity, asked a question of mixed 
mundane and supramundane significance. 

600 In pada c, I read sussusa with Se and Eel & 2. Be reads 
sussusam as does the lemma of Spk (Be), while the corre- 
sponding lemma in Spk (Se) has sussusa. From the para- 
phrase (see below) sussusa can be understood as a truncat- 
ed instrumental (= sussusaya). In Be, sussusam seems to 
function as an accusative in apposition to pahham, perhaps 
as the first member of a split compound, i.e., "the wisdom 
(consisting in) the desire to learn." 

Spk: The Blessed One shows here four causes for the 
gaining of wisdom. First one places faith in the Dhamma 
by which the arahants — Buddhas, paccekabuddhas, and 
disciples — attained Nibbana. By so doing one gains the 
mundane and supramundane wisdom for the attainment 
of Nibbana. But that does not come to pass merely by 
faith. When faith is bom one approaches a teacher, lends 
an ear, and hears the Dhamma; thus one gains a desire to 
learn (sussusam). When one lends an ear and listens from a 
desire to leam, one gains wisdom. But one must also be 
diligent (appamatto), in the sense of being constantly mind- 
ful, and astute ( vicakkhana ), able to distinguish what is well 
spoken and badly spoken. Through faith one enters upon 
the practice that leads to gaining wisdom. Through a desire 
to learn ( sussusaya ) one carefully listens to the means for 
acquiring wisdom; through diligence (appamadena) one 
does not forget what one has learnt; through astuteness 
(vicakkhanataya) one expands upon what one has learnt. Or 




10. Yakkhasamyutta: Notes 48 7 



else: through a desire to learn one lends an ear and listens 
to the Dhamma by which one gains wisdom; through dili- 
gence one bears in mind the Dhamma heard; by astute- 
ness one examines the meaning and then gradually one 
realizes the ultimate truth. 

601 Spk: Dutiful ( dhurava ) means not neglecting one's respon- 
sibilities and implies mental energy; one with initiative 
( utthatd ) implies physical energy. I here follow Be; in Se 
the last two lines come at the end of v. 850; in Eel, at the 
end of both v. 849 and v. 850; in Sn, "they are attached to 
neither verse. 

602 The problem is to correlate the two tetrads mentioned in 
w. 853-54. The difficulty arises not only on account of the 
replacement of dhiti by khantya in the second verse but 
also because of the variant readings of the second term. 
Perhaps the best reading is that in Se, which accords with 
Sn (Eel) vv. 187-88: in v. 853, saccam dhammo dhiti cago ; in 

v. 854, saccd dama cdgd khantya. Spk (Be) and Spk (Se) differ 
over the second term: the former has dammo and damma, 
the latter dhammo and dhamma. The explanations in Spk-pt 
establish beyond doubt that dhammo and dama were the 
respective readings known to Dhammapala. 

The four qualities mentioned at w. 853-54 refer back to 

w. 851-52. Truth corresponds to truthfulness in v. 852c 
(sacca in all three instances), while generosity ( cdga ) clearly 
corresponds to giving (dadam) in v. 852d. Spk (Se) explains 
that Dhamma is spoken of (in v. 851c) under the name of 
wisdom gained through a desire to learn, on which Spk-pt 
comments: "Wisdom is called Dhamma because of bear- 
ing up and examining ( dharanato upadharanato) entities in 
accordance with actuality." (As the verb dhareti (> dharana) 
is the stock etymological explanation of dhamma in the 
commentaries, we can infer that the author of Spk-pt had 
a text that read dhammo.) Steadfastness (dhiti) is spoken of 
under the names dutifulness and initiative (in v. 852ab). 

In its paraphrase of v. 854, Spk states: "Come now, ask 
the many ascetics and brahmins whether there is any 
greater means for winning acclaim than truthfulness ; any 
greater means for gaining mundane and supramundane 
wisdom than self-control (I suggest reading dama, following 




488 L The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



Spk-pt, which explains that wisdom is so designated 
because it controls ( dameti ) the defilements as well as body 
and speech, etc.); any greater means of binding friends 
than generosity; and any greater means for finding mun- 
dane and supramundane wealth than patience, which is 
identical with activated energy, (called patience) in the 
sense that it endures heavy burdens, and which is referred 
to by the names dutifulness and initiative." 

Thus the correlations can be shown schematically as fol- 
lows: 

(1) 852: truthfulness = 853 & 854: truth. 

(2) 851: wisdom = 853: Dhamma = 854: self-control. 

(3) 852: giving = 853 & 854: generosity. 

(4) 852: dutifulness, initiative = 853: steadfastness = 
854: patience. 

603 Although Spk explains attho in pada d as the visible bene- 
fit ( ditthadhammika ) and samparayiko as the benefit in a 
future life, there seems to be no compelling reason not to 
take the two words at their face value as adjective and 
noun bearing a single significance, namely, the good per- 
taining to the future life. 

604 Spk continues with the background story: Just as the yakkha 
finished speaking this verse, the sun rose and the king's men 
arrived bringing the prince as a sacrificial offering. They 
handed the infant to the yakkha, who presented him to the 
Buddha. The Master recited some verses of blessing over the 
boy and returned him to the king's men. When the prince 
reached maturity, he was known as Hatthaka Alavaka, 
because he had been passed around from one person's 
hands ( hattha ) to another's. He attained the stage of non- 
returner and was one of the Buddha's foremost lay disci- 
ples, the chief of those who win followings through the 
four bases of beneficence ( sahgahavatthu ; see AN I 26,7-9). 
The Buddha holds him up as a model for male lay followers 
at 17:23 and praises his virtues at AN IV 217-20. 




11 . Sakkasamyutta: Notes 489 



11. Sakkasamyutta 

605 The texts commonly depict the Tavatimsa devas and the 
asuras as engaged in perpetual strife, the devas represent- 
ing the forces of light, peace, and harmony, the asuras or 
"jealous titans" the forces of violence, conflict, and dissen- 
sion; see too 35:248. 

Spk explains that the devas are protected by five lines of 
defense: the nagas, the supannas (n. 397), the kumbhandas 
(a kind of goblin), the yakkhas, and the Four Great Kings, 
the presiding deities of the lowest sense-sphere heaven. 
When the asuras penetrate these five lines, the Four Great 
Kings inform Sakka, who mounts his chariot and then 
either goes to the battlefront himself or commissions one 
of his sons to lead the devas into battle. On this occasion 
he wanted to send his son Suvira. 

606 Spk: Accompanied by his retinue of nymphs, he entered 
upon the great golden highway sixty yojanas wide and 
roamed around in the Nandana Grove playing (the game 
of) Constellation. 

607 Spk: In pada a, alasassa (in Se and Eel; alasvassa in Be & 
Ee2) should be resolved: alaso assa; in pada c, sabbakama- 
samiddhassa should be resolved: sabbakdmehi samiddho assa 
In pada d, I read disa ti with Be, Se, and Ee2, as against 
disan ti in Eel. 

Spk paraphrases pada d thus: "O Sakka, supreme deva, 
show me that blessed, supreme, state (or) region, point it 
out to me, describe it" ( sakka devasettha tarn me varam utta- 
mam thdnam okdsam disa acikkha kathehi). VAT proposes that 
because pada d includes no other noun for an adjective 
varam to qualify, it would be better to take varam itself as 
the noun meaning "a boon" and disa as meaning "to grant, 
to bestow." This meaning is attested to in PED, s.v. disati, 
but without references. I have followed VAT's suggestion, 
though I cannot cite any other instances where varam is 
used in relation to disati. It is usually governed by the verb 
dadati, as at Vin I 278,23. 

608 The verse is particularly obscure. Spk and Spk-pt offer lit- 
tle more than glosses, and a translator can do little better 
than take a shot in the dark. In pada a, I regard koci as 




490 I- The Book with Verses ( Sagdthdvagga ) 



equivalent to kvaci (see n. 175). I read the verb in pada b 
with Eel & 2 as jiyati, as against jivati in Be and Se; the lat- 
ter may have entered the text through a misunderstanding 
of the commentarial gloss. 

Spk: "The place of living without doing work is the path 
of Nibbana (kammam akatvd jlvitatthanam nama nibbanassa 
maggo)." Spk-pt: "The 'path of Nibbana' is the path which 
serves as the means for attainment of Nibbana." This is 
perplexing: since "work" ( kamma ) in the sense of exertion 
is certainly needed to attain Nibbana, the purport may be 
that with the attainment of Nibbana no more work is 
needed to attain it. The verse may also be playing upon 
two meanings of kamma, suggesting that one who attains 
Nibbana does not create further kamma, volitional action 
ripening in rebirth. 

609 The verb sobhetha, in this stock expression, has proved 
troublesome to previous translators. C.Rh.D renders it "do 
ye enhance his words" (at KS 1:281); Horner, based on 
PED, as "let your light shine forth" (in BD 4:249, 4:498, 
5:227 = Vin I 187,23, I 349,7, II 162,15). Neither of these 
offerings captures the intended meaning. The verb — a 
middle voice, third person singular optative — always 
occurs in a context where the Buddha is speaking of a 
type of lay conduct that the bhikkhus, as renunciants, 
should be able to surpass. Hence the verb points to how 
one should act to make oneself shine, i.e., the mode of 
conduct that is fitting for one's station. 

610 This sutta is a popular paritta or protective discourse, 
included in the Maha Pirit Pota. The Northern Buddhist 
tradition has preserved versions in Tibetan and Chinese, 
translated from the Skt, and Skt fragments also have been 
found. The various versions are discussed in detail by 
Skilling, Maha Sutras II, pp. 441-67. 

611 Spk does not gloss the compound dhajagga, but it occurs at 
AN III 89,17 foil, and is explained at Mp III 267,18 as "the 
crests of standards raised up from the backs of elephants, 
horses, etc., or from chariots." Skilling discusses the Skt 
words dhvaja and dhvajagra at length and concludes that 
"in its early form a dhvaja was a pole surmounted by an 
emblem, carried as a military or royal symbol" ( Maha 




11. Sakkasamyutta: Notes 491 



Sutras II, p. 457). The emblem is the dhvajagra, the "crest of 
the standard," though it seems that over time the two 
terms came to be used almost interchangeably. Since the 
standard often also bore a flag, the word dhvaja eventually 
was transferred to the flag; this understanding of the term 
seems to be implicit in Spk's remark (just below). Dhaja 
occurs at v. 226a. 

Spk: "The crest of Sakka's standard is raised up from his 
chariot 250 yojanas high, and when it is struck by the wind 
it gives forth the sound of a five-piece orchestra. When the 
devas look up at it, they think, 'Our. king has come and 
stands by his troops like a deeply planted pillar. Of whom 
need we be afraid?' Thus they have no fear." 

612 Of these three deities, Spk says only that Pajapati is of the 
same appearance and life span as Sakka and gets the sec- 
ond seat, while Varuna and Isana respectively get the 
third and fourth seats. According to MW, Prajapati was 
originally "lord of creatures, creator, ... a supreme god 
above the Vedic deities." Varuna "is one of the oldest 
Vedic gods ... often regarded as the supreme deity." Isana 
is "one of the older names of Siva-Rudra." 

613 See n. 157. Spk here says that he is the oldest of all the 
asuras. 

614 A similar incident is related at 35:248 (IV 201,18-202,4). 

615 In pada a, Be, Se, and Ee2 read pabhijjeyyum, Eel pakuj- 
jheyyum. The latter is recognized by Spk as a v.l. The dia- 
logue represents a contest between two opposing models 
of political leadership, with Matali advocating the princi- 
ple of despotic rule, Sakka the principle of benevolent 
rule. The despotic political philosophy seems more in 
keeping with the character of the asuras, and indeed in the 
following sutta Vepacitti himself proclaims the verses 
here ascribed to Matali. 

616 I translate padas cd guided by Spk's paraphrase: "Among 
the goals (or goods) which culminate in one's own good, 
there is found no other goal (or good) better than 
patience" ( tesu saka-atthaparamesu atthesu khantito uttaritaro 
anno attho na vijjati). Because of the discrepancy between 
the plural sadatthaparama attha in pada c and the singular 
verb vijjati in pada d, it seems necessary to read the nomi- 




492 I. The Bo ok with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



native clause in pada a as doing service for a locative or 
genitive, as Spk suggests, with a singular subject implicit. 
The only alternative would be to amend pada a to read 
singular sadatthaparamo attho, but no text has this reading. 
Cp. v. 854d above and v. 895d below. Nanamoli splits the 
two padas syntactically and translates: "One's own good 
is the best of all, and there is none surpasses patience" 
(The Guide, p. 227), but this seems too free. 

Note that Sakka speaks from the perspective of mun- 
dane ethical values rather than from the transcendent per- 
spective of the Dhamma. From that perspective sadattha is 
identified with arahantship, which cannot be gained sim- 
ply by patience. 

617 C.Rh.D takes niccam khamati dubbalo to mean that a weak 
person must always be tolerated (see KS 1:285), but dub- 
balo, as nominative, is clearly the subject of khamati, not its 
object. My translation conforms to Nanamoli's (in Minor 
Readings and Illustrator, p. 162), but was made independ- 
ently. Nanamoli's note speaks for my interpretation as 
well: "The rendering here ... seeks to bring out that 
patience is a necessity rather than a virtue in the weak, but 
appears as a virtue in the forbearance of the strong. The 
verse is a difficult one." 

618 Spk: Dhamma guttassa: to one who is protected by the 
Dhamma or to one who is protecting the Dhamma (dham- 
mena rakkhitassa dhammam vd rakkhantassa). 

619 Tumhe khvettha vepacitti pubbadeva. Spk paraphrases: 
"Being the senior master long residing in the deva world, 
speak what has been transmitted to you." Spk-pt: Because 
he had arisen in this world earlier than Sakka and his ret- 
inue of devas, he is extolled as "the senior deva" (pubbadeva, 
lit. "former deva"). He addresses Vepacitti with plural 
forms as a sign of respect. 

Both Spk (to 11:1) and Dhp-a I 272-73 relate how Sakka 
ousted the old generation of devas and drove them out to 
the asura world; see BL 1:319. 

620 The verses of Vepacitti are identical with those of Matali 
in the preceding sutta, and Sakka's verses here are identi- 
cal with his own verses above. 

621 The same incident, set in a different context, is related at 




11. Sakkasamyutta: Notes 493 



Dhp-a I 279 (see BL 1:323-24) and in Ja No. 31 (I 202-3). 
Ja I 203 glosses kuldvakd as supannapotakd, baby supanna 
birds, but at v. 37b the word clearly means a nest and not 
its occupants. 

Spk: As they headed towards the silk-cotton woods, the 
noise of the chariot, the horses, and the standard was like 
thunderbolts on all sides. The strong supanna birds in the 
forest fled, but those that were old, ill, and too young to 
fly were terrified and let loose a loud cry. Sakka asked, 
"What is that sound?" and Matali told him. Sakka's heart 
was shaken by compassion and he spoke the verse. 

622 Spk: As soon as Sakka said this, Vepacitti became as if 
bound by bonds on his four limbs and neck. 

623 I read with Be: tadeva tvam ma pajahasi. Eel reads pahasi, 
which gives the same sense, but Se and Ee2 have marisa 
pahasi, which yields the opposite meaning. 

624 Spk: The verse refers to four great evils (mahdpdpdni) of the 
present aeon: (i) "the evil that comes to a liar": the evil of 
the king of Ceti, the first liar of the present aeon (see the 
Cetiya Jataka, Ja No. 422); (ii) "to a reviler of noble ones": 
evil like that of Kokalika (see 6:10); (iii) "to a betrayer of 
friends": evil like that of the betrayer of the Great Being in 
the Mahakapi Jataka (Ja No. 516); (iv) "to one without 
gratitude": the evil of an ingrate like Devadatta. 

In pada e, I read phusati with Se and Eel & 2, as against 
phusatu in Be. "Suja's husband" (Sujampati) is a name for 
Sakka; see 11:12 and n. 641. 

625 Neither Spk nor Spk-pt offers any help in identifying 
Verocana. At DN II 259,11 mention is made of "a hundred 
sons of (the asura) Bali, all named Veroca" ( satah ca 
baliputtanam sabbe Verocanamaka), on which Sv II 689,26-27 
comments: "They all bore the name of their uncle Rahu." 
This might suggest that Verocana and Rahu are identical, 
but there is no additional evidence for this. 

626 Both C.Rh.D and Geiger translate padas cd as if they were 
two independent sentences: "A purpose shines when per- 
fected. /Nothing forbearance doth excel." I go along with 
the paraphrase of Spk, which treats them as forming one 
sentence: "Among the goals (goods) that shine when 
achieved, there is no goal better than patience." I read 




494 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathdvagga) 



pada c here (and in v. 894 just above) with Se and Ee2 as 
plural: nipphannasobhino attha, as against the singular nip- 
phannasobhano attho of Be and Eel. Pada d here is identical 
with v. 854d and v. 877d. See n. 616. 

627 In pada a, sabbe sattd atthajata might also have been ren- 
dered, "All beings are beset by needs." Spk explains: "Bent 
upon a goal means engaged in a task ( atthajata ti kiccajata); 
for there is no being at all, including dogs and jackals, that 
is not engaged in a task. Even walking to and fro can be 
called a task." 

Padas cd read: Sarny ogaparamd tveva/Sambhoga sabba- 
paninam. The exact meaning and relevance are obscure. 
Spk interprets the line with an example — bland food may 
be made savoury when combined with various condi- 
ments — which construes samyoga as meaning combination 
or preparation. This seems to me unlikely. At Ja IV 
127,14-15 the couplet occurs in a context which implies that 
the meaning is association with other people; see too 
AN IV 57-58, where samyoga signifies contact or associa- 
tion between man and woman (sexual, but not necessarily 
coitus). I understand the syntax as parallel to that of 
Dhp 203-4, that is, "enjoyments have association as 
supreme," rather than "through association enjoyments 
become supreme," the sense proposed by Spk. 

628 Apabyamato karitva (or apavyamato karitva, in Eel). CPD 
says apavyama is a v.l. for apasavya. At Ud 50,18 the expres- 
sion apasabydmato karitva occurs, which Ud-a 292,4 
explains as turning the left side towards a holy person as a 
sign of disrespect. 

629 Spk glosses ciradikkhitanam in pada a as cirasamadinna- 
vatanam, "who have long undertaken vows." On "thou- 
sand-eyed" (sahassanetta) as an epithet of Sakka, see 11:12; 
though there the Pali is sahassakkha, the meaning is the 
same. The seers say this because they subscribe to the 
common belief that the devas find the smell of human 
bodies repulsive — particularly ascetics who may not bathe 
frequently (see Matali's argument at v. 932). Sakka's reply 
conveys the same point as Dhp 54-56: the scent of virtue is 
supreme among all scents and pervades even the worlds 
of the devas. 




11. Sakkasamyutta: Notes 4 95 

630 Spk paraphrases: "The devas do not perceive anything 
repulsive in this odour of the virtuous ones; they perceive 
it as desirable, lovely, agreeable." 

631 Spk: For the most part, it is said, the battles between the 
devas and the asuras take place behind the great ocean. 
Often the asuras are defeated, and when they are fleeing 
from the devas, as they pass the hermitages of seers, they 
destroy their halls and walkways, etc.; for they believe 
that the seers are partial to Sakka and give him the coun- 
sel that leads to their defeat. Since the seers can repair the 
damaged facilities only with difficulty, when they heard 
that a battle was about to take place they realized they 
needed a guarantee of safety. 

The identity of Sambara is problematic. Spk identifies 
him with Vepacitti (see n. 633), but C.Rh.D points out (at 
KS 1:305, n. 4) that 11:23 suggests the two are distinct, 
Sambara having been Vepacitti's predecessor as lord of 
the asuras. MW states that Sambara is a demon often men- 
tioned in the Rgveda; he was slain by Indra. For further 
discussion, see below n. 665. 

632 Pada c should be divided as in Be & Ee2: Kamankaro hi te 
datum. Spk glosses kamankaro with icchitakaro and para- 
phrases: "If you want to give safety, you are able to give 
safety; if you want to give danger, you are able to give 
danger." 

633 Spk: As soon as he fell asleep, he woke up howling as 
though he had been struck from all sides by a hundred 
spears. The other asuras came to inquire about his health 
and were still consoling him when dawn arrived. From 
then on his mind became sick and trembled (cittam vepati ); 
hence his other name, "Vepacitti," arose. Vepati is not in 
PED, but see MW, s.v. vip > vepate. Spk-pt glosses vepati 
with kampati pavedhati. 

634 Spk glosses samattani with paripunnani and samadinnani 
with gahitani. Evidently Spk assumes that samatta here is 
equivalent to Skt samapta. But the participle samatta can 
represent either Skt samapta or samatta, and from its place- 
ment before samadinnani in the present passage, I take 
samattani in the latter sense. Both samatta and samadinna 
are alternative past participle formations of sam + a + da. 




496 I- The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



PED does not mention this derivation, but only that from 
Skt samapta (and from Skt samasta, not relevant here). For 
the derivation from samatta, see Nidd I 289,16-18; for the 
derivation from samapta, see Nidd 1 65,9-11. 

635 Although the form ydcayoga prevails in the Pali textual tra- 
dition, it is likely that the original compound was yajayoga, 
recognized as a v.l. at Vism 224,11-12 (Ppn 7:112). I trans- 
late on the basis of this reading, which means literally 
"devoted to sacrifice," a brahmanical notion reinterpreted 
by the Buddha to mean self-sacrifice through the practice 
of charity (see w. 395-96). Since charity (ydja) is directed 
to supplicants (ydcaka), the variant ydcayoga could have 
arisen through substitution of, object for act; see GD, 
p. 241, n. to p. 87,2. 

636 Spk (to 11:13) briefly relates how Sakka, in his existence as 
the brahmin youth Magha, went about performing deeds 
of merit at the head of a band of thirty-three friends. 
Having fulfilled his seven vows, he was reborn after death 
in the Tavatimsa heaven along with his friends. Hence the 
name Tavatimsa, "(heaven) of the thirty-three." See Dhp-a 
I 265-72; BL 1:315-19. Ja No. 31 tells the same story with 
the Bodhisatta — the future Buddha Gotama— in the role of 
Magha and reborn as Sakka. 

637 I read with Se and Eel & 2 pure pure danam adasi tasma 
Purindado ti vuccati. Be has pure only once. MW (s.v. pur > 
pur am) gives puramda and puramdara as names of Indra; 
both mean "destroyer of strongholds." This explanation, 
and the following three, depend on puns almost impossi- 
ble to reproduce in English. 

638 Sakkaccam danam adasi tasma Sakko ti vuccati. 

639 The story of the rest house (dvasatha) is at Dhp-a I 269-70; 
BL 1:317-18. 

640 Sahassam pi atthanam muhuttena cinteti tasma Sahassakkho ti 
vuccati. Spk: Standing upon a single word propounded in 
regard to a thousand people or a thousand statements, he 
decides, "This one has need of this, that one has need of 
that." Spk-pt: He has a thousand wisdom-eyes. 

641 The story of how Sakka won the hand of Suja, Vepacitti's 
daughter, is told at Dhp-a I 278-79 (see BL 1:323), and 
Ja I 206. 




11. Sakkasamyutta: Notes 497 



642 Spk says that this pauper was the leper Suppabuddha, 
whose story is told at Ud 48-50 and, more elaborately 
with several variations, in Spk. According to the Spk ver- 
sion, in an earlier life he had been a king of Baranasi whc 
had spitefully reviled an aged paccekabuddha. As a kam- 
mic result he was reborn in hell and then, through the 
residue of the evil kamma, as a poor leper in Rajagaha. 
One day, on his begging rounds, he heard the Buddha 
preach and attained stream-entry. Shortly afterwards he 
was killed by a wild cow and was reborn in the Tavatimsa 
heaven. 

643 Deve tavatimse anunayamano. Spk does not gloss anunaya- 
mano, but the same expression is at AN I 143,30, where 
anunayamano is glossed by Mp II 123,19 (Be; the Ee and Se 
readings are corrupt) with anubodhayamano , "making 
understand." The participle also occurs in the form 
anunenti at Thi 514, where it is glossed by Thi-a 267,8-9 
with sahhdpenti, "convincing." 

644 Spk explains faith as faith arrived at via the path (maggeri 
dgatasaddha). Good conduct built on virtue (silam kalyanam) is 
the noble disciple's "virtue dear to the noble ones" 
(ariyakantasila), one of the four factors of stream-entry 
(55:1), which the stream-enterer does not abandon even in 
a future existence. 

645 Spk: Each year the people of Anga and Magadha used to 
assemble and offer a grand sacrifice of their best ghee, 
honey, molasses, etc., to Mahabrahma. Out of compassion 
Sakka appeared before them in the guise of Mahabrahma, 
led them to the Buddha, and asked him a question about 
the most fruitful type of sacrifice. 

646 In pada c, opadhikam puhham, which I render loosely as 
"merit of the mundane type," is explained by Spk as merit 
that ripens in the acquisitions (upadhivipakam puhham), 
that is, good kamma that leads to rebirth. See the expres- 
sion puhhabhdgiya upadhivepakka at MN III 72,6 foil. 

647 The four practising the way are those on the four paths — 
of stream-entry, once-returning, nonreturning, and ara- 
hantship. The four established in the fruit are those who, 
by developing the respective paths, have attained the four 
corresponding fruits. The past participle samdhito in pada d 




498 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



might be understood to mean either "endowed with" or 
"concentrated," the latter representing the samadhi divi- 
sion of the path. I have taken it in the former sense, fol- 
lowing v. 265a, where silasamahita is glossed by Spk: silena 
samahita samupeta. 

648 Spk: Your burden lowered ( pannabhdro ): He has put down 
the burden of the aggregates, the defilements, and the 
volitional formations. The fifteenth of the bright lunar 
fortnight is the full-moon night. 

649 The verse is identical with his entreaty at v. 560. Neither 
Spk nor Spk-pt explains why Brahma Sahampati corrects 
Sakka. The reason may be that Sakka praises only those 
qualities of the Buddha that he shares with other arahants, 
while Brahma addresses him in his role as sattha, the 
Teacher and Master of the dispensation. The same 
exchange of verses, between Sakra and Mahabrahma, is 
recorded at Mvu III 315-16, but set at the Goatherd's 
Banyan Tree in the period immediately following the 
Buddha's enlightenment; see Jones, 3:304-5. 

650 Yassa dani kdlatn mahhasi. See Manne, "On a Departure 
Formula and its Translation." The expression also occurs 
at 35:88 (IV 62,31), 35:243 (IV 183,15, 30), 44:1 (IV 379,29), 
54:9 (V 321,16-17), and 55:6 (V 348,27); I have varied the 
rendering slightly to fit the context. 

651 Those versed in the Triple Veda are the brahmins; the Four 
Great Kings are the four divine rulers of the lowest sense- 
sphere heaven; the glorious Thirty are the presiding devas 
of the Tavatimsa heaven. The word rendered "spirit" is 
yakkha, used in a broad sense without specific reference to 
the demonic spirits. 

652 Brahmacariyapardyane. Spk does not explain the exact 
sense, but I interpret it as a compressed way of saying 
"those living the holy life that has Nibbana as its destina- 
tion." See 48:42 (V 218,21): brahmacariyam vussati nibbdna- 
pardyanam. 

653 Spk explains of perfect name ( anomanamam ) in pada c thus: 
"He is of perfect name on account of names that indicate 
all his excellent qualities, for he is not deficient in any 
excellent quality." See v. 148a and n. 99. 

654 The verse has five padas. Padas ab read: ye ragadosavinaya 




11 . Sakkasamyutta: Notes 499 



avijjdsamatikkamd, which Spk paraphrases: "by the tran- 
scendence of ignorance, the root of the round, which con- 
ceals the four truths" ( catusaccapaticchddikaya vattamulaka- 
avijjdya samatikkamena). The same lines appeared at 

v. 764ab, where, as referring to an arahant, they were 
appropriately translated as ablative in force. However, 
despite Spk's paraphrase, this would not be suitable in 
relation to trainees (sekha), who have not yet fully 
removed the lust for existence or transcended all ignorance. 
I have therefore translated them as truncated datives. 

Dismantling (apacaya) means the ^undoing of the process 
that sustains the round of existence. At 22:79 (III 89,22-24) 
it is said that the noble disciple in training is dismantling 
the five aggregates, while the arahant (III 90,il) abides 
having dismantled them ( apacinitva thito). See too 
MN III 288,30. 

655 Stuck in a putrid body (putidehasaya). Spk: This is said 
because they stay within the putrid body of the mother 
(during the fetal stage) or because they are stuck within 
their own body. 

Those submerged inside a corpse. I read this line as in Be (in 
both text and the lemma of Spk) as nimugga kunapamhete, 
With the indirect object a locative singular. Se reads 
kunapasmete, using an alternative form of the locative sin- 
gular. Eel & 2, however, and Spk (Se) in the lemma read 
the line with the locative plural kunapesv ete. Spk explains: 
"These are submerged for ten months in a corpse, namely, 
in the mother's womb." Despite this comment, it seems 
more likely that the reference is to the individual's own 
living body. 

656 Vv. 934-35 correspond in part to Thi 282-83. I take 

w. 935-36 to be two verses of six padas each (as in Se and 
Ee2) rather than three verses of four padas each (as in Be). 

657 I read pada a differently from the four eds., na te sam 
kotthe osenti (the reading at Thi 283; Ee2 correctly separates 
te and sam but has openti ). Spk explains: na te sam santakam 
dhahham kotthe pakkhipanti ; "they do not place their own 
goods, property, grain in storage." Sam thus has the sense 
of "own goods"; see EV I, n. to 743 and EV II, n. to 283. 
The gloss on the verb, pakkhipanti, establishes that we 




500 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



should read osenti rather than openti, the prevalent read- 
ing. Thi-a 208,21-22 glosses: na openti na patisametvd thapenti 
tddisassa pariggahassa abhdvato ; "they do not deposit, do not 
pack up and put away, owing to the absence of any such 
possession." The corresponding verb at Mvu III 453 j s 
osaranti, which Jones suggests might be amended to 
osarenti. Jones is also aware of the Pali form osdpenti. See 
too nn. 223 and 542 above. 

In pada c, Thi 283 reads parinitthitam as does the text 
and lemma of Thi-a. Norman prefers the latter by compar- 
ison with a similar verse in a Jain text (see EV II, n. to 283), 
but the explanations in both Thi-a and Spk support 
paranitthitam, the reading in all eds. of SN. Spk: Seeking 
what has been prepared by others (paranitthitam esdna): seek- 
ing out, searching out, by the practice of the alms round, 
food prepared by others, cooked in others' homes ( paresam 
nitthitam paraghare pakkam bhikkhdcdravattena esamdna 
gavesamand; I take the genitive paresam here in an instru- 
mental sense, which the context implies). 

Spk explains pada e: Who give good counsel (sumanta- 
mantino): They utter well-spoken words, saying "We will 
recite the Dhamma, undertake an ascetic practice, enjoy 
the Deathless, do the work of an ascetic." Maintaining 
silence, of even faring (tunhibhuta samahcara ): Even though 
they might speak the Dhamma with a voice as loud as 
thunder through the three watches of the night, they are 
still said to be "maintaining silence, of even faring." Why 
so? Because they avoid all useless talk. 

658 Spk: He was a dwarf the colour of a burnt stump and with 
a pot belly. He sat down on Sakka's Yellowstone Throne 
( pandukambalasila ; see Dhp-a I 273,9-12; BL 1:320). It is said 
that he was actually a brahma from the form realm. 
Having heard about Sakka's patience, he came in order to 
test him; for it is impossible for any malevolent spirit 
(avaruddhaka-yakkha) to infiltrate a place so well guarded. 

659 Spk: Sakka had heard from the devas: "It is impossible to 
make that yakkha budge by harsh means, but if one 
assumes a humble manner and remains" firm in patience, 
one can get him to leave." Thus he adopted this tactic. 




11 . Sakkasamyutta: Notes 501 



660 Spk states that su, in pada a, is a mere indeclinable 
( nipdtamattam ), and thus we should resolve the com- 
pound: su upahatacitto 'mhi. Spk-pt: Sakka speaks of his 
own nature thus, "Because of the presence in me of 
patience, love, and sympathy, I am not afflicted in mind 
against others." 

Pada b is read in Be and Se as ndvattena suvanayo (Eel: 
navattena suvanayo; Eel: n’ avatte na suvanayo). Spk: He 
states: "I am not easily drawn by anger's whirl; I am not 
easily brought under the control of anger." Padas cd 
allude to the seventh of Sakka's vows (see 11:11). Spk 
explains that vo in pada c is an indeclinable. Suvanayo is 
also at v. 507b, where lust (rdga) rather than anger is the lure. 

661 I read padas ab with Be and Eel & 2: Kuddhaham na 
pharusam brumi/Na ca dhammani kittaye. Se omits the na in 
pada a, apparently out of concern for the metre, but the 
metre can be preserved with na if we assume resolution of 
the fourth syllable. Neither Spk nor Spk-pt offers any help 
with the meaning. VAT proposes, "And I do not speak on 
Dhamma matters," but at Ja V 172,23 and 221,27 we find 
satah ca dhammani sukittitdni, "the well-proclaimed quali- 
ties of the good," which suggests that here too the rare 
neuter plural dhammani refers to personal virtues, not to 
spiritual teachings. 

662 Spk: He was afflicted with the illness that arose at the time 
he was cursed by the group of seers; see w. 902-3. 

663 Sambarimaya. MW has two relevant listings: sambaramdyd = 
sorcery, magic; and sdmbari = jugglery, sorcery, illusion (as 
practised by the daitya Sambara). 

664 Spk paraphrases: "Even without the Sambari magic Sakka 
oppresses us, but if he learns it we are lost. Don't destroy 
us for the sake of your own personal welfare." 

665 As C.Rh.D points out (at KS 1:305, n. 4), in this verse 
Vepacitti makes a distinction between Sambara and him- 
self. Even though Spk identifies the two, the commentator 
does not seem to be bothered by the discrepancy but para- 
phrases the verse: "Just as Sambara, lord of the asuras, a 
magician who practised magic, was tortured in hell for a 
hundred years, so one who applies his magic is tortured." 




502 I. The Book with Verses (Sagathavagga) 



Spk-pt offers some further help with Sambara: "Sambara 
was the former head of the asuras, the originator ( adi - 
purisa) of the asura magic." 

Spk continues: "Was Sakka able to cure him of his anger? 
Yes, he was able. How? At that time, it is said, the group 
of seers was still living. Therefore Sakka would have 
brought him to them and made him apologize, and he 
would then have become healthy. But because of his per- 
verse nature ( vahcitatta ) he did not comply but simply 
left." 

666 According to monastic discipline (Vin 1 54), if one bhikkhu 
offends against another he should apologize, and the lat- 
ter should accept his apology. 

667 Spk offers alternative explanations of pada b: ma ca mittehi 
vo jara. "Here, hi is a mere indeclinable, and the sense is: 
'Do not let decay be produced in your friendliness ( tumha - 
kam mittadhamme jara nama ma nibbatti).' Or else mittehi is 
an instrumental used with a locative sense, that is: 'Do not 
let decay be produced among your friends ( mittesu vo jara 
ma nibbatti).' The meaning is: 'Do not let deterioration be 
produced in your friendships.'" It is likely that mittehi 
here is a vestigial Eastern form of the locative plural; see 
Geiger, Pali Grammar, §80.3. 

668 Spk: Nonanger ( akkodha ) is lovingkindness ( metta ) and the 
preliminary phase of lovingkindness; harmlessness 
( avihimsa ) is compassion ( karuna ) and the preliminary 
phase of compassion. 




Part II 

The Book of Causation 
( Nidanavagga ) 




Contents 



Introduction 515 



Chapter I 
12 Nidanasamyutta 

Connected Discourses on Causation 

I. The Buddhas 

1 (1) Dependent Origination 533 

2 (2) Analysis of Dependent Origination 534 

3 (3) The Two Ways 536 

4 (4) Vipassi 536 

5 (5) Sikhi 536 

6 (6) Vessabhu 537 

7 (7) Kakusandha 537 

8 (8) Konagamana 537 

9 (9) Kassapa 537 

10 (10) Gotama the Great Sakyan Sage 537 

II. Nutriment 

11 (1) Nutriment 540 

12 (2) Mojiyaphagguna 541 

13 (3) Ascetics and Brahmins (1) 542 

14 (4) Ascetics and Brahmins (2) 543 

15 (5) Kaccanagotta 544 

16 (6) A Speaker on the Dhamma 545 

17 (7) The Naked Ascetic Kassapa 545 

18 (8) Timbaruka 548 

19 (9) The Wise Man and the Fool 549 

20 (10) Conditions 550 



505 




506 II- The Book of Causation ( Nidanavagga ) 



III. The Ten Powers 

21 (1) The Ten Powers (1) 552 

22 (2) The Ten Powers (2) 553 

23 (3) Proximate Cause 553 

24 (4) Wanderers of Other Sects 556 

25 (5) Bhumija 559 

26 (6) Upavana 562 

27 (7) Conditions 563 

28 (8) Bhikkhu 564 

29 (9) Ascetics and Brahmins (1) 565 

30 (10) Ascetics and Brahmins (2) 565 

IV. The Kalara Khattiya 

31 (1) What Has Come to Be 566 

32 (2) The Kalara 567 

33 (3) Cases of Knowledge (1) 571 

34 (4) Cases of Knowledge (2) 572 

35 (5) With Ignorance as Condition (1) 573 

36 (6) With Ignorance as Condition (2) 575 

37 (7) Not Yours 575 

38 (8) Volition (1) 576 

39 (9) Volition (2) 576 

40 (10) Volition (3) 577 

V. The Householder 

41 (1) Five Fearful Animosities (1) 578 

42 (2) Five Fearful Animosities (2) 580 

43 (3) Suffering 580 

44 (4) The World 581 

45 (5) At Natika 582 

46 (6) A Certain Brahmin 583 

47 (7) Janussoni 584 

48 (8) A Cosmologist 584 

49 (9) The Noble Disciple (1) 585 

50 (10) The Noble Disciple (2) 586 

VI. Suffering (or The Tree) 

51 (1) Thorough Investigation 586 

52 (2) Clinging 589 

53 (3) Fetters (1) 590 




Table of Contents 507 



54 (4) Fetters (2) 590 

55 (5) The Great Tree (1) 591 

56 (6) The Great Tree (2) 591 

57 (7) The Sapling 591 

58 (8) Name-and-Form 592 

59 (9) Consciousness 593 

60 (10) Causation 593 

VII. The Great Subchapter 

61 (1) Uninstructed (1) 595 

62 (2) Uninstructed (2) 596 

63 (3) Son's Flesh 597 

64 (4) If There Is Lust 599 

65 (5) The City 601 

66 (6) Exploration 604 

67 (7) The Sheaves of Reeds 607 

68 (8) Kosambi 609 

69 (9) The Surge 611 

70 (10) Susima 612 

VIII. Ascetics and Brahmins 

71 (1) Aging-and-Death 619 

72 (2)-81 (11) Birth, Etc. 619 

IX. With Incorporated Repetition Series 

82 (1) A Teacher 620 

83 (2) Training 620 

84 (3)-93 (12) Exertion, Etc. 620 

Chapter II 

13 Abhisamayasamyutta 
Connected Discourses on the Breakthrough 

1 The Fingernail 621 

2 The Pond 621 

3 Water at the Confluence (1) 622 

4 Water at the Confluence (2) 622 

5 The Earth (1) 623 

6 The Earth (2) 623 

7 The Ocean (1) 623 




508 II. The Book of Cau sation ( Nidanavagga ) 



8 The Ocean (2) 624 

9 The Mountain (1) 624 

10 The Mountain (2) 625 

11 The Mountain (3) 625 

Chapter III 
14 Dhatusamyutta 

Connected Discourses on Elements 



I. Diversity 

1 (1) Diversity of Elements 627 

2 (2) Diversity of Contacts 627 

3 (3) Not Diversity of Contacts 628 

4 (4) Diversity of Feelings (1) 628 

5 (5) Diversity of Feelings (2) 629 

6 (6) Diversity of External Elements 630 

7 (7) Diversity of Perceptions 630 

8 (8) Not Diversity of Quests 631 

9 (9) Diversity of External Contacts (1) 632 

10 (10) Diversity of External Contacts (2) 633 

II. The Second Subchapter (Seven Elements) 

11 (1) Seven Elements 634 

12 (2) With a Source 635 

13 (3) The Brick Hall 637 

14 (4) Inferior Disposition 638 

15 (5) Walking Back and Forth 638 

16 (6) With Verses 640 

17 (7) Lacking Faith 641 

18 (8) Rooted in those Lacking Faith 641 

19 (9) Rooted in the Shameless 641 

20 (10) Rooted in those Unafraid of Wrongdoing 642 

21 (11) Rooted in the Unlearned 642 

22 (12) Rooted in the Lazy 643 

III. Courses of Kamma 

23 (1) Unconcentrated 643 

24 (2) Immoral 643 

25 (3) The Five Training Rules 644 

26 (4) Seven Courses of Kamma 644 




27 (5) Ten Courses of Kamma 644 

28 (6) The Eightfold Path 645 

29 (7) Ten Factors 645 



Table of Contents 5 09 



IV. The Fourth Subchapter (The Four Elements) 

30 (1) Four Elements 645 

31 (2) Before My Enlightenment 645 

32 (3) I Set Out 646 

33 (4) If There Were No 647 

34 (5) Exclusively Suffering 648 

35 (6) Delight 648 

36 (7) Arising 649 

37 (8) Ascetics and Brahmins (1) 649 

38 (9) Ascetics and Brahmins (2) 649 

39 (10) Ascetics and Brahmins (3) 650 

Chapter IV 

15 Anamataggasamyutta 

Connected Discourses on Without Discoverable Beginning 

I. The First Subchapter (Grass and Wood) 

1 (1) Grass and Wood 651 

2 (2) The Earth 652 

3 (3) Tears 652 

4 (4) Mother's Milk 653 

5 (5) The Mountain 654 

6 (6) The Mustard Seed 654 

7 (7) Disciples 655 

8 (8) The River Ganges 655 

9 (9) The Stick 656 

10 (10) Person 656 

II. The Second Subchapter (Unfortunate) 

11 (1) Unfortunate 657 

12 (2) Happy 658 

13 (3) Thirty Bhikkhus 658 

14 (4)-19 (9) Mother, Etc. 659 
20 (10) Mount Vepulla 659 




510 II. The Book of Causation (Nidanavagga) 



Chapter V 
16 Kassapasamyutta 
Connected Discourses with Kassapa 

1 Content 662 

2 Unafraid of Wrongdoing 663 

3 Like the Moon 664 

4 A Visitor of Families 665 

5 Old 666 

6 Exhortation (1) 667 

7 Exhortation (2) 669 

8 Exhortation (3) 670 

9 Jhanas and Direct Knowledges 671 

10 The Bhikkhunis' Quarters 674 

11 The Robe 676 

12 After Death 679 

13 The Counterfeit of the True Dhamma 680 

Chapter VI 

17 Labhasakkarasamyutta 
Connected Discourses on Gains and Honour 

I. The First Subchapter (Dreadful) 

1 (1) Dreadful 682 

2 (2) The Hook 682 

3 (3) The Turtle 683 

4 (4) The Long-Haired Goat 683 

5 (5) The Dung Beetle 684 

6 (6) The Thunderbolt 684 

7 (7) The Poisoned Dart 685 

8 (8) The Jackal 685 

9 (9) The Gale Winds 685 

10 (10) With Verses 686 

II. The Second Subchapter (The Bowl) 

11 (1) Golden Bowl 687 

12 (2) Silver Bowl 687 

13 (3)-20 (10) Suvannanikkha, Etc. 687 




Table of Contents 511 



III. The Third Subchapter (A Woman) 

21(1) A Woman 688 

22 (2) The Most Beautiful Girl of the Land 688 

23 (3) Only Son 688 

24 (4) Only Daughter 689 

25 (5) Ascetics and Brahmins (1) 689 

26 (6) Ascetics and Brahmins (2) 689 

27 (7) Ascetics and Brahmins (3) 690 

28 (8) Skin 690 

29 (9) The Rope 690 

30 (10) The Bhilckhu 691 

IV. The Fourth Subchapter (Schism in the Saiigha) 

31 (1) Schism 691 

32 (2) Wholesome Root 691 

33 (3) Wholesome Nature 692 

34 (4) Bright Nature 692 

35 (5) Not Long After He Left 692 

36 (6) Five Hundred Carts 692 

37 (7)-43 (13) Mother Sutta, Etc. 693 

Chapter VII 
18 Rahulasamyutta 
Connected Discourses with Rahula 

I. The First Subchapter 

1 (1) The Eye, Etc. 694 

2 (2) Forms, Etc. 695 

3 (3) Consciousness 695 

4 (4) Contact 695 

5 (5) Feeling 695 

6 (6) Perception 696 

7 (7) Volition 696 

8 (8) Craving 696 

9 (9) Elements 697 

10 (10) Aggregates 697 

II. The Second Subchapter 

11 (l)-20 (10) The Eye, Etc. 697 




512 II. The Book of Causation (Niddnavagga) 



21 (11) Underlying Tendency 698 

22 (12) Rid Of 698 



Chapter VIII 

19 Lakkhanasamyutta 
Connected Discourses with Lakkhana 

I. The First Subchapter 

1 (1) The Skeleton 700 

2 (2) The Piece of Meat 701 

3 (3) The Lump of Meat 701 

4 (4) The Flayed Man 702 

5 (5) Sword Hairs 702 

6 (6) Spear Hairs 702 

7 (7) Arrow Hairs 702 

8 (8) Needle Hairs (1) 702 

9 (9) Needle Hairs (2) 702 

10 (10) Pot Testicles 703 

II. The Second Subchapter 

11 (1) With Head Submerged 703 

12 (2) The Dung Eater 703 

13 (3) The Flayed Woman 703 

14 (4) The Ugly Woman 704 

15 (5) The Sweltering Woman 704 

16 (6) The Headless Trunk 704 

17 (7) The Evil Bhikkhu 704 

18 (8) The Evil Bhikkhuni 704 

19 (9)-21 (11) The Evil Probationary Nun, Etc. 705 

Chapter IX 

20 Opammasamyutta 
Connected Discourses with Similes 

1 The Roof Peak 706 

2 The Fingernail 706 
3. Families 707 

4 Pots of Food 707 

5 The Spear 707 

6 The Archers 708 




Table of Contents 513 



7 The Drum Peg 708 

8 Blocks of Wood 709 

9 The Bull Elephant 710 

10 The Cat 711 

11 The Jackal (1) 712 

12 The Jackal (2) 712 

Chapter X 
21 Bhikkhusamyutta 
Connected Discourses with Bhikkhus 

1 Kolita 713 

2 Upatissa 714 

3 The Barrel 714 

4 The Newly Ordained Bhikkhu 716 

5 Sujata 717 

6 Lakuntaka Bhaddiya 718 

7 Visakha 718 

8 Nanda 719 

9 Tissa 720 

10 A Bhikkhu Named Elder 720 

11 Mahakappina 721 

12 Companions 722 



Notes 725 




Introduction 



The Nidanavagga, The Book of Causation, is named after its first 
samyutta, one of the deep royal samyuttas setting forth the radi- 
cal philosophical vision of early Buddhism. The Vagga contains 
ten samyuttas, of which the first takes up almost half the volume. 
The other nine deal with less weighty topics, though it is possi- 
ble the Dhatusamyutta, which is also devoted to first principles 
of Buddhist phenomenology, was intentionally included in the 
Vagga as a "junior partner" to the Nidanasamyutta. While this 
hypothesis must remain unconfirmable, what is beyond doubt is 
that with this Vagga we enter upon a very different terrain from 
that traversed in the Sagathavagga; a terrain where precise philo- 
sophical exposition takes priority over literary grace, inspira- 
tional charm, and moral edification. 

Having used the expression "precise philosophical exposi- 
tion," however, I must at once qualify it in two respects. First, the 
word "philosophical" applies to the contents of these samyuttas 
only in the sense that they articulate a body of first principles 
which disclose the deep underlying structures of actuality, not in 
the sense that they set out to construct a systematic edifice of 
thought whose primary appeal is to the intellect. Their disclo- 
sures always take place within the framework laid out by the 
Four Noble Truths, which makes it clear that their primary intent 
is pragmatic, directed towards the cessation of suffering. They 
are expounded, not to delineate an intellectually satisfying sys- 
tem of ideas, but to make known those aspects of actuality, deep 
and hidden, that must be penetrated by wisdom to eradicate the 
ignorance at the bottom of existential suffering. The suttas are 
guidelines to seeing and understanding, signposts pointing to 
what one must see for oneself with direct insight. To regard their 



515 




516 II. The Book of Causation ( Nidanavagga ) 



themes as topics for intellectual entertainment and argumenta- 
tion is to miss the point. 

Second, when I use the word "exposition," this should not 
arouse expectations that the suttas are going to provide us with 
thorough, systematic, logically progressive treatises of the type 
we find in the history of Western philosophy. Far to the contrary, 
what we are presented with is a virtual mosaic of reconnaissance 
photographs laying bare a landscape that is strange but uncanni- 
ly familiar. The landscape, ultimately, is our own personal expe- 
rience, seen in depth and with microscgpic precision. Each sutta 
shows up this landscape from a distinctive angle. Like any photo, 
the picture given by a single sutta is necessarily limited, taken 
from a single standpoint and with a narrow point of focus, but in 
its capacity for revelation it can be stark and powerful. To make 
sense of the multiple shots offered by the suttas, following one 
another with hardly a hair's breadth of logical order, we must re- 
shuffle them many times, ponder them deeply, and investigate 
them closely with wisdom. To arrive at the total picture, or at 
least at a fuller picture than we possess when we approach the 
texts in a cursory way, we must consider the suttas in a given 
samyutta in their totality, compare them with parallel discourses 
in other samyuttas, and then try to fit them together, like the 
pieces in a jigsaw puzzle, into a coherent whole. This is about as 
far from systematic exposition as one can get, for the purpose is 
not to gratify the intellect with a fully articulated system but to 
awaken insight, and such an aim requires a methodology of its 
own. 

12. Nidanasamyutta 

The Nidanasamyutta collects into one chapter of nine vaggas 
ninety-three short suttas concerned with dependent origination 
(paticca-samuppada). This chapter might have even been named 
the Paticca-samuppadasamyutta, but the compilers of the canon 
must have considered such a title too unwieldy and settled upon 
a more concise designation for it. The word tiidana means cause 
or source, and is sometimes used in a chain of synonyms that 
includes hetu, samudaya, and paccaya, "cause, origin, condition" 
(see DN II 57,27 foil.). The word gives its name to the longest sutta 
in the Nikayas on paticca-samuppada, the Mahanidana Sutta (DN 
No. 15). 




Introduction 517 



Dependent origination is one of the central teachings of early 
Buddhism, so vital to the teaching as a whole that the Buddha is 
quoted elsewhere as saying, "One who sees dependent origina- 
tion sees the Dhamma, and one who sees the Dhamma sees 
dependent origination" (MN I 190,37-191,2). The ultimate pur- 
pose of the teaching on dependent origination is to expose the 
conditions that sustain the round of rebirths, samsara, so as to 
show what must be done to gain release, from the round. 
Existence within samsara is suffering and bondage (dukkha), and 
hence the ending of suffering requires deliverance from the 
round. To win deliverance is a matter of unravelling the causal 
pattern that underlies our bondage, a process that begins with 
understanding the causal pattern itself. It is dependent origina- 
tion that defines this causal pattern. 

Dependent origination is usually expounded in a sequence of 
twelve factors (dvadasanga) joined into a chain of eleven proposi- 
tions. In the Nidanasamyutta this formula is cited many times. It 
is expounded in two orders: by way of origination (called anu- 
loma or forward sequence), and by way of cessation (called pati- 
loma or reverse sequence). Sometimes the presentation proceeds 
from the first factor to the last, sometimes it begins at the end and 
traces the chain of conditions back to the first. Other suttas pick 
up the chain somewhere in the middle and work either back- 
wards or forwards. We find the bare formula at 12:1, with formal 
definitions of the twelve factors in the "analysis of dependent 
origination" at 12:2. The whole formula in turn exemplifies an 
abstract structural principle of conditionality, "When this exists, 
that comes to be; with the arising of this, that arises. When this 
does not exist, that does not come to be; with the cessation of this, 
that ceases" (for references, see II, n. 14). This structural principle 
can be given different applications than those found in the for- 
mula of dependent origination, and indeed underlies almost 
every aspect of the Buddha's teaching, from his ideas about 
social reformation to his outline of the path to Nibbana. 

To hope to find in the Nidanasamyutta a clear explanation of 
the sequence of conditions, as we might expect from a modem 
textbook on the subject, is to court disappointment. The formula 
preserved in the texts is stripped to the bone, perhaps serving as 
a mnemonic device, and it seems likely that the original exposi- 
tions on the topic were fleshed out with elaborations that were 




518 II. The Book of Causation ( Nidanavagga ) 



not recorded in the suttas but were transmitted orally within the 
lineage of teachers. Because the texts lack a clearcut explanation 
of the formula, modem interpreters of early Buddhism have 
sometimes devised capricious theories about its original mean- 
ing, theories which assume that the Buddhist tradition itself has 
muddled up the interpretation of this most basic Buddhist doc- 
trine. To avoid the arbitrariness and wilfulness of personal opin- 
ion, it seems more prudent to rely on the method of explanation 
found in the Buddhist exegetical tradition, which despite minor 
differences in details is largely the same across the spectrum of 
early Buddhist schools. Here I will give only a concise summary 
of the interpretation offered by the Pali tradition. 

Because of (i) ignorance (avijja), lack of direct knowledge of the 
Four Noble Truths, a person engages in volitional actions, whole- 
some and unwholesome activities of body, speech, and mind; 
these are (ii) the volitional formations ( sankhara ), in other words, 
kamma. The volitional formations sustain consciousness from 
one life to the next and determine where it re-arises; in this way 
volitional formations condition (iii) consciousness ( vinnana ). 
Along with consciousness, beginning with the moment of con- 
ception, comes (iv) "name-and-form" ( namarupa ), the sentient 
organism with its physical form (rupa.) and its sensitive and cog- 
nitive capacities ( nama ). The sentient organism is equipped with 
(v) six sense bases (salayatana), the five physical sense faculties 
and the mind as organ of cognition. The sense bases allow (vi) 
contact (phassa) to occur between consciousness and its objects, 
and contact conditions (vii) feeling ( vedana ). Called into play by 
feeling, (viii) craving ( tanha ) arises, and when craving intensifies 
it gives rise to (ix) clinging ( upadana ), tight attachment to the 
objects of desire through sensuality and wrong views. Impelled 
by one's attachments, one again engages in volitional actions 
pregnant with (x) a new existence ( bhava ). At death this potential 
for new existence is actualized in a new life beginning with (xi) 
birth ( jati ) and ending in (xii) aging-and-death ( jaramarana ). 

From this we can see that the traditional interpretation regards 
the twelve factors as spread out over a span of three lives, with 
ignorance and volitional formations pertaining to the past, birth 
and aging-and-death to the future, and the intermediate factors 
to the present. The segment from consciousness through feeling 
is the resultant phase of the present, the phase resulting from past 




Introduction 519 



Table 4 

Dependent Origination 
according to the Pali exegetical tradition 



3 Periods 12 Factors 


20 Modes and 4 Groups 


past 1. ignorance 

2. volitional formations 


5 past causes: 
1, 2, 8, 9, 10 


present 3. consciousness 

4. name-and-form 

5. six sense bases 

6. contact 

7. feeling 


5 present effects: 
3, 4, 5, 6, 7 


8. craving 

9. clinging 

10. existence 


5 present causes: 
8, 9, 10, 1, 2 


future 11. birth 

12. aging-and-death 


5 future effects: 
3, 4, 5, 6, 7 


The two roots 

1. Ignorance (from past to present) 

2. Craving (from present to future) 




The three connections 

1. Past causes with present effects (between 2 & 3) 

2. Present effects with present causes (between 7 & 8) 

3. Present causes with future effects (between 10 & 11) 


The three rounds 

1. The round of defilements: 1, 8, 9 

2. The round of kamma: 2, 10 (part) 

3. The round of results: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10 (part), 11, 12 



ignorance and kamma; the segment from craving through active 
existence is the kammically creative phase of the present, leading 
to renewed existence in the future. Existence is distinguished into 
two phases: one, called kamma-existence ( kammabhava ), belongs 









520 II. The Book of Causation ( Nidanavagga ) 



to the causal phase of the present; the other, called rebirth-exis- 
tence (upapattibhava), belongs to the resultant phase of the future. 
The twelve factors are also distributed into three "rounds": the 
round of defilements ( kilesavatta ) includes ignorance, craving, 
and clinging; the round of action (kammavatta) includes volition- 
al formations and kamma-existence; all the other factors belong 
to the round of results ( vipakavatta ). Defilements give rise to 
defiled actions, actions bring forth results, and results serve as 
the soil for more defilements. In this way the round of rebirths 
revolves without discernible beginning. 

This method of dividing up the factors should not be miscon- 
strued to mean that the past, present, and future factors are 
mutually exclusive. The distribution into three lives is only an 
expository device which, for the sake of concision, has to resort 
to abstraction and oversimplification. As many of the suttas in 
the Nidanasamyutta show, in their dynamic operation groups of 
factors separated in the formula inevitably become intertwined. 
Thus whenever there is ignorance, then craving and clinging 
invariably come along; and whenever there is craving and cling- 
ing, then ignorance stands behind them. We might regard the 
twelve factors as composed of two parallel series defining a sin- 
gle process, the conditioned regeneration of samsara from with- 
in itself, but doing so from complementary angles. The first series 
treats ignorance as the root, and shows how ignorance leads to 
kammic activity (i.e., the volitional formations) and thence to a 
new existence consisting in the interplay of consciousness and 
name-and-form. The second series makes craving the root, and 
shows how craving leads to clinging and kammic activity (i.e., 
active existence) and thence to the production of a new existence 
that begins with birth and ends in aging and death. To join the 
two segments, the factors within name-and-form from which 
craving arises must be drawn out, and thus we get the three 
links — the six sense bases, contact, and feeling. 

The three-life interpretation of dependent origination has 
sometimes been branded a commentarial invention on the 
ground that the suttas themselves do not divide the terms up into 
different lifetimes. However, while it is true that we do not find 
in the suttas an explicit distribution of the factors into three lives, 
close examination of the variants on the standard formula lend 
strong support to the three-life interpretation. One example is 




Introduction 521 



12:19, where ignorance and craving are first assigned jointly to a 
past life, giving rise to a new life lived in a conscious body with 
its six sense bases; and then, in the case of the fool (but not the 
wise man), ignorance and craving again function as joint causes 
in the present life to bring about renewed birth and suffering in 
the future life. A close examination of other variants in this 
samyutta would also establish that the series of terms extends 
over several lives. 

The opening vagga calls immediate attention to the importance 
of dependent origination with a string of suttas showing how the 
seven Buddhas of the past, ending in "our" Buddha Gotama, 
attained perfect enlightenment by awakening to dependent orig- 
ination, the eye-opening discovery that ended their long search 
for the light of wisdom (12:4-10). Later the Buddha gives a more 
detailed account of his own awakening to dependent origination, 
where he illustrates his discovery of the Noble Eightfold Path 
with the beautiful parable of the ancient city (12:65). According 
to 12:20, the causal connections between the factors operate 
whether or not Buddhas arise: they are the persistent, stable, 
invariable laws of actuality. The task of a Tathagata is to discov- 
er them, fathom them thoroughly, and then proclaim them to the 
world. The invariability of the causal law, and the regularity in 
the arising of Perfectly Enlightened Buddhas, are thus joined into 
a single order ultimately identical with the Dhamma itself. 

Several suttas show that dependent origination served the 
Buddha as a "teaching by the middle" ( majjhena tathagato dham- 
mam deseti), enabling him to steer clear of the two extreme views 
about the human condition that have polarized reflective 
thought through the centuries. One is the metaphysical thesis of 
etemalism (sassa tavada), which posits a permanent self as the 
underlying ground of personal existence, a self which, in classi- 
cal Indian thought, transmigrates from one life to the next while 
retaining its individual identity. The other extreme is annihila- 
tionism ( ucchedavada ), which holds that the individual can be 
reduced to the phenomenal personality and that at death, with 
the dissolution of the body, the person is entirely cut off and 
annihilated. Both extremes pose insuperable problems, for the 
one encourages an obstinate clinging to the conditions out of 
which suffering arises while the other threatens to undermine 
ethics and to make suffering inexplicable except as the product of 




522 II. The Book of Causation ( Nidanavagga ) 



chance. Dependent origination offers a new perspective which 
rises above the extremes. The teaching shows individual exis- 
tence to be constituted by a current of conditioned phenomena 
which is devoid of a metaphysical self, yet which continues from 
life to life as long as the causes that sustain it remain efficacious. 
Thereby dependent origination offers a meaningful explanation 
of the problem of suffering which avoids, on the one hand, the 
philosophical conundrums posed by the hypothesis of a perma- 
nent self, and on the other the dangers of ethical anarchy posed 
by arinihilationism. As long as ignorance and craving remain, the 
round of rebirths continues on, kamma yields its pleasant and 
painful fruit, and the great mass of suffering accumulates. With 
their removal, and only with their removal, can a complete end 
be made to the whole round of samsaric suffering. 

The most elegant exposition of dependent origination as the 
"middle teaching" is without doubt the famous Kaccanagotta 
Sutta (12:15), in which the Buddha holds up this principle as an 
alternative to the extremes of existence and nonexistence. 
Dependent origination provides the key for understanding the 
arising of suffering as well as pleasure and pain (12:17, 18; see too 
12:24-26), and again for cutting through a variety of philosophi- 
cal antinomies adopted by the thinkers of his era (12:46-48). 

Though the twelve-factored formula of dependent origination 
is the most common expression of the doctrine, the Nidana- 
samyutta introduces a number of little-known variants that help 
to illuminate the standard version. One is a ten-factored variant 
in which ignorance and volitional formations are omitted and 
consciousness and name-and-form become mutually dependent 
(12:65). This is illustrated by the simile of two sheaves of reeds 
which support each other and collapse when either is withdrawn 
(12:67). An interesting sequence of three texts (12:38-40) speaks 
about the conditions for "the maintenance of consciousness" 
( vinnanassa thitiya), that is, how consciousness passes on to a new 
existence. The causes are said to be the underlying tendencies, 
i.e., ignorance and craving, and "what one intends and plans," 
i.e., one's volitional activities. Once consciousness becomes 
established, the production of a new existence begins, thus show- 
ing that we can proceed directly from consciousness (the usual 
third factor) to existence (the usual tenth factor). 

These variants make it plain that the sequence of factors should 




Introduction 523 



not be regarded as a linear causal process in which each preced- 
ing factor gives rise to its successor through the simple exercise 
of efficient causality. The relationship among the factors is 
always one of complex conditionality rather than linear causa- 
tion. The conditioning function can include such diverse rela- 
tions as mutuality (when two factors mutually support each 
other), necessary antecedence (when one factor must be present 
for another to arise), distal efficiency (as when a remotely past 
volitional formation generates consciousness in a new life), etc. 
Moreover, by contemplating a number of variant texts side by 
side, we can see that at selected points in the series the links loop 
back in ways that reinforce the complexity of the process. Thus, 
while consciousness precedes the six sense bases in the usual for- 
mula, at 12:43 and 12:44 the six sense bases are shown to be con- 
ditions for consciousness. While consciousness normally pre- 
cedes craving, 12:64 makes craving (with lust and delight) the 
condition for the continuation of consciousness and volitional 
formations the condition for existence. 

The positive and negative sequences of dependent origination 
are expanded definitions of the second and third of the Four 
Noble Truths, as shown by the variant at 12:43. From the six 
internal and external sense bases, as we just saw, consciousness 
arises, and this is followed by contact, feeling, and craving, 
which is then declared to be the origin of suffering; when craving 
is abandoned, suffering stops. The next sutta, 12:44, employs a 
similar pattern to explain the origin and passing away of the 
world. This reveals dependent origination to be, not a remote 
and inaccessible metaphysical law, but a process perpetually 
underpinning our own everyday sensory experience, activated by 
our responses to the feelings arisen at the six sense bases. As the 
suttas 12:52-60 show, when attention to the objects of perception 
is driven by a thirst for gratification, craving is intensified, and 
this builds up another round of suffering. But when one learns to 
discern the danger in the objects of clinging, craving ceases, 
bringing the subsequent factors to a standstill. 

In several suttas the formula for dependent origination is inte- 
grated with another doctrinal paradigm, that of the four nutri- 
ments ( ahara ). These are the four strong supports for sentient 
existence, namely, edible food (for the body), contact (for feeling), 
mental volition (for the production of renewed existence), and 




524 II. The Book of Causation ( Nidanavagga ) 



consciousness (for name-and-form). The ideas of nutrition and 
conditionality closely correspond, both implying the contingency 
and insubstantiality of all phenomena of existence. Hence it is 
natural for the formula of the four nutriments to be grafted on to 
an exposition of dependent origination. In 12:12, in relation to the 
nutriments, the Buddha repeatedly rejects questions that imply 
the presence of a substantial subject or agent behind the process 
of experience. The conditioning factors themselves constitute the 
ongoing flow of experience, with no need to posit a permanent 
self as the "someone" at the receiving end of feeling and percep- 
tion, or at the instigating end of action. 12:63, entirely devoted to 
the four nutriments with no explicit mention made of dependent 
origination, introduces four thought-provoking similes to expose 
the dangers in the four nutriments and to inspire a sense of 
revulsion towards the whole process of nutrition. Because at least 
three of the four nutriments are internal to the sentient organism 
itself, the teaching of the four nutriments implies, at a very deep 
level, that sentient existence not only requires nutriment from 
outside but is itself a self-sustaining process of nutrition. 

One variant in this samyutta stands in a class of its own. This 
is the short but pithy Upanisa Sutta (12:23), which shows that the 
same principle of conditionality that underlies the movement of 
samsara also undergirds the path to liberation. Each stage of the 
path arises with its predecessor as a condition or proximate 
cause, all the way from the initial act of faith to the final knowl- 
edge of deliverance. This presentation of the doctrine has some- 
times been called "transcendental dependent origination." 

Since the round is propelled by craving, and craving is nurtured 
by ignorance, to break the forward movement of the series igno- 
rance must be replaced by knowledge. With the removal of igno- 
rance all the factors that flow from it — craving, clinging, and kam- 
mic activity— come to a halt, bringing to an end the round of 
rebirths with all its attendant suffering. From one angle, as is often 
shown in the Nidanasamyutta, ignorance means not knowing the 
dependently arisen phenomena, their origin, their cessation, and 
the way to their cessation (12:14, 49, etc.). Thus the ignorance at 
the head of the causal series, the ignorance which sustains the for- 
ward movement of dependent origination, is nothing other than 
ignorance about dependent origination itself. From this it follows 
that the knowledge needed to bring dependent origination to a 




Introduction 525 



stop is just knowledge of how dependent origination works. 

Several important suttas in the Nidanasamyutta make it clear 
that dependent origination is not merely an explanatory princi- 
ple to be accepted on trust but an essential component of the 
knowledge needed to reach the end of suffering. Often the 
Buddha states that the connections among the factors are to be 
directly known, both by way of origination and by way of cessa- 
tion. They are thus not merely aspects of theory but the content 
of intuitive insight. To gain this knowledge is to acquire the right 
view of a noble disciple who has personally seen the truth of the 
Dhamma and entered the path of a trainee (sekha), one bound to ' 
reach the Deathless in seven more lives at most, without ever 
falling away. Direct knowledge of dependent origination is not 
the unique mark of the arahant — a widespread misconception — 
but an achievement already reached by the stream-enterer on 
making "the breakthrough to the Dhamma" (dhammabhisamaya). 
Tire noble disciple's knowledge of dependent origination has 
two aspects: one is a direct perception of the relationships 
between each pair of factors in the present; the other, an inferen- 
tial knowledge that this fixed order of phenomena holds invari- 
ably in the past and future, so that anyone who comprehends 
dependent origination must comprehend it in exactly the same 
way that the noble disciple has comprehended it (see 12:33-34). 
Once the stream-enterer gains this knowledge, attainment of the 
final goal is irrevocably assured, as is clear from 12:41 and from 
the paragraph concluding 12:27, 28, and 49-50. 

Towards the end of this chapter, in 12:70 we read the story of 
the wanderer Susima, who entered the order as a "thief of 
Dhamma" intending to learn the Buddha's teaching to gain 
advantages for his own company of followers. On being sub- 
jected to a catechism by the Buddha on the five aggregates and 
dependent origination, he underwent a genuine change of heart 
and confessed his evil intentions. This sutta introduces a class of 
arahants described as "liberated by wisdom" (pannavimutta), 
who have won the final goal by understanding the Dhamma 
without gaining the supernormal powers or the formless medi- 
tations. The sutta also makes it clear that knowledge of the true 
nature of phenomena, i.e., of the five aggregates and dependent 
origination, precedes knowledge of Nibbana. 

The Nidanasamyutta closes with two vaggas cast as repetition 




526 II. The Book of Causation (Nidanavagga) 



series. Vagga VIII applies the four-truth template of the "ascetics 
and brahmins" paradigm to each factor of the standard formula 
(excluding ignorance, implicitly included as the condition for 
volitional formations). Vagga IX is an "incorporated repetition 
series," because each sutta incorporates all eleven factors along 
with their conditions into an abbreviated text. It is thus implied 
that each sutta could be "unpacked" by taking each factor with 
its condition as the subject of a separate sutta, so that the total 
number of suttas in the vagga would increase from twelve to 132. 



13. Abhisamayasamyutta 

This sarnyutta contains only eleven suttas without division into 
vaggas. Strangely, the Sinhala edition of SN and its commentary 
do not count it as a separate sarnyutta but treat it as a vagga with- 
in the Nidanasamyutta. This seems difficult to justify, as the sut- 
tas make no mention of dependent origination nor do they allude 
to the chain of causation. Perhaps the Sinhalese redactors includ- 
ed it in the Nidanasamyutta because the disciple's breakthrough 
to stream-entry comes about through the realization of dependent 
origination. As an explanation, however, this seems inadequate 
when the suttas do not explicitly mention dependent origination. 

The purpose of this sarnyutta is to extol the breakthrough to 
the Dhamma (dhammabhisamaya), also called the obtaining of the 
vision of the Dhamma (dhammacakkhupatilabha), the event that 
transforms a person into a noble disciple at the minimum level of 
stream-enterer. The stream-enterer is one who has obtained the 
transcendental path leading to Nibbana and is bound to put an 
end to samsaric wandering after seven more lives at most, all 
lived in either the heavens or the human world. The first ten sut- 
tas are all moulded on the same pattern: the Buddha first con- 
trasts two obviously incommensurate quantities and then com- 
pares this disparity with that between the amount of suffering 
the noble disciple has eliminated and the amount that still 
remains in the maximum span of seven lives. The last sutta dif- 
fers in the terms of comparison: here the contrast is between the 
achievements of the non-Buddhist ascetics and the achievement 
of the noble disciple who has made the breakthrough, the latter 
being immensely greater than the former. 




Introduction 527 



14. Dhatusamyutta 

This samyutta consists of thirty-nine suttas, arranged into four 
vaggas, all concerned in some way with elements. The word "ele- 
ments" ( dhatu ) is applied to several quite disparate groups of 
phenomena, and thus the suttas in this chapter fall into separate 
clusters with nothing in common but their concern with entities 
called elements. The four vaggas could not be neatly divided into 
decads each devoted to a different group of elements, for the 
number of suttas to be included in the middle two vaggas did not 
allow for this. 

The first vagga deals with eighteen elements that make up one 
of the major models of phenomenological analysis used in the 
Nikayas, often mentioned alongside the five aggregates and the 
six internal and external sense bases. The eighteen elements fall 
into six triads: sense faculties, objects, and corresponding types 
of consciousness. The denotations of the first five triads seem 
obvious enough, but unclarity surrounds the last, the triad of 
mind (mano), mental phenomena ( dhamma ), and mind-conscious- 
ness ( manovinnana ). Strangely, the Nikayas themselves do not 
explain the precise referents of these three elements or the nature 
of their relationship. This is first done in the Abhidhamma 
Pitaka. In the developed systematic version of the Abhidhamma, 
the mind element is a simpler type of cognitive act than the 
mind-consciousness element, to which is assigned the more 
advanced cognitive operations. The mental phenomena element 
denotes not only objects of mind-consciousness, but also the 
mental factors that accompany consciousness, included in the 
aggregates of feeling, perception, and volitional formations (for 
details see n. 224). 

This first vagga is divided into two "pentads" (paiicaka): an 
"internal pentad," which takes the sense faculties as the point of 
departure; and an "external pentad," which begins with the 
objects. The first sutta really belongs to neither set, as it merely 
enumerates the eighteen elements. The internal series, which 
starts with 14:2, shows how successive mental functions — first 
contact and then feeling — arise in dependence on their predeces- 
sors in a fixed order which cannot be inverted. In the external 
pentad the same mode of treatment is applied to the mental func- 
tions that relate more specifically to the objects; the chain here is 




528 II. The Book of Causation (Nidanavagga) 



more complex and the internal relationships in need of explanation. 
The explanations offered by the commentary are intended to square 
apparent irregularities with patterns of relationship accepted as 
authoritative by the age of the commentators. It is an open ques- 
tion whether these explanations reflect the understanding of the 
elements held in the earliest phase of Buddhist thought. 

The second vagga opens with three suttas on miscellaneous 
types of elements, not highly systematized. Then there follows a 
long series of suttas, 14:14-29, in which the word "element" is 
used in the sense of personal disposition. With respect to numer- 
ous contrasting qualities, good and bad, the point is made that 
people come together because of personal affinities rooted in 
these qualities. One memorable sutta in this group shows each of 
the Buddha's leading disciples walking in the company of fellow 
monks who share his field of interest; even Devadatta, the mis- 
creant in the Sahgha, has his own entourage made up of those 
with evil wishes (14:15). 

The fourth vagga focuses upon the four primary elements of 
physical form: earth, water, heat, and air. The suttas in this vagga 
are all moulded upon templates, including the gratification triad 
and the ascetics and brahmins series discussed in the General 
Introduction (see above, p. 38). 



15. Anamataggasamyutta 

The Anamataggasamyutta, "On Without Discoverable 
Beginning," is so called because its theme is the unbounded tem- 
poral extent of samsara. The precise meaning of the phrase ana- 
matagga is uncertain, the term itself differing in the texts of the 
early Buddhist schools, but the idea it is intended to suggest is 
conveyed well enough by the second sentence of the opening 
homily: that a first point of the round of rebirths cannot be dis- 
cerned. The underlying purpose of this samyutta is to situate the 
Buddha's teaching of liberation against its cosmic background by 
underscoring the immeasurable mass of suffering we have expe- 
rienced while wandering from life to life in unbounded time, 
"hindered by ignorance and fettered by craving." 

In sutta after sutta the Buddha illustrates the vastness of samsanc 
suffering with awe-inspiring similes, always drawing the 
inevitable conclusion that we have experienced the suffering °f 




Introduction 529 



repeated birth and death long enough and it is time to strive for 
ultimate freedom. Four suttas illustrate, by means of memorable 
similes, the duration of a cosmic aeon (kappa), of which countless 
numbers have elapsed (15:5-8). Sutta 15:10 reinforces the point 
with its image of the heap of bones one person leaves behind in 
the course of a single aeon. Particularly stirring is the discourse 
to the thirty bhikkhus from Pava, on the frightful dangers of 
samsara, a sutta powerful enough to bring all of them to the real- 
ization of arahantship right on the Spot (15:13). The final sutta in 
the chapter gives us a retrospective overview of the epochs dur- 
ing which three past Buddhas lived, with some information 
about conditions of human life during their dispensations. 



16. Kassapasamyutta 

Mahakassapa, Kassapa the Great, was named by the Buddha the 
most eminent disciple in the observance of the ascetic practices 
(AN I 23, 20). Though he did not accompany the Master as regu- 
larly as many of the other close disciples did, the Buddha had the 
highest regard for Kassapa and often spoke in his praise. According 
to the Cullavagga (Vin II 284-85), after the Buddha's parinibbana 
Mahakassapa became the foster father of the newly orphaned 
Sahgha and took the initiative in convening a council of elders to 
rehearse the Dhamma and Discipline. This was a necessary 
measure to preserve the Buddha's dispensation for posterity. 

This samyutta brings together thirteen suttas featuring the 
great disciple. Though they offer us glimpses into Mahakassapa's 
role in the Sahgha and a sharply sketched portrait of his person- 
ality, their underlying purpose is not so much to preserve biog- 
raphical information as it is to hold up Mahakassapa as a role 
model for the monks to emulate. In the first sutta the Buddha 
extols him for his simplicity and frugality and enjoins the monks 
to imitate him in this respect (16:1). He dwells detached and 
equanimous, yet is also imbued with compassion, sympathy, and 
tender concern for householders (16:3, 4). He continues to 
observe the ascetic practices even in old age, for his own happi- 
ness and to set an example for future generations (16:5). The 
Buddha often asked Kassapa to exhort the bhikkhus, but on three 
occasions he refuses because the bhikkhus are no longer open to 
instruction (16:6-8). This introduces a theme that comes to a 




530 II. The Book of Causation (Nidanavagga) 



crescendo in 16:13: the Buddha's dispensation is already starting 
to decline, and the cause is not external but internal, namely, cor- 
ruption within the Sangha. In 16:9 the Buddha applauds Kassapa 
for his mastery over the meditative attainments and the direct 
knowledges, and in 16:10-11 we are given closeup shots of 
Kassapa 's sometimes stressful relationship with Ananda. Though 
his attitude towards the gentle Ananda seems too stem, we must 
remember that it was through Kassapa's prodding that Ananda 
put forth the effort to win arahantship before the First Buddhist 
Council. In 16:11 Kassapa relates the story of his first meeting 
with the Buddha, which culminated in an exchange of robes with 
the Master. This was an honour not bestowed on any other 
bhikkhu, and presaged Mahakassapa's future role as a leader of 
the Saiigha. 



1 7. Labhasakkarasamyutta 

The life of a bhikkhu requires the renunciation of sensual pleas- 
ures and detachment from the normal round of satisfactions pro- 
vided by family, livelihood, and an active role in civil society. 
Precisely because he has dedicated himself to a life of austerity 
and spiritual self-cultivation, the bhikkhu is liable to be regarded 
prematurely as a holy man and to be showered with gifts, hon- 
our, and praise, especially by pious but ingenuous lay devotees 
in quest of merit. For an unwary bhikkhu the gains and honour 
that may unexpectedly pour down on him can cast a spell more 
subtle and seductive even than the lure of the senses. The 
bhikkhu interprets the gain and honour as an index of his spiri- 
tual worth; the praises sung over his name can inflate his ego to 
dizzying heights. Thus from gain and honour there may arise 
conceit, self-exaltation, and contempt for others — all stumbling 
blocks along the path to the "unsurpassed security from bondage." 

To protect the bhikkhus from losing sight of their goal, the 
Buddha often warned them about the dangers in gain, honour, 
and praise. The present samyutta collects forty-three suttas on 
this theme. The tone of the discourses is unusually grave: one 
attached to gain and honour is like a fish caught on a baited 
hook, like a turtle hit by a harpoon, like a goat caught in a thorny 
briar patch (17:2 — 4). Even a man who earlier would not tell a 
deliberate lie to save his life might later lie to win gain and hon- 




Introduction 531 



our (17:19), and some would even sacrifice their mother for such 
rewards (17:37). But humour is not lacking: one text compares 
the monk revelling in his gain and honour to a dung beetle rev- 
elling in a heap of dung (17:5). The last vagga exhibits Devadatta 
as a notorious example of one who fell away from the spiritual 
life owing to hunger for gain, honour, and praise. 

18. Rahulasamyutta 

Rahula was the Buddha's son, bom shortly before he left the 
household life to embark on his quest for enlightenment. When 
the Buddha returned to his native city of Kapilavatthu in the first 
year after the enlightenment, he had Rahula ordained as a 
novice, and thereafter often gave him instruction. Three longer 
suttas to Rahula are found in the Majjhima Nikaya (MN Nos. 61 , 
62 , and 147 , the latter identical with SN 35:121). The Rahula- 
samyutta collects twenty-two short texts arranged in two vaggas. 
The first ten explain the three characteristics in relation to ten 
groups of phenomena: the six internal sense bases; the six exter- 
nal sense bases; the six classes each of consciousness, contact, 
feeling, perception, volition, and craving; the six elements; and 
the five aggregates. They are addressed to Rahula in response to 
a request for instruction. The first ten suttas of the second vagga 
show the Buddha speaking the same ten suttas to Rahula, but 
this time on his own initiative. Two additional suttas give 
instructions on how to eradicate the sense of "I" and "mine" and 
the tendency to conceit. 



19. Lakkhanasamyutta 

Although this samyutta is named after the elder Lakkhana, his 
role is to serve as a foil for Mahamoggallana, the disciple who 
excelled in the exercise of psychic powers. Each sutta is con- 
structed according to the same format, in which Moggallana 
describes the sufferings of a peta or tormented spirit, whom he 
has seen with supernormal vision, and the Buddha confirms the 
truth of his vision, giving an explanation of the kammic cause 
that underlies such misery. Here, as in the printed editions of the 
Pali text, the first sutta alone is given in full and thereafter only 
the variations are recorded. The last five suttas deliver a stem 




532 II. The Book of Causation (Nidanavagga) 



message to miscreant monks and nuns, perhaps reflecting modes 
of misbehaviour that were becoming increasingly manifest in the 
Sangha. 



20. Opammasamyutta 

This sainyutta contains twelve suttas touching on miscellaneous 
topics mostly related to the training of the bhikkhus. Though the 
topics are diverse, each sutta incorporates an extended simile 
and it is on this basis that they are brought together into one 
sainyutta. The themes that emerge include the rarity of human 
birth, the blessings of developing lovingkindness, the imperma- 
nence of life, and the need for constant diligence. In this collec- 
tion we also find the Buddha's prophecy of how the Dhamma 
will decline when the bhikkhus neglect the deep suttas dealing 
with emptiness in favour of works composed by poets "with 
beautiful words and phrases." 



21. Bhikkhusamyutta 

This sainyutta collects twelve miscellaneous suttas spoken by or 
about individual bhikkhus. It is noteworthy that, apart from the 
first two texts, all the others contain verses, and this arouses sus- 
picion that the samyutta originally belonged to the Sagatha- 
vagga. Indeed, in the Chinese translation of the Samyuktagama, 
the Bhikkhusamyutta is found in the Sagathavagga, coming just 
before the Bhikkhunisamyutta. Perhaps at some point in the 
transmission of the Pali version the redactors added two verse- 
less suttas on Moggallana and Sariputta, and then, in conse- 
quence, had to transpose the whole sainyutta from Part I to Part 
II. In the midst of the suttas on famous elders there is one 
addressed to an otherwise unknown bhikkhu named Elder (a fic- 
titious name?) offering pithy instruction on the real meaning of 
solitude. 




[ 1 ] 



Part II: The Book of Causation ( Nidanavagga ) 



Homage to the Blessed One, 
the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One 

Chapter I 

12 Nidanasamyutta 
Connected Discourses on Causation 



I. The Buddhas 
1(1) Dependent Origination 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was dwell- 
ing at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park. There the 
Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus!" 

"Venerable sir!" those bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said 
this: 

"Bhikkhus, I will teach you dependent origination. Listen to 
that and attend closely, I will speak." - "Yes, venerable sir," those 
bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said this: 

"And what, bhikkhus, is dependent origination? With igno- 
rance as condition, volitional formations [come to be]; 1 with voli- 
tional formations as condition, consciousness; with conscious- 
ness as condition, name-and-form; with name-and-form as con- 
dition, the six sense bases; with the six sense bases as condition, 
contact; with contact as condition, feeling; with feeling as condi- 
tion, craving; with craving as condition, clinging; with clinging 
as condition, existence; with existence as condition, birth; with 
birth as condition, aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, 
displeasure, and despair come to be. Such is the origin of this 
whole mass of suffering. This, bhikkhus, is called dependent 
origination. 



533 




534 II. The Book of Causation ( Nidanavagga ) 



"But with the remainderless fading away and cessation of 
ignorance comes cessation of volitional formations; [2] with the 
cessation of volitional formations, cessation of consciousness; 
with the cessation of consciousness, cessation of name-and-form; 
with the cessation of name-and-form, cessation of the six sense 
bases; with the cessation of the six sense bases, cessation of con- 
tact; with the cessation of contact, cessation of feeling; with the 
cessation of feeling, cessation of craving; with, the cessation of 
craving, cessation of clinging; with the cessation of clinging, ces- 
sation of existence; with the cessation of existence, cessation of 
birth; with the cessation of birth, aging-and-death, sorrow, 
lamentation, pain, displeasure, and despair cease. Such is the ces- 
sation of this whole mass of suffering." 

This is what the Blessed One said. Elated, those bhikkhus 
delighted in the Blessed One's statement. 



2(2) Analysis of Dependent Origination 

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus, I will teach you dependent origination 
and I will analyse it for you. Listen to that and attend closely, I 
will speak." 

"Yes, venerable sir," those bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One 
said this: 

"And what, bhikkhus, is dependent origination? With igno- 
rance as condition, volitional formations [come to be]; with voli- 
tional formations, consciousness ... (as in preceding sutta ) ... Such 
is the origin of this whole mass of suffering. 

"And what, bhikkhus, is aging-and-death? The aging of the 
various beings in the various orders of beings, their growing old, 
brokenness of teeth, greyness of hair, wrinkling of skin, decline 
of vitality, degeneration of the faculties: this is called aging. [3] 
The passing away of the various beings from the various orders 
of beings, their perishing, breakup, disappearance, mortality, 
death, completion of time, the breakup of the aggregates, the lay- 
ing down of the carcass: this is called death. 2 Thus this aging and 
this death are together called aging-and-death. 

"And what, bhikkhus, is birth? The birth of the various beings 
into the various orders of beings, their being bom, descent [into 
the womb], production, the manifestation of the aggregates, the 
obtaining of the sense bases. This is called birth. 3 




12. Nidanasamyutta 535 



"And what, bhikkhus, is existence? There are these three kinds 
of existence: sense-sphere existence, form-sphere existence, form- 
less-sphere existence. This is called existence. 4 

"And what, bhikkhus, is clinging? There are these four kinds of 
clinging: clinging to sensual pleasures, clinging to views, cling- 
ing to rules and vows, clinging to a doctrine of self. This is called 
clinging. 5 

"And what, bhikkhus, is craving? There are these six classes of 
craving: craving for forms, craving for sounds, craving for 
odours, craving for tastes, craving for tactile objects, craving for 
mental phenomena. This is called craving. 

"And what, bhikkhus, is feeling? There are these six classes of 
feeling: feeling bom of eye-contact, feeling bom of ear-contact, 
feeling bom of nose-contact, feeling bom of tongue-contact, feel- 
ing bom of body-contact, feeling bom of mind-contact. This is 
called feeling. 

"And what, bhikkhus, is contact? There are these six classes of 
contact: eye-contact, ear-contact, nose-contact, tongue-contact, 
body-contact, mind-contact. This is called contact. 

"And what, bhikkhus, are the six sense bases? The eye base, the 
ear base, the nose base, the tongue base, the body base, the mind 
base. These are called the six sense bases. 

"And what, bhikkhus, is name-and-form? Feeling, perception, 
volition, contact, attention: this is called name. The four [4] great 
elements and the form derived from the four great elements: this 
is called form. Thus this name and this form are together called 
name-and-form. 6 

"And what, bhikkhus, is consciousness? There are these six 
classes of consciousness: eye-consciousness, ear-consciousness, 
nose-consciousness, tongue-consciousness, body-consciousness, 
mind-consciousness. This is called consciousness. 

"And what, bhikkhus, are the volitional formations? There are 
these three kinds of volitional formations: the bodily volitional 
formation, the verbal volitional formation, the mental volitional 
formation. These are called the volitional formations. 7 

"And what, bhikkhus, is ignorance? Not knowing suffering, 
not knowing the origin of suffering, not knowing the cessation of 
suffering, not knowing the way leading to the cessation of suf- 
fering. This is called ignorance. 8 

"Thus, bhikkhus, with ignorance as condition, volitional for- 




536 II- The Book of Causation (Nidanavagga) 

mations [come to be]; with volitional formations as condition, 
consciousness.... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffer- 
ing. But with the remainderless fading away and cessation of 
ignorance comes cessation of volitional formations; with the ces- 
sation of volitional formations, cessation of consciousness.... 
Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering." 9 

3 (3) The Two Ways 

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus, I will teach you the wrong way and the 
right way. Listen to that and attend closely, I will speak." 

"Yes, venerable sir," those bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One 
said this: 

"And what, bhikkhus, is the wrong way? With ignorance as con- 
dition, volitional formations [come to be]; with volitional forma- 
tions as condition, consciousness .... Such is the origin of this whole 
mass of suffering. This, bhikkhus, is called the wrong way. [5] 

"And what, bhikkhus, is the right way? With the remainderless 
fading away and cessation of ignorance comes cessation of voli- 
tional formations; with the cessation of volitional formations, 
cessation of consciousness .... Such is the cessation of this whole 
mass of suffering. This, bhikkhus, is called the right way." 

4 (4) Vipassi 
At Savatthi. 10 

"Bhikkhus, before his enlightenment, while he was still a 
bodhisatta, 11 not yet fully enlightened, it occurred to Vipassi, the 
Blessed One, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One: 12 'Alas, 
this world has fallen into trouble, in that it is bom, ages, and dies, 
it passes away and is reborn, yet it does not understand the 
escape from this suffering [headed by] aging-and-death. When 
now will an escape be discerned from this suffering [headed by] 
aging-and-death?' ... [6-9] ... 

"'Cessation, cessation' — thus, bhikkhus, in regard to things 
unheard before there arose in the Bodhisatta Vipassi vision, 
knowledge, wisdom, true knowledge, and light." 



5 (5) Sikhi 




12. Nidanasamyutta 53 7 



6 (6) Vessabhu 

7 (7) Kakusandha 

8 (8) Konagamana 

9 (9) Kassapa 

[ 10 ] 

10 (10) Gotama the Great Sakyan Sage 

(i. Origination) 

"Bhikkhus, before my enlightenment, while I was still a bodhisatta, 
not yet fully enlightened, it occurred to me: 'Alas, this world has 
fallen into trouble, in that it is bom, ages, and dies, it passes away 
and is reborn, yet it does not understand the escape from this suf- 
fering [headed by] aging-and -death. When now will an escape be 
discerned from this suffering [headed by] aging-and-death?' 

“Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me: 'When what exists does 
aging-and-death come to be? By what is aging-and-death condi- 
tioned?' Then, bhikkhus, through careful attention, there took 
place in me a breakthrough by wisdom: 13 'When there is birth, 
aging-and-death comes to be; aging-and-death has birth as its 
condition.' 14 

“Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me: 'When what exists does 
birth come to be? By what is birth conditioned?' Then, bhikkhus, 
through careful attention, there took place in me a breakthrough 
by wisdom: 'When there is existence, birth comes to be; birth has 
existence as its condition.' 

“Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me: 'When what exists does 
existence come to be? By what is existence conditioned?' Then, 
bhikkhus, through careful attention, there took place in me a 
breakthrough by wisdom: 'When there is clinging, existence 
comes to be; existence has clinging as its condition.' 

“Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me: 'When what exists does 
clinging come to be? By what is clinging conditioned?' Then, 
bhikkhus, through careful attention, there took place in me a 
breakthrough by wisdom: 'When there is craving, clinging comes 
to be; clinging has craving as its condition.' 

“Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me: 'When what exists does 
craving come to be? By what is craving conditioned?' Then, 




538 II. The Book of Causation ( Nidanavagga ) 



bhikkhus, through careful attention, there took place in me a 
breakthrough by wisdom: 'When there is feeling, craving comes 
to be; craving has feeling as its condition/ 

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me: 'When what exists does 
feeling come to be? By what is feeling conditioned?' Then, 
bhikkhus, through careful attention, there took place in me a 
breakthrough by wisdom: 'When there is contact, feeling comes 
to be; feeling has contact as its condition.' 

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me: 'When what exists does con- 
tact come to be? By what is contact conditioned?' Then, bhikkhus, 
through careful attention, there took place in me a breakthrough 
by wisdom: 'When there are the six sense bases, contact comes to 
be; contact has the six sense bases as its condition/ 

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me: 'When what exists do the 
six sense bases come to be? By what are the six sense bases con- 
ditioned?' Then, bhikkhus, through careful attention, there took 
place in me a breakthrough by wisdom: 'When there is name- 
and-form, the six sense bases come to be; the six sense bases have 
name-and-form as their condition.' 

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me: 'When what exists does 
name-and-form come to be? By what is name-and-form condi- 
tioned?' Then, bhikkhus, through careful attention, there took 
place in me a breakthrough by wisdom: 'When there is con- 
sciousness, name-and-form comes to be; name-and-form has 
consciousness as its condition.' 

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me: 'When what exists does 
consciousness come to be? By what is consciousness condi- 
tioned?' Then, bhikkhus, through careful attention, there took 
place in me a breakthrough by wisdom: 'When there are voli- 
tional formations, consciousness comes to be; consciousness has 
volitional formations as its condition.' 15 

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me: 'When what exists do voli- 
tional formations come to be? By what are volitional formations 
conditioned?' Then, bhikkhus, through careful attention, there 
took place in me a breakthrough by wisdom: 'When there is igno- 
rance, volitional formations come to be; volitional formations 
have ignorance as their condition.' 

"Thus with ignorance as condition, volitional formations 
[come to be]; with volitional formations as condition, conscious- 
ness.... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering. 




12. Nidanasamyutta 539 



"'Origination, origination' — thus, bhikkhus, in regard to things 
unheard before there arose in me vision, knowledge, wisdom, 
true knowledge, and light. 16 

(ii. Cessation) 

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me: 'When what does not exist 
does aging-and-death not come to be? With the cessation of what 
does the cessation of aging-and-death come about?' Then, 
bhikkhus, through careful attention, there took place in me a 
breakthrough by wisdom: 'When there is no birth, aging-and- 
death does not come to be; with the cessation of birth comes ces- 
sation of aging-and-death.' 

"Then, bhikkhus, it occurred to me: [11] 'When what does not 
exist does birth not come to be? By the cessation of what does the 
cessation of birth come about?' Then, bhikkhus, through careful 
attention, there took place in me a breakthrough by wisdom: 
'When there is no existence, birth does not come to be; with the 
cessation of existence comes cessation of birth.'... 'When there is 
no clinging, existence does not come to be; with the cessation of 
clinging comes cessation of existence.'... 'When there is no crav- 
ing, clinging does not come to be; with the cessation of craving 
comes cessation of clinging.'... 'When there is no feeling, craving 
does not come to be; with the cessation of feeling comes cessation 
of craving.'... 'When there is no contact, feeling does not come to 
be; with the cessation of contact comes cessation of feeling.'... 
'When there are no six sense bases, contact does not come to be; 
with the cessation of the six sense bases comes cessation of con- 
tact.'... 'When there is no name-and-form, the six sense bases do 
not come to be; with the cessation of name-and-form comes ces- 
sation of the six sense bases.'... 'When there is no consciousness, 
name-and-form does not come to be; with the cessation of con- 
sciousness comes cessation of name-and-form.'... 'When there 
are no volitional formations, consciousness does not come to be; 
with the cessation of volitional formations comes cessation of 
consciousness.'... 'When there is no ignorance, volitional forma- 
tions do not come to be; with the cessation of ignorance comes 
cessation of volitional formations.' 

"Thus with the remainderless fading away and cessation of 
ignorance comes cessation of volitional formations; with the ces- 
sation of volitional formations, cessation of consciousness.... 




540 II. The Book of Causation (Nidanavagga) 



Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering. 

"'Cessation, cessation' — thus, bhikkhus, in regard to things 
unheard before there arose in me vision, knowledge, wisdom, 
true knowledge, and light." 

II. Nutriment 



11 (1) Nutriment 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Savatthi in Jeta's Grove, Anathapindika's Park.... 

"Bhikkhus, there are these four kinds of nutriment for the 
maintenance of beings that have already come to be and for the 
assistance of those about to come to be. 17 What four? The nutri- 
ment edible food, gross or subtle; second, contact; third, mental 
volition; fourth, consciousness. These are the four kinds of nutri- 
ment for the maintenance of beings that have already come to be 
and for the assistance of those about to come to be. 18 

"Bhikkhus, these four kinds of nutriment have what as their 
source, [12] what as their origin, from what are they born and 
produced? These four kinds of nutriment have craving as their 
source, craving as their origin; they are bom and produced from 
craving. 19 

"And this craving has what as its source, what as its origin, 
from what is it bom and produced? This craving has feeling as its 
source, feeling as its origin; it is bom and produced from feeling. 

"And this feeling has what as its source...? Feeling has contact 
as its source.... And this contact has what as its source...? 
Contact has the six sense bases as its source.... And these six 
sense bases have what as their source...? The six sense bases have 
name-and-form as their source.... And this name-and-form has 
what as its source...? Name-and-form has consciousness as its 
source.... And this consciousness has what as its source...? 
Consciousness has volitional formations as its source.... And 
these volitional formations have what as their source, what as 
their origin, from what are they bom and produced? Volitional 
formations have ignorance as their source, ignorance as their ori- 
gin; they are bom and produced from ignorance. 

"Thus, bhikkhus, with ignorance as condition, volitional for- 
mations [come to be]; with volitional formations as condition. 




12. Nidamsamyutta 541 



consciousness.... Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffer- 
ing. But with the remainderless fading away and cessation of 
ignorance comes cessation of volitional formations; with the ces- 
sation of volitional formations, cessation of consciousness.... 
Such is the cessation of this whole mass of suffering." 

22 (2) Moliyaphagguna 

At Savatthi. [13] "Bhikkhus, there are these four kinds of nutri- 
ment for the maintenance of beings that have already come to be 
and for the assistance of those about to come to be. What four? 
The nutriment edible food, gross or subtle; second, contact; third, 
mental volition; fourth, consciousness. These are the four kinds 
of nutriment for the maintenance of beings that have already 
come to be and for the assistance of those about to come to be." 20 

When this was said, the Venerable Moliyaphagguna said to the 
Blessed One: "Venerable sir, who consumes the nutriment con- 
sciousness?" 21 

"Not a valid question," the Blessed One replied. "I do not say, 
'One consumes.' 22 If I should say, 'One consumes,' in that case 
this would be a valid question: 'Venerable sir, who consumes?' 
But I do not speak thus. Since I do not speak thus, if one should 
ask me, 'Venerable sir, for what is the nutriment consciousness [a 
condition]?' 23 this would be a valid question. To this the valid 
answer is: 'The nutriment consciousness is a condition for the 
production of future renewed existence 24 When that which has 
come into being exists, the six sense bases [come to be]; 25 with the 
six sense bases as condition, contact.'" 

"Venerable sir, who makes contact?" 

"Not a valid question," the Blessed One replied. "I do not say, 
'One makes contact.' If I should say, 'One makes contact,' in that 
case this would be a valid question: 'Venerable sir, who makes 
contact?' But I do not speak thus. Since I do not speak thus, if one 
should ask me, 'Venerable sir, with what as condition does con- 
tact [come to be]?' this would be a valid question. To this the 
valid answer is: 'With the six sense bases as condition, contact 
[comes to be]; with contact as condition, feeling.'" 

"Venerable sir, who feels?" 

"Not a valid question," the Blessed One replied. "I do not say, 
'One feels.' If I should say, 'One feels,' in that case this would be a 




542 II. The Book of Causation ( Nidanavagga ) 



valid question: 'Venerable sir, who feels?' But I do not speak thus 
Since I do not speak thus, if one should ask me, 'Venerable sir 
with what as condition does feeling [come to be]?' this would be 
a valid question. To this the valid answer is: 'With contact as con- 
dition, feeling [comes to be]; with feeling as condition, craving.'" 

"Venerable sir, who craves?" 

"Not a valid question," the Blessed One replied. "I do not say, 
'One craves.' [14] If I should say, 'One craves,' in that case this 
would be a valid question: 'Venerable sir, who craves?' But I do 
not speak thus. Since I do not speak thus, if one should ask me, 
'Venerable sir, with what as condition does craving [come to 
be]?' this would be a valid question. To this the valid answer is: 
'With feeling as condition, craving [comes to be]; with craving as 
condition, clinging; with clinging as condition, existence.... 2 ^ 
Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering.' 

"But, Phagguna, with the remainderless fading away and ces- 
sation of the six bases for contact comes cessation of contact; with 
the cessation of contact, cessation of feeling; with the cessation of 
feeling, cessation of craving; with the cessation of craving, cessa- 
tion of clinging; with the cessation of clinging, cessation of exis- 
tence; with the cessation of existence, cessation of birth; with the 
cessation of birth, aging-and-death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, 
displeasure, and despair cease. Such is the cessation of this whole 
mass of suffering." 



13 (3) Ascetics and Brahmins (1) 

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus, those ascetics or brahmins who do not 
understand aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation, and the 
way leading to its cessation; 27 who do not understand birth ... 
existence ... clinging ... craving ... feeling ... contact ... the six 
sense bases ... name-and-form ... consciousness ... volitional for- 
mations, their origin, their cessation, and the way leading to their 
cessation: [15] these I do not consider to be ascetics among asce- 
tics or brahmins among brahmins, and these venerable ones do 
not, by realizing it for themselves with direct knowledge, in this 
very life enter and dwell in the goal of asceticism or the goal of 
brahminhood. 28 

"But, bhikkhus, those ascetics and brahmins who understand 
aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation, and the way leading to 




12. Nidanasamyutta 543 



its cessation; who understand birth ... volitional formations, their 
origin, their cessation, and the way leading to their cessation: 
these I consider to be ascetics among ascetics and brahmins 
among brahmins, and these venerable ones, by realizing it for 
themselves with direct knowledge, in this very life enter and 
dwell in the goal of asceticism and the goal of brahminhood." 



14 (4) Ascetics and Brahmins (2) 

At Savatthi. "Bhikkhus, as to those ascetics and brahmins who do 
not understand these things, the origin of these things, the cessa- 
tion of these things, and the way leading to the cessation of these 
things: what are those things that they do not understand, whose 
origin they do not understand, whose cessation they do not 
understand, and the way leading to whose cessation they do not 
understand? 

"They do not understand aging-and-death, its origin, its cessa- 
tion, and the way leading to its cessation. They do not under- 
stand birth ... existence ... clinging ... craving ... feeling ... con- 
tact ... the six sense bases ... name-and-form ... consciousness ... 
volitional formations, their origin, their cessation, and the way 
leading to their cessation. These are the things that they do not 
understand, whose origin they do not understand, [16] whose 
cessation they do not understand, and the way leading to whose 
cessation they do not understand. 

"These I do not consider to be ascetics among ascetics or brah- 
mins among brahmins, and these venerable ones do not, by real- 
izing it for themselves with direct knowledge, in this very life 
enter and dwell in the goal of asceticism or the goal of brahmin- 
hood. 

"But, bhikkhus, as to those ascetics and brahmins who under- 
stand these things, the origin of these things, the cessation of 
these things, and the way leading to the cessation of these things: 
what are those things that they understand, whose origin they 
understand, whose cessation they understand, and the way lead- 
ing to whose cessation they understand? 

"They understand aging-and-death, its origin, its cessation, and 
the way leading to its cessation. They understand birth ... voli- 
tional formations, their origin, their cessation, and the way lead- 
ing to their cessation. These are the things that they understand. 




544 II. The Book of Causation (Nidanavagga) 



whose origin they understand, whose cessation they understand 
and the way leading to whose cessation they understand. 

"These I consider to be ascetics among ascetics and brahmins 
among brahmins, and these venerable ones, by realizing it for 
themselves with direct knowledge, in this very life enter and 
dwell in the goal of asceticism and the goal of brahminhood." 

15 (5) Knccanagotta 

At Savatthi. [17] Then the Venerable Kaccanagotta approached 
the Blessed One, paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and 
said to him: "Venerable sir, it is said, 'right view, right view.' In 
what way, venerable sir, is there right view?" 

"This world, Kaccana, for the most part depends upon a dual- 
ity — upon the notion of existence and the notion of nonexis- 
tence. 29 But for one who sees the origin of the world as it really is 
with correct wisdom, there is no notion of nonexistence in regard 
to the world. And for one who sees the cessation of the world as 
it really is with correct wisdom, there is no notion of existence in 
regard to the world. 30 

"This world, Kaccana, is for the most part shackled by engage- 
ment, clinging, and adherence. 31 But this one [with right view] 
does not become engaged and cling through that engagement 
and clinging, mental standpoint, adherence, underlying tendency; 
he does not take a stand about 'my self.' 32 He has no perplexity 
or doubt that what arises is only suffering arising, what ceases is 
only suffering ceasing. His knowledge about this is independent 
of others. It is in this way, Kaccana, that there is right view. 33 

"'All exists': Kaccana, this is one extreme. 'All does not exist': 
this is the second extreme. Without veering towards either of 
these extremes, the Tathagata teaches the Dhamma by the mid- 
dle: 'With ignorance as condition, volitional formations [come to 
be]; with volitional formations as condition, consciousness.... 
Such is the origin of this whole mass of suffering. But with the 
remainderless fading away and cessation of ignorance comes 
cessation of volitional formations; with the cessation of volition- 
al formations, cessation of consciousness.... Such is the cessation 
of this whole mass of suffering." [18] 




12. Nidanasamyutta 545 



16 (6) A Speaker on the Dhamma 

AtSavatthi. Then a certain bhikkhu approached the Blessed One, 
paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him: 
"Venerable sir, it is said, 'a speaker on the Dhamma, a speaker on 
the Dhamma.' In what way, venerable sir, is one a speaker on the 
Dhamma?" 

"Bhikkhu, if one teaches the Dhamma for the purpose of revul- 
sion towards aging-and-death, for its fading away and cessation, 
one is fit to be called a bhikkhu who is a speaker on the Dhamma. 
If one is practising for the purpose of revulsion towards aging- 
and-death, for its fading away and cessation, one is fit to be called 
a bhikkhu who is practising in accordance with the Dhamma. 34 
If, through revulsion towards aging-and-death, through its fad- 
ing away and cessation, one is liberated by nonclinging, one is fit 
to be called a bhikkhu who has attained Nibbana in this very 
life. 35 

"Bhikkhu, if one teaches the Dhamma for the purpose of revul- 
sion towards birth ... for the purpose of revulsion towards igno- 
rance, for its fading away and cessation, one is fit to be called a 
bhikkhu who is a speaker on the Dhamma. If one is practising for 
the purpose of revulsion towards ignorance, for its fading away 
and cessation, one is fit to be called a bhikkhu who is practising 
in accordance with the Dhamma. If, through revulsion towards 
ignorance, through its fading away and cessation, one is liberated 
by nonclinging, one is fit to be called a bhikkhu who has attained 
Nibbana in this very life." 

1 7 (7) The Naked Ascetic Kassapa 

Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was 
dwelling at Rajagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrel 
Sanctuary. [19] Then, in the morning, the Blessed One dressed 
and, taking bowl and robe, entered Rajagaha for alms. The naked 
ascetic Kassapa saw the Blessed One coming in the distance. 
Having seen him, he approached the Blessed One and exchanged 
greetings with him. When they had concluded their greetings 
and cordial talk, he stood to one side and said to him: "We would 
like to ask Master Gotama about a certain point, if he would